[43a - 32 lines; 43b - 40 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 43a DH Ein Bahen Mamash ד"ה אין בהן ממש:

The words "u'Mutar Litlan" ומותר ליטלן

should be "u'Mutar Litlo" ומותר ליטלו

(That is, it is referring to the vessel. This is the emendation of the Magen Avraham OC 265:6 in Rashi here and in Rashi 47b DH Ein Bahen Mamash. -RASHASH)


1)[line 2]בתי גחיניBATEI GECHINEI- houses with low ceilings

2)[line 3]סומכין אותה בספסלSOMCHIN OSAH B'SAFSAL- it is permitted to support it with a bench

3)[line 4]ארוכות המטהARUCHOS HA'MITAH- (O.F. limons) lengthwise planks of a bed

4)[line 4]כשורי חדתיKESHUREI CHADTEI- new [ceiling] beams

5)[line 5]הדלףHA'DELAF- a drip


(a)Any utensil that is useful on Shabbos is called Muchan (ready [for use].) When an article of Muktzah falls into it on Shabbos, the utensil may be rendered immovable. If the utensil cannot be pulled out from under the Muktzah (the Muktzah itself may not be moved directly), it becomes Batel me'Heichano, i.e. its status of usefulness is canceled. Our Mishnah deals with a case where oil that is Muktzah drips into a bowl. If a person sets the bowl there on Shabbos, he has been Mevatel the bowl me'Heichano. Another example (154b) is where large sacks fall on pillows that cannot be extracted afterwards.

(b)Rashi (43b) explains that the reason for the prohibition of Mevatel Kli me'Heichano is that it is similar to affixing the utensil to its place with mortar, which is comparable to the Melachah of Boneh (building). Rashi later (154b) explains that the reason for the prohibition is that it is comparable to the Melachah of Soser (destroying the utensil).

7)[line 10]טבל מוכן הוא אצל שבתTEVEL MUCHAN HU ETZEL SHABBOS- Tevel is not Muktzah Machmas Gufo (i.e. in and of itself). It is Muktzah Machmas Isur, since the Chachamim prohibited tithing on Shabbos. If a person violates the Isur and separates the Terumos and Ma'asros, the produce is no longer Muktzah Machmas Isur and may be eaten on Shabbos.

8)[line 14]רפיRAFI- it is loose

9)[line 16]כופיןKOFIN- it is permissible to turn over

10)[line 16]האפרוחיןHA'EFROCHIN- chicks

11)[line 20]מיגו דאיתקצאי לבין השמשות איתקצאי לכולי יומאMIGO D'ISKATZA'I L'VEIN HA'SHEMASHOS, ISKATZA'I L'CHULEI YOMA

(a)MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos, for whatever reason it may be.

(b)THE ARGUMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree. (Those categories are: (1) Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato, (2) Nolad, (3) Muktzah Machmas Isur, (4) Muktzah Machmas Mi'us, (5) Kli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur, (6) Muchan la'Adam Eino Muchan l'Behemah.) On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah which may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon. (Those categories are (1) Muktzah Machmas Gufo, (2) Huktzah l'Mitzvaso, (3) Davar she'Eino Ra'uy v'Decha'o b'Yedayim, (4) Davar he'Asur she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Yedei Heter b'Shabbos.)

(c)MIGO D'ISKATZA'I - According to Rebbi Yehudah, anything that was Muktzah during Bein ha'Shemashos remains Muktzah for the rest of Shabbos even if the reason for it being set aside has disappeared. This is called Migo d'Iskatza'i l'Vein ha'Shemashos, Iskatza'i l'Chulei Yoma (lit. since it was set aside for Bein ha'Shemashos, it was set aside for the entire day). According to Rebbi Shimon, there are times when we do not say Migo d'Iskatza'i. If an object was Muktzah during Bein ha'Shemashos, and its owner realized that it will probably become usable during Shabbos, he may use or move the object after the point in which it becomes usable (Shabbos 44a, 46b.)

12)[line 24]צריך למקומוTZARICH L'MEKOMO- when he needed to move the object in order to use the space upon which it was resting

13)[line 28]מחצלותMACHATZALOS- mats

14)[line 28]מקורזלותMEKURZALOS- (a) stones which are pointed at one end (RASHI); (b) prepared stones with no jagged points; (c) soft stones (ARUCH)

15)[line 28]דחזייןCHAZYAN- they are fit

16)[line 29]לבניםLEVENIM- bricks

17)[line 29]אישתיור מבנינאISHTAYUR MI'BINYANA- they were left over from a building

18)[line 29]למיזגאL'MIZGA- to recline

19)[line 30]כוורת דבוריםKAVERES DEVORIM- a beehive


20)[line 3]שתי חלותSHTEI CHALOS- two honeycombs which are always left in the hive for the bees' sustenance during the winter

21)[line 3]והא מוקצות נינהו?V'HA MUKTZOS NINHU?- but they have been set aside for the bees (which makes them forbidden to be moved on Shabbos)?

22)[line 5]לפלוג ולתני בדידהLI'FLOG V'LISNEI B'DIDAH- let him make the differentiation in that case itself

23)[line 10]דבר שאין מתכויןDAVAR SHE'EIN MISKAVEN

(a)An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, is called a Davar she'Eino Miskavein. The example brought in our Gemara is spreading out a mat over a beehive, where bees may possibly be trapped. (Tzeidah, or trapping, is one of the Avos Melachos.) Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent, the action is permitted.

(b)Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that bees will be trapped (i.e., that a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable for bees to be trapped, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon — even though the person spreading the mat is not the least bit interested in trapping bees. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus."

(c)A person must have specific intent to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, after a person spreads out a mat over the beehive and bees were trapped, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the trapping was done accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted in the first place to perform an action that may result in a Melachah. (See Insights to Shabbos 41:2.)

24)[line 11]לא יעשנה כמצודהLO YA'ASENAH K'METZUDAH- he should not cover in a way that it is like a trap

25)[line 12]לישבוק להו רווחאLISHBOK LEHU REVACHA- he should leave room for them to get out

26)[line 12]לא ליתצדו ממילאLO LIT'TZEDU MEMEILA- they are not trapped as an indirect result

27)[line 17]פוקוPUKU- go out

28)[line 18]כבר תרגמא רב הונא לשמעתיך בבבלKVAR TIRGEMA RAV HUNA LISHEMAITICH B'VAVEL- Rav Huna already proclaimed your teaching in Bavel (that utensils are moved on Shabbos only for items that are not Muktzah)

29)[line 29]הופכו ממטה למטהHOFCHO MI'MITAH L'MITAH- the corpse is transferred from one bed to another

30)[line 33]טלטול מן הצדTILTUL MIN HA'TZAD- moving something in an indirect manner (see Insights)