[19a - 46 lines; 19b - 36 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 19a DH Kutach ha'Bavli [at the top of the page] : ד"ה כותח הבבלי

"le'Echol Yachad לאכול יחד

The word "Yachad" יחד does not appear in Rashi to Pesachim 44a.

[2] Rashi 19b DH Chad Matzil : ד"ה חד מציל

The words "Ochlin u'Mashkin Mipnei ha'Deleikah Harbeh" אוכלין ומשקין מפני הדליקה הרבה

should be "Ochlin u'Mashkin Harbei Mipnei ha'Deleikah" אוכלין ומשקין הרבה מפני הדליקה


1)[line 1]כותח הבבליKUTACH HA'BAVLI- a dip which is prepared by cooking milk with bread and salt

2)[line 1]אסור למכורASUR LI'MKOR- (Rebbi Yehudah is following the opinion of Beis Shamai, according to Rashi Pesachim 21b DH Shloshim Yom)

3)[line 3]לפני הכלבLIFNEI HA'KELEV- even if the dog does not belong to him, or is ownerless, it is a Mitzvah to feed it, since a dog is always hungry (MAGEN AVRAHAM OC 324:7)

4)[line 3]נטלו ויצא אין נזקקין לוNATLO V'YATZA, EIN NIZKAKIN LO- if the dog took the food out of the courtyard before Shabbos, the person who gave it the food is no longer responsible. (That is, if the dog brings it to another person's yard on Shabbos, it is not considered as though the first person sent the food to the second person's property intentionally.)

5)[line 6]רמי עליהRAMI ALEI- (lit. it is cast upon him) he is responsible for [feeding] it

6)[line 8]ברביעי וחמישי מותרB'REVI'I UV'CHAMISHI MUTAR- this ruling is consistent with the opinion of Beis Hillel. It is prohibited to rent out utensils to Nochrim on Friday even for a lengthy period of time because it seems like the Jew is taking rental money for Shabbos. Beis Shamai, however, rules that to rent utensils on Wednesday or Thursday is likewise prohibited if the Nochri will keep them over Shabbos, because of the prohibition of Shevisas Kelim (see Background to 18:9, and see TOSFOS DH Lo Yaskir).

7)[line 14]קוצץ לו דמיםKOTZETZ LO DAMIM- he sets for him a wage.

(a) That is, the Jew must set a specific wage on Friday by telling the Nochri, "I will pay you such and such a wage for delivering this letter." If the Jew says, "I will pay you adequately," without mentioning a wage, it is also permitted. The Poskim add that even if the Nochri delivers the letter without any compensation, it is permitted, since the Nochri receives Tovas Hana'ah by doing a favor for the Jew.

(b) If the Jew does not set a wage for the Nochri, then the Nochri is acting as a Shali'ach on behalf of the Jew, which is prohibited. The two instances in which this prohibition applies are:

1.The Jew offers to pay on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The Nochri does not get paid for the delivery of this particular letter, and it is considered as if he is acting as the Shali'ach (agent) of the Jew (RASHBA, RAN).

2.The Jew says, "I will pay you," and does not mention that the payment will be adequate. In this case, the Jew is able to pay merely a minimal amount, and thus the Nochri is obviously not delivering the letter because of the promised payment. (Rather, he delivers it out of fear of the Jew, feeling that he must do as the Jew wishes. -M. KORNFELD). He is like a Shali'ach of the Jew, which is prohibited. (BI'UR HALACHAH 252, end of DH Im Katzatz)

8)[line 20]בי דוארBEI DAVAR- (a) the residence of the ruler, to whom the letter is presumably addressed (RASHI); (b) the residence of a postmaster who distributes mail to the city (RAMBAM, ROSH, and RISHONIM)

9)[line 23]פוסק עמו על מנת לשבותPOSEK IMO AL MENAS LISHBOS- he stipulates with those in charge of the voyage that he will rest on Shabbos

10)[line 25]מצור לצידןMI'TZOR L'TZIDON- from Tyre to Sidon, which are located on the southern coast of Lebanon, which is a voyage of less than a day by boat

11)[line 26]צריןTZARIN- start a siege

12)[line 35]מנא דצביעאMANA DI'TZVI'A- a colored garment

13)[line 35]קצראKATZRA- a clothes-washer

14)[line 36]כדחיוראKEDE'CHIVRA- the same price as a white garment

15)[line 37]כבר קדמוך רבנןKVAR KADMUCH RABANAN- the Chachamim already preempted you

16)[line 38]במשחא ניתיב ליהB'MISHCHA NEISIV LEI- he should measure it [before he gives it to him]

17)[line 39]אי טפיIY TAFEI- if it is larger

18)[line 40]מתחיהMATCHEI- he stretched it

19)[line 40]כווציהKAVTZEI- he shrunk it

20)[line 44]מידי דאתי ממילאMIDI D'ASI MI'MEILA- something that comes automatically; something that can be set before Shabbos which continues by itself, e.g. the wine and olive presses

21)[line 45]השוםHA'SHUM- garlic

22)[line 45]והבוסרHA'BOSER- unripe grapes at the beginning of their development

23)[line 45]המלילותHA'MELILOS- ears of grain which have not completely ripened

24)[line 45]רסקןRISKAN- he crushed them


25)[line 2]חלות דבשCHALOS DEVASH- honeycombs

26)[line 5]דמעיקרא אוכל ולבסוף אוכלME'IKARA OCHEL UL'VASOF OCHEL- which have the status of a food initially and after the honey flows on Shabbos. (According to the Rash at the end of Uktzin, the Gemara actually means that both initially and after the honey flows on Shabbos, the honey had the status of a liquid.)

27)[line 14]לאו איתמר עלהLAV ITMAR ALAH- was it not taught in reference to it [the following]?

28a)[line 15]במחוסרין דיכהB'MECHUSARIN DICHAH- if they have not been pounded

b)[line 16]שחיקהSHECHIKAH- pulverizing

29)[line 18]שמן של בדדיןSHEMEN SHEL BADADIN- (a) the leftover oil found in the corners of the olive press, which belongs to the presser (RASHI); (b) the oil that flows on Shabbos from the olives that were placed under the beam of the olive press on Friday (TOSFOS DH Shemen)

30)[line 19]מחצלות של בדדיןMACHATZALOS SHEL BADADIN- the mats of the olive pressers

31)[line 20]כרכי דזוזיKARKEI D'ZUZEI- a pair of mats used to cover merchandise on a boat

32)[line 21]עז לחלבהEZ L'CHALAVAH- That is, a goat that was set aside specifically for its milk and not to be eaten. Since milking is prohibited on Yom Tov, he has demonstrated that he will not use that goat on Yom Tov and it is classified as Muktzah (lit. set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use])

33)[line 22]תורי דרידיאTOREI D'RIDYA- oxen used for plowing

34)[line 22]תמרי דעיסקאTAMREI D'ISKA- dates set aside for selling

35)[line 24]דאוריD'ORI- who ruled [with regard to Muktzah]

36)[line 25]חרתא דארגיזCHARTA D'ARGIZ- the city of Charta, which was built by Argiz the sorcerer adjacent to Baghdad

37)[line 25]שמתיהSHAMTEI- he put him in Cherem

38)[line 28]מציל בחד מנאMATZIL B'CHAD MANA

(a)The Gemara (120a) poses a contradiction in Mishnayos. One Mishnah teaches that on Shabbos, it is permissible to save from a fire only enough food for three meals. Another Mishnah teaches that it is permissible to save more than that. Rav Huna and Rabah bar Zavda argue as to the details of each case.

(b)According to Rav Huna, if one piles all the food items into one utensil, much more than the food for three meals may be saved. However, if many utensils are used, then only food for three meals may be saved. He prohibits doing unnecessary work (such as carrying out an added utensil) when saving objects from a fire. (According to TOSFOS DH v'Chad, the prohibition in the latter case applies only if one takes out each utensil individually. RASHI, however, rules that the prohibition still applies even if the utensils are wrapped together in one large bundle and are taken out at the same time.)

(c)According to Rabah bar Zavda, a person may take out as much food as he can, in as many utensils as he wants, as long as he puts them in the local courtyard in which the house that is on fire is located. If he wants to put them in another courtyard (even in a single utensil), he may take out only enough food for three meals.

(d)Our Sugya discusses a case where a person takes objects out to the same courtyard. The Amora'im disagree as to whether he must use only one utensil (Rav Huna) or he may use even more (Rabah bar Zavda).

39)[line 33]חררהCHARARAH- a flat cake baked on coals

40)[line 33]יקרמוYIKARMU- they will form a crust

41)[line 35]משלשליןMESHALSHELIN- we lower

42)[last line]מאחיזין את האורMA'ACHIZIN ES HA'UR- they may begin to ignite

43)[last line]מדורת בית המוקדMEDURAS BEIS HA'MOKED- the fire of the Fireplace Chamber, a large, domed room in the Azarah (courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash) where Kohanim could warm themselves during the service. (They became chilled easily while working barefoot outdoors, on cold, marble floors.)