MOVING A KLI TO PREVENT A LOSS
Question #3 (Mishnah): One may put a bowl over a Ner to prevent the ceiling beam from catching fire.
Answer: The case is, the ceiling is very low, it is prone to catch fire.
Question #4 (Mishnah): If a ceiling beam broke, one may support it with a bench or bed board.
Answer: The Mishnah discusses new beams, they are prone to break.
Question #5 (Mishnah): One may put a Kli under a leak on Shabbos.
Answer: The Mishnah discusses a new house, it is prone to leak.
MAKING A KLI MUKTZEH
Answer #2 (to Question 4:d, 42B - Rav Yosef): Rav Chisda forbids putting a Kli to catch an egg because this will make the Kli Muktzeh (now it may be moved; if the egg will fall on it, it will be forbidden to move it. Mid'Rabanan, one may not make a Kli Muktzeh, for this is like breaking it or plastering it in place.)
Question #1 (Abaye - Beraisa): If a barrel of Tevel broke, one may bring a Kli underneath it.
Answer: We do not say that Tevel makes the Kli Muktzeh, for if one tithed the Tevel [even though this is forbidden], it is permitted.
Question #2 (Mishnah): One may put a Kli under a Ner to catch sparks.
Answer (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): Sparks have no substance (one may move the Kli they fall into).
Question #3 (Mishnah): If a ceiling beam broke, one may support it with a bench or bed board.
Answer: He does not wedge it in tightly, he may remove it at any time.
Question #4 (Mishnah): One may put a Kli under a leak.
Answer: The case is, the water is usable (Rashi - for drinking; Rambam - for washing).
Question #5 (Mishnah): One may tilt a basket on its side in front of chicks to enable them to climb or descend on it.
Answer: Rav Yosef holds that one may move the basket even after chicks came on it.
Objection (Beraisa): It is forbidden to move [a basket that chicks came on].
Answer: The Beraisa forbids only while the chicks are on it.
Objection (Beraisa): It is forbidden to move even after the chicks came down.
Answer (R. Avahu): This is when the chicks are on it for all of Bein ha'Shemashos - since it was Muktzeh (forbidden to move) all of Bein ha'Shemashos, it is Muktzeh for all of Shabbos.
MOVING A KLI FOR THE SAKE OF MUKTZEH
(R. Yitzchak): Just like one may not put a Kli under a hen to catch an egg [on Shabbos], one may not put a Kli over an egg [laid on Shabbos] to guard it.
He holds that a Kli may be moved only for the sake of something that may be moved on Shabbos.
Questions: The same questions asked [against Rabah and Rav Yosef] apply to R. Yitzchak!
Answer: In every case, we answer that he was permitted to pick up the Kli because he needed its place. (Then, he may put it down anywhere. Tosfos - some of the previous answers would have sufficed, e.g. the leaking water is usable - the Gemara prefers to give one answer for all of them. It is clear that this answer also suffices for the coming questions - the questioner wanted to see if there were alternative answers.)
Question #1 (Beraisa): An egg laid on Shabbos or Yom Tov may not be used to cover a jar or to support the leg of a bed, but one may put a Kli over it to guard it.
Answer: The case is, he needed the place of the Kli.
Question #2 (Beraisa): On Shabbos, one may spread mats on rocks [even though they are Muktzeh]!
Answer: This refers to pointy rocks which are used [to clean oneself] in the Beis ha'Kisei.
Question #3 (Beraisa): On Shabbos, one may spread mats on bricks.
Answer: This refers to bricks left over after building, people lie on them.
Question #4 (Beraisa): On Shabbos, one may spread a mat over a hive, to protect it from the sun or rain, as long as he does not intend to trap [the bees].
Answer: The case is, there is honey inside.
Question (Rav Ukva of Meishan): Granted, there is honey in summer - in winter, how can we answer? (Bees produce honey only in summer; normally, one takes the honey, leaving only two cakes to sustain them through winter.)
Answer #1: There are the two cakes inside.
Question: They are Muktzeh (one does not intend to take them, lest the bees die)!
Answer: The case is, [before Shabbos] he intended to take them.
Inference: Had he not intended, it would be forbidden [to spread a mat].
Question: If so, why does the Mishnah say 'as long as he does not intend to trap' - it should say, only if he intended [for the cakes]!
Answer: The Mishnah teaches, even if he intended [for the cakes], it is permitted only if he does not intend to trap.
Question: Who is the Tana of the Beraisa?
R. Shimon would not require intent for the honey - he permits [most categories of] Muktzeh [including this]! (R. Yehudah forbids most kinds of Muktzeh.)
R. Yehudah would forbid even if he does not intend to trap - he forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven!
Answer: It is R. Yehudah - it means, he spreads the mat in a way that it will not trap, i.e. he leaves room for the bees to leave.
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): The Beraisa did not say 'in the days of rain (winter)', rather, in the [sun or] rain - it discusses [between] Nisan and Tishrei, when there is honey (in addition to the two cakes).
MOVING A CORPSE
Rav Sheshes: Tell R. Yitzchak [in Eretz Yisrael] that in Bavel, Rav Huna taught like him:
(Rav Huna): We may make a partition for the sake of a Mes if it is [also] for the sake of a living person, not [solely] for the sake of a Mes (it is Muktzeh).
Question: What is the case?
Answer: Shmuel bar Yehudah taught, if a Mes is in the sun (it may rot quickly), two people come and sit on opposite sides of it. When the heat of the ground bothers them, they bring beds to sit on; when the sun bothers them, they bring a mat and spread it over themselves (Rambam - each spreads a mat over himself). Later, they may erect their beds [to hold up the mat] and leave - the partition is made by itself.
(Rav Yehudah): If a Mes is in the sun, we may flip it from bed to bed.
(Rav Chanina bar Shalmiya): We put a loaf or infant on it, and move the Mes with it.
All agree that when a loaf or infant is available, we move it like R. Chanina;
They argue about when there is no loaf or infant - R. Chanina holds that Tiltul Min ha'Tzad Shmei Tiltul (moving something indirectly is considered moving it, it is forbidden to move the Muktzeh by itself), Rav Yehudah holds that Lo Shmei Tiltul (it is not considered moving it).
Suggestion: Tana'im argue whether or not Shmei Tiltul:
(Beraisa): One may not save a Mes from a fire;
R. Yehudah ben Lakish: I heard that one may save a Mes from a fire.
Question: What is the case?
If a loaf or infant is available, why does the first Tana forbid?
If a loaf or infant is not available, why does R. Yehudah permit?
Answer: They argue about Tiltul Min ha'Tzad - the first Tana holds that Shmei Tiltul, R. Yehudah holds that Lo Shmei Tiltul.
Rejection: No, all agree that Shmei Tiltul - R. Yehudah permits (Rif - Tiltul Min ha'Tzad; Rosh - even direct Tiltul) because a person panics about his Mes (the body of his relative, lest it burn), if we do not permit [the Isur mid'Rabanan of] moving it, he may extinguish (a mid'Oraisa Isur).
(Rav Yehudah ben Shila): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah ben Lakish regarding a Mes.