[20a - 43 lines; 20b - 43 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Mishnah 20a [line 1]:

The words "she'Te'echoz ha'Ur b'Rubo" שתאחוז האור ברובו

should be "she'Te'echoz ha'Ur b'Ruban" שתאחוז האור ברובן

(Rashash; this is also the way it appears in the Gemara, the Aruch (Erech Gaval) and the Rosh.)

[2] Gemara 20a [last line]:

"Itmar Nami" אתמר נמי

It is evident from Rashi that he was not Gores the word "Nami" (see Insights). It also does not appear in the early printings of Shas and in Dikdukei Sofrim #400. (Rather, it is a later addition of the Maharshal.)

[3] Rashi 20a DH Nachar ד"ה נחר:

The words "Leichah Shelah" ליחה שלה

should be "Leichah Shelo" ליחה שלו

[4] Rashi 20b DH Rav Kahana Amar [at the top of the page] : ד"ה רב כהנא אמר

"ul'Avdurei Lo Chaishinan" ולאבדורי לא חיישינן

Apparently this is a new Dibur which should read:

*DH LO AGADAN EIN TZERICHIM ROV*: ul'Avdurei Lo Chaishinan... ד"ה לא אגדן אין צריכין רוב: אלאבדורי לא חיישינן



1)[line 1]בגבוליןBI'GEVULIN- anywhere outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash

2)[line 2]פחמיןPECHAMIN- with coals

3)[line 3]כמאכל בן דרוסאיK'MA'ACHAL BEN DERUSA'I- (lit. like the food of Ben Derusa'i) a food that is a third cooked (RASHI) or half cooked (RAMBAM), which was the way the bandit Ben Derusa'i, who was always on the run, would eat his food

4)[line 8]גרופהGERUFAH- [a stove] from which the coals have been raked out

5)[line 8]קטומהKETUMAH- [a stove] whose coals have been covered with ashes

6)[line 10]האיך דגבי האורHA'ICH D'GABEI TANUR- the side stuck to the walls of the oven

7)[line 15]מינתחMINTACH- it is cut up into pieces

8)[line 22]כהנים זריזין הןKOHANIM ZERIZIM HEN- the Kohanim are very meticulous and can be relied upon not to desecrate Shabbos. They therefore have a special status and are permitted to do certain things which are prohibited for non-Kohanim.

9)[line 26]שתהא שלהבת עולה מאיליהSHE'TEHEI SHALHEVES OLAH ME'ELEHA- that the flame will rise on its own

10)[line 28]רוב עביוROV OVYO- the majority of its width

11)[line 28]ברוב היקפוROV HEKEFO- the majority of its circumference

12)[line 31]שישחת העץSHE'YISHACHES HA'ETZ- that the wood will be unusable [to a carpenter]. According to Rashi, this is Rov Ovyo

13)[line 33]"את שני קצותיו אכלה האש ותוכו נחר היצלח למלאכה""ES SHNEI KETZOSAV ACHLAH HA'ESH, V'SOCHO NACHAR, HA'YITZLACH LI'MLACHAH?"- "The fire devoured both ends of it, and it burned its middle, can it be successfully used for work?" (Yechezkel 15:4)

14)[line 35]"[והמלך יושב בית החרף בחדש התשיעי] ואת האח לפניו מבערת""[VEHA'MELECH YOSHEV BEIS HA'CHOREF BA'CHODESH HA'TESHI'I,] V'ES HE'ACH LEFANAV MEVO'ARES." - "[And the king (Yehoyakim) was sitting in the winter room, since it was the ninth month (Kislev),] and the stove was burning before him." (Yirmeyahu 36:22) The Gemara here redefines the word "Ach" since it is an obscure expression. (YEHOYAKIM THROWS MEGILAS EICHAH INTO THE FIRE)

(a)In the fourth year of the reign of Yehoyakim ben Yoshiyahu (one of the most evil kings ever to sit on the throne of Yehudah), HaSh-m commanded Yirmeyahu, who was in jail at the time, to transcribe Megilas Eichah (which He had just taught to him), in the vain hope that, it would reach the ears of Yisrael who would take to heart its contents and do Teshuvah.

(b)Yirmeyahu immediately called for his disciple, Baruch ben Neryah, and dictated to him the Megilah, while the latter transcribed it to a scroll. Yirmeyahu then instructed him to take it to Yerushalayim and read it in front of the people who had assembled there to fast and pray because of their troubles. Many of the officers were duly impressed by Megilas Eichah, and they asked him to read it to them again. They decided to have the scroll read before the king, but first they wanted to know whether the entire contents were dictated by Yirmeyahu or whether only the main sections had been dictated by him, and the details supplied by Baruch. Baruch replied, "From his (Yirmeyahu's) mouth he read out to me all the words, and I wrote everything in ink" (Yirmeyahu 36:18).

(c)After they advised Baruch to arrange for Yirmeyahu and himself to hide, to escape the wrath of Yehoyakim when he would hear the Megilah, the officers organized for the Megilah to be taken to the king and read before him.

(d)It was in the month of Kislev of the fifth year of Yehoyakim's reign that Megilas Eichah was brought before him, as he sat in his winter-room in front of the coal-fire.

(e)The wicked king Yehoyakim sent Yehudi (one of his servants) to pick up the copy of Megilas Eichah that Baruch had brought for him to read, and to bring it to him in his heated room. When Yehoyakim saw the contents of the Megilah, he reacted angrily by casting it into the fire against the advice of his servants.

(f)Incredibly unmoved by the ominous prophesy, the king sent servants to seize Baruch and Yirmeyahu (who had dictated the Megilah while Baruch transcribed it) to have them killed. but HaSh-m hid them.

(g)Hash-m then sent Yirmeyahu to Yehoyakim to inform him that he would pay dearly for burning the Megilah. None of his children would sit on the throne (his son Yechonyah would rule for three months before being sent into Galus), and his own corpse would not be privileged to be buried but would lie out in the open "by the heat of day and in the cold of night."

(h)As for the Megilah, its contents were destined to be fulfilled to the letter, because the people failed to pay attention to the numerous warnings that they received. At Yirmeyahu's bidding, Baruch re-wrote Megilas Eichah, with an additional chapter containing three verses for each letter of the Alef-Beis, corresponding to the three chapters (which each contained one verse per letter).

15a)[line 36]אחוונאACHVANA- a willow

b)[line 36]עצים שנדלקו באחוונאEITZIM SHE'NIDLEKU B'ACHVANA- pieces of wood that lit each other

16)[line 38]ערבתאARVASA- a willow

17)[line 39]אגדןAGADAN- if he tied them into a bundle

18)[line 39]גרעיניןGAR'ININ- date pits

19)[line 40]חותלותCHOSALOS- in small wicker baskets

20)[line 42]מבדרןMEVADRAN- are spread out


21)[line 4]זפתZEFES- tar

22)[line 4]גפריתGAFRIS- sulfur

23)[line 5]גבינהGEVINAH- cheese (Girsa of the Rif and Rosh: KIRA - wax)

24)[line 5]רבבREVAV- a thick viscous mass, e.g. fat or wax

25a)[line 6]קשKASH- (O.F. estraim) straw, the part of the stalk cut off with the grain

b)[line 6]גבבאGAVEVA- (O.F. estoble) stubble, the lower end of the stalks that are left rooted in the ground after the harvest

26)[line 8]סילתיSILTEI- thin pieces of wood

27)[line 9]רוב היוצאROV HA'YOTZEI- the majority of the wick that sticks out of the lamp

28)[line 10]שוכא דארזאSHUCHA D'ARZA- bark of a cedar tree

29)[line 11]זאזאZAZA- dry twigs


30)[line 13]מדליקיןMADLIKIN- [with what] may we light

31)[line 14]לכשLECHESH- cedar fiber

32)[line 14]חוסןCHOSEN- uncombed flax

33)[line 15]כלךKALACH- floss-silk, silkworm cocoon

34)[line 15]פתילת האידןPESILAS HA'IDAN- willow fiber

35)[line 15]פתילת המדברPESILAS HA'MIDBAR- desert silk

36)[line 16]ירוקהYEROKAH- green algae, seaweed

37)[line 17]בזפתZEFES- pitch, melted tar

38)[line 17]שעוהSHA'AVAH- wax

39)[line 17]שמן קיקSHEMEN KIK- (a) the oil of the Kik bird (pelican); (b) cottonseed oil; (c) oil of the seeds of the Ricinus bush (castor oil)

40)[line 17]שמן שריפהSHEMEN SEREIFAH- oil of Terumah which became Tamei that must be destroyed by burning

41)[line 18]אליהALYA- fat from sheep's tails, which is a type of Chelev (forbidden fat)

42)[line 18]חלבCHELEV- forbidden animal fat; Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger in Mishnayos quotes Beis David who states that Alya in our Mishnah refers to the permissible fats of animals, while Chelev is the forbidden fat of animals

43)[line 22]עמרניתא דאית ביהAMRANISA D'IS BEI- the woolly substance that is between the bark and the wood

44)[line 23]נעורת של פשתןNE'ORES SHEL PISHTAN- the coarse, broken fibers of flax that are separated after hackling

45)[line 24]"והיה החסון לנעורת""V'HAYAH HE'CHASON LI'NORES"- The mighty shall be light like the waste of flax" (Yeshayah 1:31)

46)[line 25]כיתנא דדייק ולא נפיץKISNA D'DAYIK V'LO NAFITZ- flax which has been pounded but not carded (freed of hard substances)

47)[line 27]נחותי ימאNECHUSEI YAMA- seafarers

48)[line 29]גושקראGUSHKERA- (O.F. folcel) floss-silk, waste silk or short silk fibers from the outer part of the cocoon

49)[line 30]לביש מטכסאLAVISH METAKSA- he was wearing a garment made out of a silken material

50)[line 32]שירא פרנדאSHIRA PERANDA- Peranda silk, different from normal silk

51)[line 33]הסיריקיןHA'SIRIKIN- the garment made from inferior silk

52)[line 35]אחוינאACHVINA- willow fiber

53)[line 35]פקתא דטמרוריתאPIKSA D'TAMRURISA- The Hidden Valley

54)[line 36]ארבתאARVESA- willows

55)[line 38]אוכמתא דחריציUCHMESA D'CHARITZEI- the black (greenish) algae that grows on puddles

56)[line 38]איפרוכי מפרכןIFRUCHEI MEFARCHAN- it comes apart

57)[line 39]אוכמתא דארבאUCHMESA D'ARBA- the black (greenish) algae that grows on boats

58)[line 40]מכווץ כוויץMICHVATZ KAVITZ- gets singed and shrinks from the fire

59)[line 40]איחרוכי מיחרךICHRUCHEI MICHRACH- becomes scorched

60)[last line]עטרנאITRANA- the substance that flows from a pine tree after the pitch is removed