INFERENCES FROM OUR MISHNAH (Yerushalmi Halachah 8 Daf 36b)

רבי ירמיה בשם רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק זאת אומרת שדנין מספק.


(R. Yirmeyah citing R. Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak): This teaches that we judge amidst Safek. (We give a final verdict before the witness says exactly what he heard.)

היך עבידא פלוני הרג את הנפש יהא נידון עד שיבואו עדיו.


How does this apply? [If we heard that] Ploni killed someone, he is judged before the witnesses come.

א"ל רבי יוסי ותפשין בר נשא בשוקא ומבזין ליה.


Rebuttal (R. Yosi): Can we take someone from the market and disgrace him [based on mere rumors]?!

אלא כיני פלוני הרג את הנפש והרי עדיו שהרג את הנפש יהא תפוש עד שיבואו עדיו.


Rather, if [we heard that] Ploni killed someone, and that there are witnesses that he killed someone, we seize him until the witnesses come.

ואמרין ליה גדף


Question: Do we tell [the witness] to blaspheme?!

אלא אותו השם שאמרתי לפניכם אותו קילל ובו קילל ואין העדים צריכין לקרוע שכבר קרעו בשעה ששמעו.


Answer: Rather, [he says] "that name that I said in front of you, he cursed it and with it he cursed it ("Yosi should strike Yosi"). The witnesses need not tear, for they tore at the time they heard.

ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מיכן לדיינין שקיבלו עדות עומדין שדינן דין.


(Reish Lakish): This teaches that judges who accepted testimony while standing, their verdict is valid. (He understands that the judges stand before the witness explicitly says what he heard, unlike the simple reading of the Mishnah. Alternatively, if testimony received while standing were invalid, the Mishnah should stress that they may not stand until after they hear.)

את שמע מינה שית את שמע מינה כהיא דאמר ר' שמואל בר רב יצחק ואת ש"מ כהיא דאמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש


We learn six matters from this. We learn like what R. Shmuel bar Rav Yitzchak taught (that we judge amidst Safek) and we learn what Reish Lakish taught (that if judges accepted testimony while standing, their verdict is valid;

ואת שמע מינה שומע מפי שומע חייב לקרוע


We learn that one who heard [blasphemy] from one who heard is obligated to tear;

ואת שמע מינה מיכן לעד שהעיד עדותו השני אומר אף אני כמוהו והשלישי אומר אף אני כמוהו


We learn that if a witness testified, the second [witness] can say "also I heard like him", and the third says "also I like him";

ואת שמע מינה שהוא אחד מן הקרעים שאין מתאחין


We learn that this is one of the tears that one may not sew back normally;

ואת שמע מינה מכיון שהיו יודעין משעה הראשונה שהוא שם המיוחד שהוא צריך לקרוע.


We learn that since they know from the beginning that it is Hash-m's special name, he needs to tear. (They stand and tear before the witness explicitly says the curse - HAGAHOS R. DINAR. It seems that this is like my first explanation above in Reish Lakish; the Mishnah means that the judges stand and tear before the witness explicitly says the curse. However, what forces the Yerushalmi to explain like this? - PF. Or, perhaps this means that they tear once they know from one witness, before hearing the other say "also I like him." Below (37a), we conclude that one tears even for Kinuyim! Here, one might have thought that the 'Mekalel' said only a euphemism, and one does not tear until two witnesses say that he cursed more than a mere euphemism.)