SUKAH 36 (4 Elul 5781) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Yisachar (ben Yaakov) Smulewitz of Cleveland on his Yahrzeit, by his son in law, Jeri & Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel.

[36a - 32 lines; 36b - 38 lines]

1a)[line 1]הא בכולהHA B'KULAH- if the entire [Esrog is peeled, then a) it is kosher, as it is not Menumar (see below, entry #10e) (RASHI); b) it is Pasul, since it is similar to an animal in similar condition, which is a Tereifah (see below, entries #4 and 5a) (TOSFOS, RABEINU CHANANEL)]

b)[line 1]הא במקצתהHA B'MIKTZASAH- if only part [of the Esrog is peeled, then a) it is Pasul, as it is Menumar (RASHI); b) it is kosher, since it is no longer similar to a Tereifah (TOSFOS, RABEINU CHANANEL)]

2)[line 2]נקב מפולשNEKEV MEFULASH- a) a hole that runs from one side of the Esrog through to the other side [with no Esrog matter missing] (RASHI, BEHAG, RIF, RA'AVAD); b) a hole that runs from one side of the Esrog through to the chambers that contain its seeds [with no Esrog matter missing] (YERUSHALMI cited by the ROSH, RI, RAN)

3a)[line 1]במשהוB'MASHEHU- [is Pasul when] it is of any width

b)[line 3]בכאיסרBEK'ISAR- [is Pasul when] it is as large as an Isar, a Roman coin the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar. (This describes an area of approximately 4.1 square cm. or 0.64 square inches.)

4)[line 4]טרפהTEREIFAH- an animal with a malady that will cause it to die within the year, rendering it non-kosher and unfit as a Korban

5a)[line 5]נקלףNIKLAF- If all of an animal's hide is missing, it is a Tereifah.

b)[line 5]נסדקNISDAK- An animal is a Tereifah if its neck is split completely lengthwise. If at least one cartilage ring of the trachea remains at either end, then it is kosher.

c)[line 5]ניקבNIKEV- If the membrane surrounding the brain of an animal is pierced, then it is a Tereifah.

6)[line 7]ריאה שנשפכה כקיתוןREI'AH SHE'NISHPECHAH K'KITON- if a [diseased] lung [has decayed to the point that its meat] can be poured [within it from one end to the other] like a flask of water

7)[line 8]סימפונהאSIMPONAHA- its bronchial tubes and bronchioles. Our Gemara considers the equivalent in an Esrog to be its seeds and the chambers that contain them.

8a)[line 10]דלא שליט בה אויראD'LO SHALIT BAH AVIRA- that [the meat of the lungs] is not exposed to the air

b)[line 10]הדר בריאHADAR BARI- it will eventually heal

9)[line 11]סרוחי מסרחתSERUCHEI MASRACHAS- it will a) rot; b) become putrid

10a)[line 12]תפוחTAFU'ACH- a) (O.F. enfle) swollen; b) rot

b)[line 12]כבושKAVUSH- preserved

c)[line 13]שלוקSHALUK- well cooked

d)[line 13]כושיKUSHI- a) black, originating in Kush (RASHI). The land of Kush is identified as 1. Ethiopia (JOSEPHUS) or Arabia (TARGUM YONASAN to Bereishis 10:6, Divrei ha'Yamim I 1:8-9). In this context, Arabia refers to an area in Africa located upon the upper Nile (as described by HERODOTUS, cited by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan in Bereishis 10:6) or the entire Nile area; 2. an area to the east of Eretz Yisrael (YOVLOS, cited by Rabbi Kaplan ibid.). This may near India (see Megilah 11a; see also, however, Background to Yoma 34:25:b). The Hindu-Kush mountain range to the immediate northwest of India is said to have been populated by Ethiopian migrants (M. Rosen); b) very dark green (RIF, RAMBAM; see Insights).

e)[line 13]מנומרMENUMAR- (O.F. tajez) speckled

11)[line 13]ככדורK'KADUR- [round] as a ball

12)[line 14]התיוםHA'TEYOM- twin Esrogim, joined together

13)[line 14]הבוסרHA'BOSER- a) an unripe Esrog the size of a white bean (RASHI); b) an unripe Esrog of any size (TOSFOS 31b DH Shi'ur Esrog Katan)

14)[line 15]דפוסDEFUS- a mold [used to shape the Esrog]

15)[line 16]בריהBERYAH- a creation

16)[line 21]דומה לכושיDOMEH L'KUSHI- a) a black Esrog grown on a tree that generally produces yellow Esrogim (RASHI); b) an Esrog as black as an African native (RIF, RAMBAM; see Insights)

17a)[line 23]הא לןHA LAN- this [Halachah of the Beraisa, which states that an Esrog Kushi is kosher,] applies to us [in Bavel, where such Esrogim are not unusual since we are close to Kush (this may refer to the Hindu-Kush mountain range, near India - see above, entry #10:d)]

b)[line 23]והא להוV'HA LEHU- that [Halachah of our Mishnah, which states that an Esrog ha'Kushi is Pasul,] applies to them [in Eretz Yisrael, where there are no Esrogim from faraway Kush]

18)[line 26]פוטר את האתרוגים בקוטנןREBBI SHIMON POTER ES HA'ESROGIM B'KOTNAN (MA'ASROS)

(a)Once a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:12; Devarim 18:4). Although the Torah does not specify how much to give, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi (Bamidbar 18:21). The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor (Devarim 14:28-29).

(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. The various laws of Ma'aser Sheni are learned from the verses which begin, "Aser Te'aser Eis Kol Tevu'as Zar'echa..." (Devarim 14:22-27).

(e)Rebbi Shimon rules that one need not separate Ma'aser from unripe Esrogim. Rabah assumes that this is because they are not yet termed fruit. It is for this very reason that Rebbi Akiva maintains that one may not use such an Esrog for the Arba Minim, which require a "Pri Etz Hadar."

19)[line 31]כדרך שבני אדם מוציאין לזריעהK'DERECH SHE'BNEI ADAM MOTZI'IN L'ZERI'AH- [one is obligated to separate Ma'asros only from] that which people generally plant the seeds of. The Rabanan rule that Ma'asros must be separated from fruit at the stage at which is edible. Therefore, one must separate Ma'asros from Esrogim and apples from when they are quite small, since they are edible from that point. Rebbi Shimon disagrees. He maintains that the guideline is when the fruit produces viable seeds. Apples produce viable seeds from a very young age; Esrogim, however, do not. Their disagreement therefore concerns only Esrogim (Ma'asros 1:4).


20)[line 1]ותו לא מידיV'SU LO MIDI- there is no more to be said on the matter (i.e., there is nothing to substantiate the claim of Rabah that Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Shimon express the same opinion)

21)[line 4]דפי דפיDAPEI DAPEI- in the form of boards projecting from a center column, reminiscent of the spokes of a water-wheel

22)[line 5]שנקבוהו עכבריםSHE'NIKVUHU ACHBARIM- that mice made holes in it [by nibbling upon it]

23a)[line 6]מטביל בהMATBIL BAH- dipped [an Esrog in a relish]

b)[line 7]ונפיק בהV'NAFIK BAH- and then fulfilled [his Mitzvah of Arba Minim] with it

24a)[line 8]כאן ביום טוב ראשוןKAN B'YOM TOV RISHON- [an Esrog that is lacking matter is Pasul] on the first day of Sukos

b)[line 8]כאן ביו"ט שניKAN B'YOM TOV SHENI- [an Esrog that is lacking matter is kosher] on the subsequent six days of Sukos

25)[line 14]אבנים מקורזלותAVANIM MEKURZALOS- stones used to wipe oneself following defecation that are a) (O.F. becudes) sharp-edged (RASHI); b) smoothed (ARUCH, first explanation); c) soft (TOSFOS and ARUCH, third explanation)

26)[line 16]מותר להכניס לבית הכסאMUTAR L'HACHNIS L'BEIS HA'KISEI (HOTZA'AH)

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:

1.the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain);

2.Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;

3.Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, which refers to carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;

4.Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a). All of these are biblical prohibitions.

(b)The Chachamim enacted that one may not perform Hotza'ah from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.

(c)Additionally, The Chachamim created a new designation for an area termed a Karmelis. A Karmelis bears similarities to both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, although it is not quite either of them. The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis has the status of both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent given the situation. This is because one may confuse it with either of the two Reshuyos. Some examples of a Karmelis are a sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is at least four by four Tefachim wide but not higher than ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced in area.

(d)RASHI explains that the Beis ha'Kisei referred to in our Gemara lies in an open field, which is a Karmelis. The Chachamim allowed one to carry Avanim Mekurzalos for a distance of more than four Amos, even though this would be forbidden in a Reshus ha'Rabim. TOSFOS DH b'Shabbos explains that the Beis ha'Kisei is enclosed and is a Reshus ha'Yachid. The Chachamim allowed one to carry Avanim Mekurzalos from a Karmelis into the Beis ha'Kisei, even though this would be forbidden from a Reshus ha'Rabim.

27)[line 19]על כתפוAL KESEIFO- upon his shoulder [due to its great weight]

28)[line 21]אין זה הדרEIN ZEH HADAR- The reasoning of Rebbi Yehudah is that one may drop the Esrog, invalidating it, while attempting to switch hands (31a). Here, however, he attempts to convince Rebbi Yosi that although he disagrees with this reasoning, he should at least agree that such a large Esrog is lacking in "Hadar."

29)[line 23]חוט במשיחהCHUT B'MESHICHAH- linen thread (O.F. linoel)

30)[line 25]גימוניות של זהבGINOMIYOS- golden threads that are curved at the end [wrapped around the Lulav]

31a)[line 27]סיבSIV- a tendril-like growth of the date palm, which encircles it just below its surface

b)[line 27]עיקרא דדיקלאIKARA D'DIKLA- [a thin strip] of date palm wood


(a)Every adult Jewish male must hold four types of branches or fruits on the first day of Sukos. These four species consist of Pri Etz Hadar (an Esrog; a citron, a fruit closely related to the lemon), Kapos Temarim (a Lulav; a branch from a palm tree cut prior to the opening and spreading of its leaves), Anaf Etz Avos (Hadasim; myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (Aravos; willow branches) (Vayikra 23:40). It is customary to hold one Esrog, one Lulav, three Hadasim, and two Aravos. The Esrog is held in the left hand, whereas the other three species are held together in the right.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah maintains that the three Minim held in the left hand must be bound together in a bundle (Eged). This is termed "Lulav Tzarich Eged," since the Lulav is the most prominent of those three species. The Chachamim are of the opinion that one is able to fulfill the Mitzvah of Arba Minim whether or not he has tied these Minim together. The Chachamim agree that ideally one should bind the Hadasim and Aravos to the Lulav, as this beautifies the Mitzvah (Gemara 11b).

33)[line 32]סוכהSUKAH- Sechach

34)[line 37]דיןDIN- a Kal va'Chomer