[14a - 35 lines; 14b - 54 lines]

1)[line 1]יורדין לידי טומאה במחשבהYORDIN L'YEDEI TUM'AH B'MACHSHAVAH

(a)A utensil or vessel is an example of an object that can receive Tum'ah (see Background to 11:7). It achieves this status, however, only after it is completed. What determines this stage is the intention of the artisan who fashions it. If a tanner, for example, wishes to create a tablecloth, then the piece of leather that he is working is able to become Tamei once it has been trimmed to the desired size. If he instead would like a pair of shoes, then the leather cannot receive Tum'ah before the shoes are finished, even if it is at that stage suitable for use as a tablecloth.

(b)Once an article has reached its finished form based upon the designation of its designer, it cannot lose its status as easily as it had gained it. If its owner subsequently decides to further develop the item, it can still receive Tum'ah even though its designation has changed. Only once an action that begins to transform the object has been taken can it once again be considered unfinished. For example, a leather tablecloth that is designated to be made into shoes retains the ability to become Tamei until it is first cut into as part of its redesign.

2)[line 2]שינוי מעשהSHINUY MA'ASEH- an action that transforms or begins to transform an object

3)[line 7]סלקאSALKA- they can be removed [from their status of Yados]

4)[line 8]שבססןSHE'BESASAN- The Gemara immediately records a disagreement regarding the meaning of this term.

5)[line 8]טהורותTEHOROS- cannot become Tamei [since through this one demonstrates his lack of need for them]

6)[line 10]שפירSHAPIR- [the suggestion that Yados can lose their ability to receive Tum'ah through a mental designation] is tenable [since the loosening of the bundles amounts to nothing more than a demonstration of one's intentions]

7)[line 11]בססן ממשBESASAN MAMASH- (O.F. maciedes - threshed) beaten or trampled by animals

8)[line 11]הכאHACHA- here (the disagreement between Acherim and the Rabanan)

9)[line 13]חזיאCHAZYA- [the Yados] are fit

10)[line 14]הואיל וראויות להופכן בעתרHO'IL U'RE'UYOS L'HOFCHAN B'ATAR- [the Yados are useful] since they allow [the stalks] to be turned over with a pitchfork (O.F. forches)

11)[line 14]הכאHACHA- here [when they are intended for Sechach]

12a)[line 14]לכי סתרL'CHI SASAR- when he disassembles [his Sukah]

b)[line 14]למנקט להו בגילייהוL'MINKAT LEHU B'GILAIHU- to hold them by their stems

13)[line 19]למה נמשלה תפלתן של צדיקים כעתר?LAMAH NISHELAH ... K'ATAR?- When Yitzchak Avinu and Rivkah Imenu prayed for a child, the verse describes their action with the word "va'Yetar" (Bereishis 25:21).

14)[line 21]אכזריותACHZARIYUS- cruelty

15)[line 22]נסריםNESARIM- boards

16)[line 23]כשרה ובלבד שלא יישן תחתיוKESHERAH U'VILVAD SHE'LO YISHAN TACHTAV (DOFEN AKUMAH)

(a)A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that if a stretch of less than four Amos of invalid Sechach lies between a portion of kosher Sechach that measures at least seven by seven Tefachim and a wall, then that material may be considered part of the adjacent wall (Dofen) that bends (Akumah) to meet the Sechach.

(b)When our Mishnah states that a board of four Tefachim in width does not invalidate the Sukah, this is because it is within four Amos of a wall. It is not that the board is kosher as Sechach, but rather that the Sukah is still kosher. Since the board is Halachically considered to be part of the wall, one may not sleep (or, for that matter, eat a meal) under it.

17)[line 24]גזרת תקרהGEZEIRAS TIKRAH- a Rabbinic decree prohibiting one from using boards normally used as roofing material as Sechach, lest he fail to differentiate between that Sechach and the boards of an actual roof

18)[line 25]דברי הכל כשרהDIVREI HA'KOL KESHEIRAH- everyone agrees that it is kosher. At this point, the Gemara figures that this is due to that which most roof boards are wider than three Tefachim, and therefore Gezeiras Tikrah does not apply.

19)[line 27]קניםKANIM- (in this context,) wooden stakes

20a)[line 29]כיון דליתנהו שיעור מקום, לא גזרינןKEIVAN D'LEISNEHU SHI'UR MAKOM, LO GAZRINAN- since [boards less than four Tefachim] are not equal in size to that of a domain [such as a Reshus ha'Rabim or Reshus ha'Yachid (see below, entry #15)], the Rabanan did not apply Gezeiras Tikrah to them

b)[line 30]תורת לבודTORAS LAVUD (LAVUD)

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high.

(b)Certain Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai allow one to consider certain incomplete Mechitzos as complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b). One of these applications is Lavud (lit. a branch or connection). This Halachah states that when there is a space less than three full Tefachim between the Mechitzah and the surface (or object) next to, above, or below it, we consider it to be a complete Mechitzah in which the surfaces or objects are connected without any gaps. (The space itself is not ignored, but rather measured along with and as a part of the existing segment of the partition.)

(c)If there was nothing but air in place of a board that is between three and four Tefachim wide, the Sukah would not be valid (assuming that each half does not in and of itself have the necessary requirements for a kosher Sukah). Therefore, Rav Papa explains, Shmuel understands that Rebbi Meir considers such a board of significant enough width to include it in Gezeiras Tikrah.

21)[last line]שני סדינין מצטרפיןSHNEI SEDININ MITZTARFIM- (the Gemara currently interprets this to mean that) [if] two sheets (which are Mekabel Tum'ah and are therefore invalid as Sechach) [lie next to one anther atop a Sukah and have a combined width of four Tefachim, then they] combine [to invalidate the Sukah]


22)[line 10]לארבע אמות מן הצדL'ARBA AMOS MIN HA'TZAD- to [invalidate the Sukah if the combined width of the boards is more than] four Amos when they lie against the wall [of a Sukah, as Dofen Akumah (see above, entry #16) then no longer applies]

23)[line 22]ארזEREZ- cedar [wood]

24)[line 25]שעת הסכנהSHA'AS HA'SAKANAH- a time [when the Nochrim decreed that one may not practice Judaism, making the fulfillment] of [Mitzvos] danger[ous]

25)[line 25]שהביאנו נסריםSHE'HEVI'ANU NESARIM- that we brought [four-Tefach-wide] boards [commonly used as roofing materials, and therefore not obviously Sechach]

26)[line 26]מרפסתMIRPESES- a balcony

27)[line 32]שמניח פסל ביניהם וכשרהSHE'MENI'ACH PESEL BEINEIHEM U'KESHEIRAH- that if he places kosher Sechach ("Pesel" refers to the "Pesoles" - that which is left over from the grapes and grain after they have been processed) between them then the Sukah is valid. The Gemara (18a) explains that this applies specifically in a case in which the two widths of kosher Sechach meet in the middle of the Sukah, creating eight Tefachim of kosher Sechach. This meets the minimum requirement for a valid Sukah (seven Tefachim). Additionally, all of the remaining boards must be within four Amos of a wall, so that they are rendered non-Sechach through Dofen Akumah (see above, entry #16).

28)[line 36]הפכן על צידיהןHAFKAN AL TZIDEIHEN- if one turned [four-Tefach-wide boards] on their sides [so that the width lying across the Sechach is less than three Tefachim]

29)[line 41]שפודין של מתכתSHEPUDIN SHEL MATECHES- metal spits (that are inherently invalid Sechach)

30)[line 42]לא אמרי לכו, (אמרי) [אמרו] כוותי?LO AMRI LECHU, (AMREI) [IMRU] KAVASI?- did I not tell you to agree with my opinion? alt., LO AMRI LECHU, AMAR KAVASI? - did I not tell you that he would agree with my opinion? (See Dikdukei Sofrim #2)

31)[line 44]בעיתו ...?BA'ISU ...?- did you request ...?

32a)[line 45]מחזקתMACHZEKES- able to contain

b)[line 46]כדי ראשו ורובו ושולחנוKEDEI ROSHO VRUBO V'SHULCHANO- to fit his head, most of his body, and his table. During the times of the Mishnah and Gemara people ate while reclining; it was therefore appropriate to speak of a Sukah that held only the front of one's body. The Gemara later (16a-b) defines such a Sukah as seven by seven Tefachim.

33a)[line 46]נפרצה בה פרצהNIFRETZAH BAH PIRTZAH- it was breached

b)[line 47]כדי שיזדקר בה גדי בבת ראשKEDEI SHE'YIZDAKER BAH GEDI B'BAS ROSH- such that a goat is able to easily penetrate it; this describes a gap of at least three Tefachim

34)[line 52]דאנחה אפומא דמטללתאD'ANCHAH A'PUMA D'METALALTA- that he placed it along the open side of the Sechach. Every Sukah discussed in the Gemara is assumed to have three walls. Our Gemara further assumes that the Sukah under discussion is the minimum size of seven by seven Tefachim. Therefore, without this board, there is not enough Sechach for the Sukah to be kosher (see Insights).

35a)[line 52]עייל תלתא לגיוAYIL TELASA L'GEIV- three [Tefachim] enter within [the confines of the Sukah]

b)[line 53]ואפיק חד לברV'APIK CHAD L'VAR- and one [Tefach] extends beyond [the confines of the Sukah]

36)[last line]פסל היוצא מן הסוכהPESAL HA'YOTZEI MIN HA'SUKAH

(a)The Tosefta (Sukah 2:2) states that "Pesal ha'Yotzei Min ha'Sukah" - kosher Sechach that extends beyond a valid Sukah - is considered an extension of that Sukah, and one under it may fulfill the Mitzvah of Sukah.

(b)The Gemara (19a) records four different ways to understand this ruling:

1.Ula explains that this refers to Sechach extending beyond the wall of a Sukah that has its own three walls and the minimum size of a Sukah. The Halachah of "Pesal ha'Yotzei Min ha'Sukah" merely informs us that this second Sukah is valid, even though the Sechach was placed to cover the first Sukah and this Sechach was never intended to cover the outer area at all.

2.Rabah and Rav Yosef both explain that this refers to valid Sechach that continues along the open side of a three-walled Sukah with only one side wall accompanying it. Although that area of the Sukah has only two walls, it is still a kosher part of the Sukah.

3.Rabah in the name of Rebbi Yochanan explains that it refers to a patch of thin Sechach that allows more sunlight in than it provides shade. The Sechach is viewed together as a whole, and therefore one may even sit under that part of the Sechach.

4.Rav Oshiya maintains that this refers to less than three Tefachim of invalid Sechach in a minimum sized Sukah. It joins the kosher Sechach to the extent that one may sleep under it.

(c)Our Gemara follows the opinion of Rabah and Rav Yosef. Since the Tefach that extends beyond the Sukah is considered part of the kosher Sukah, it is also must be taken into account when considering the width of the board. Even though there is not even one wall accompanying this Sechach, that wall is necessary only mid'Rabanan as a stringency (Rav Simchah mi'Desvi).