WHEN ARE WE CONCERNED FOR WHAT NOCHRIM DO ON SHABBOS?
(Beraisa): One may put food in front of his dog (which he is obligated to feed) in the Chatzer; if the dog takes it out, we are not concerned;
Similarly, one may put food in front of a Nochri in the Chatzer; if he takes it out, we are not concerned.
Question: Why do we need the Seifa, it is just like the Reisha?!
Answer: One might have thought that it is permitted only regarding his dog, for he is obligated to feed it - the Seifa teaches, this is not so.
(Beraisa): One may not rent vessels to a Nochri on Erev Shabbos (Rashi - it looks like he rents them to do Melachah on Shabbos; Tosfos - it looks like he receives rental for Shabbos, even though he rents for a whole week or month); on Wednesday or Thursday, it is permitted;
Similarly, one may not send letters with a Nochri on Erev Shabbos; on Wednesday or Thursday, it is permitted.
Nothing written by R. Yosi ha'Kohen (some say, R. Yosi ha'Chasid) was ever given to a Nochri.
(Beraisa): One may not send letters with a Nochri on Erev Shabbos unless they agreed on the price (for then, the Nochri works on his own behalf);
Beis Shamai permit only if he can reach the destination before Shabbos;
Beis Hillel permit if he can reach the first house in the city of the receiver.
Question: Since they agreed on the price, Beis Hillel should permit in any case!
Answer (Rav Sheshes): It means, if they did not agree on the price, Beis Shamai permit only if he can reach the destination, Beis Hillel permit if he can reach the first house in the city.
Question: The Reisha forbids [unless they agreed on the price]!
Version #1 (Rashi, according to Ritva) Answer: The Seifa is when the recipient is always at home, in the Reisha he is not (if the Nochri does not find the receiver, he will have to look for him on Shabbos. The Gemara calls the recipient 'Do'ar' (mayor), for most letters are sent to him.)
Version #2 (Rif) Answer: The Seifa is when there is a fixed Do'ar (postmaster) in the recipient's city (the Nochri gives it to the Do'ar, who delivers it to the recipient), in the Reisha there is not a Do'ar. (end of Version #2)
THINGS FORBIDDEN CLOSE TO SHABBOS
(Beraisa): One may not embark on a ship less than three days before Shabbos. (Tosfos - this is on account of the Isur to swim on Shabbos (Beitzah 36B); R. Chananel - the case is, the water is less than 10 Tefachim deep, it is forbidden on account of Techum Shabbos; Rif - we are concerned that he will get seasick, and not enjoy Shabbos; Ba'al ha'Ma'or - we are concerned that danger will arise necessitating him to do Melachah. Before three days, he need not be concerned for the coming Shabbos)
This refers to a voyage of Reshus, but it is permitted if he goes for a Mitzvah.
Rebbi says, he must stipulate with the captain that they will not travel on Shabbos - [later,] we are not concerned if they actually do travel on Shabbos;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, he need not stipulate.
It is permitted to go from Tzor to Tzidon even on Erev Shabbos (the voyage takes only one day).
(Beraisa): We may not begin a siege around a Nochri city less than three days before Shabbos;
If we began within three days, we do not stop.
Shamai expounded "Ad Ridtah" - (we may conquer a city) even on Shabbos.
(Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): My father's house used to give white garments to a Nochri launderer three days before Shabbos.
(Beraisa - R. Tzadok): R. Gamliel's house used to give white garments to a Nochri launderer three days before Shabbos, and colored garment even on Erev Shabbos;
This teaches that it is harder to launder white garments than colored garments.
Abaye gave a colored garment to a launderer, who wanted to charge the same as for a white garment.
Abaye: Chachamim taught that it is harder to launder white garments!
(Abaye): When you give a garment to a launderer, it is wise to measure it beforehand and when taking it back:
If it got longer, the launderer is at fault for stretching it; if it got shorter, the he is at fault for shrinking it (by using water that is too hot).
JUICE THAT COMES OUT ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai agree that one may put beams [on top of olives or grapes...]
Question: Why do Beis Shamai decree about everything else, but not this?
Answer: In the other cases, if one would do so on Shabbos he would be liable, Beis Shamai decree just before Shabbos; here, if one would put on the beams on Shabbos he would be exempt, they do not decree.
Question: Who is our Tana, who permits whatever comes by itself (e.g. the juice that flows from the grapes and olives)?
Answer #1 (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): It is R. Yishmael:
(Mishnah - R. Yishmael): If one crushed garlic, Boser (unripe grapes) or Melilos (unripe grain), (and placed stones on them to squeeze out the juice), he may allow it to continue on Shabbos;
R. Akiva forbids;
Answer #2 (R. Elazar): It is [the Tana] R. Elazar:
(Mishnah): If cakes of honey were crushed before Shabbos and the honey flowed out on Shabbos, it is forbidden;
R. Elazar permits.
Question: Why didn't R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina answer like R. Elazar?
Answer: We cannot learn from there, for the honey was a [solid] food from the beginning - here, we permit even a liquid squeezed from a solid.
R. Elazar: We know that R. Elazar permits even juice that exudes from grapes and olives!
(R. Hoshaya - Beraisa): If one crushed grapes or olives before Shabbos and juice flowed out by itself on Shabbos, it is forbidden;
R. Elazar and R. Shimon permit it.
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina had not heard this Beraisa.
Question: Why didn't R. Elazar answer like R. Yosi?
Answer: R. Yochanan taught [regarding R. Yosi's Beraisa] that R. Yishmael and R. Akiva agree that if the garlic, Boser or Melilos were not crushed, what exudes is forbidden;
They argue about they were crushed, they only need to be squeezed;
In our Mishnah, the grapes and olives need to be crushed more!
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina ruled like R. Yishmael.
(Rav): Shemen of Badadim (Tosfos - oil that exudes on Shabbos; Rashi - oil left in the corners if the olivepress, it is given to the one who makes the oil) and mats used to cover the olives are forbidden (they are Muktzeh or Nolad) on Shabbos;
(Shmuel): They are permitted.
(Rav): Double-mats used to cover merchandise are forbidden (Muktzeh) on Shabbos;
(Shmuel): They are permitted.
(Rav Nachman): Rav forbids the following, Shmuel permits them:
A goat [raised] for [the sake of] milk, a sheep for wool, a hen for eggs, oxen for plowing, and dates one intends to sell.
Rav holds like R. Yehudah [who is stringent about Muktzeh], Shmuel holds like R. Shimon [who permits almost all categories of Muktzeh].
A certain Talmid in the city of Charta ruled like R. Shimon; Rav Hamnuna excommunicated him.
Question: But the Halachah follows R. Shimon!
Answer: Charta is in Rav's region, one should not rule against Rav there.
There were two Talmidim, one saved [food and drink] from a fire in one vessel, the other saved in four or five vessels;
They argue like Rabah bar Zavda and Rav Huna argue (120A).
MELACHOS THAT MUST BEGIN BEFORE SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may not leave meat, onions or eggs to roast unless there is time for them to get roasted before Shabbos;
One may not put bread in an oven just before Shabbos or a cake on top of coals unless there is time for the faces to form a crust before Shabbos;
R. Eliezer requires time for the bottom face to form a crust.
We may lower the Korban Pesach into an oven just before Shabbos;
It suffices to make the bonfire in the Beis ha'Mokad (a chamber in the Mikdash) to catch a little [before Shabbos];
Outside the Mikdash, most of the wood must catch fire [before Shabbos, lest one will stoke it on Shabbos to help the fire catch];
R. Yehudah says, if coals are used, any amount may catch beforehand (they do not need to be stoked).