MOED KATAN 24 (9 Elul) - Dedicated by Elliot and Lori Linzer in memory of Chana bas Mordechei Eliezer z'l.

[24a - 46 lines; 24b - 32 lines]

1)[line 6]אסור אתמרASUR ITMAR- it was said that it is forbidden [but not to the extent that its transgression carries the death penalty]

2a)[line 9]פרעPARA- allow his hair to grow long

b)[line 9]פירםPIREM- tear his clothing

3)[line 10]"ראשיכם אל תפרעו""ROSHEICHEM AL TIFRA'U"- "[And Moshe said to Aharon and his sons Elazar and Isamar,] 'Do not let your hair grow long nor rend your clothing, so that you should not die....'" (Vayikra 10:6) - This verse follows the death of Nadav and Avihu, the righteous sons of Aharon (see Background to Sukah 25:20).

4)[line 11]אחרACHER- another [Avel]

5)[line 13]באבל רבתיEVEL RABASI- Maseches Semachos, a collection of Beraisos dealing with the laws of mourning

6)[line 15]ושמטו חזירים את גוייתוSHAMTU CHAZIRIM ES GEVIYASO- carried off his (a) body; (b) male organ [after his death]

7)[line 16]פח''ז חובהPCH'Z CHOVAH- [an Avel on Shabbos] is required in PCH'Z (an acronym standing for the three actions detailed by the Gemara)

8a)[line 16]פריעת הראשPERI'AS HA'ROSH- unwrapping his head [from the wrap that covered most of it as a sign of mourning]

b)[line 16]חזרת קרע לאחוריוCHAZARAS KERA L'ACHORAV- turning [his garment so that] the rent [in it is] on his back

c)[line 17]זקיפת המטהZEKIFAS HA'MITAH- standing his bed [on its feet from the overturned position it had been in as a sign of mourning]

9)[line 19]בחמיןCHAMIN- hot water

10)[line 19]ערביתARVIS- [before Shabbos toward] evening

11)[line 21]עבידי דמגלו רישייהוAVIDEI D'SAIMEI MESANAIHU- necessarily wears [leather] shoes [on Shabbos]

12)[line 24]בשעת חימוםSHA'AS CHIMUM- when one first feels the pain of his loss

13)[line 25]עטיפהATIFAH- wrapping one's head [with a Talis on an everyday basis, or with a scarf when he is in mourning]

14)[line 25]כעטיפת ישמעאליםATIFAS YISHMA'ELIM- the way in which Arabs wrap their heads [in order to protect their faces from the desert sands]

15)[line 26]מחויMACHAVI- demonstrated [Atifas Yishma'elim]

16)[line 26]עד גובי דדיקנאAD GUVEI D'DIKNA- (a) until the hollows below one's mouth (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa AD GABEI DIKNA - until the hair [that grows] on [the top of] one's cheeks; i.e., above one's nose (RAV HAI GA'ON cited by the RITVA)

17)[line 27]לא שנוLO SHANU- that which we learned [that an Avel may not leave his head wrapped on Shabbos] does not apply

18)[line 31]תריסר מניTREISAR MANEI- twelve garments [that he wore one after another]

19)[line 31]דהוה מסתפינא מיניהD'HAVAH MISTEFINA MINEI- whom I was afraid of [since (a) he asked difficult questions (RASHI); (b) he was a true Talmid Chacham, and was therefore included in the verse "Es HaSh-m Elokecha Tira" - "Fear HaSh-m your G-d" (Devarim 10:20). (MAHARSHA, based on Pesachim 22b)]

20)[line 32]תליסר אצטלי מלתאTELEISAR ITZTELEI MILSA- thirteen fine woolen robes

21)[line 34]מדכרי שמעתייהוMIDKEREI SHEMAITAIHU- the Torah that he taught is remembered

22)[line 35]להחליףL'HACHALIF- to change [his clothing]

23a)[line 37]אותן קרעיןOSAN KERA'IM- those tears [that one rent in his changes of clothing]

b)[line 37]מתאחיןMIS'ACHIN...?- may they be sewn up...?

24)[line 41]מטייל באונקליMETAYEL B'UNKELI- one may walk around wearing a house robe [that has been torn in mourning]

25)[line 41]דפריס ליה סודרא ארישיהPARIS LEI SUDRA A'REISHEI- he had wrapped a scarf around his head [in mourning]

26)[line 45]כל שלשים יוםKOL SHELOSHIM YOM- [an infant who passes away during] the [first] thirty days [of his life]

27)[last line]בחיקB'CHEIK- [carried] in one's bosom [as opposed to in a coffin or on a stretcher]

28)[last line]לא באיש אחד ושתי נשיםLO B'ISH ECHAD U'SHTEI NASHIM (YICHUD)

(a)A man and woman whom the Torah forbids to marry each other (Vayikra 18:6-30; 20:10-21) may not seclude themselves together, even if they are sure that they will not succumb to temptation. David ha'Melech extended this prohibition to include all unmarried women after the unfortunate incident of Amnon and Tamar (see Background to 21:5), and the students of Hillel and Shamai extended it to include Nochriyos as well (Avodah Zarah 36b). The prohibition applies whether or not the individuals are married to others, how old they are, or whether or not the woman is a Nidah.

(b)From the age of thirteen, a boy may not seclude himself with a girl as young as three. From the age of twelve, a girl may not seclude herself with a boy as young as nine. The length of a seclusion for which one transgresses the prohibition of Yichud is the amount of time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. One opinion maintains that this is as short a time as 35 seconds.

(c)Yichud is prohibited even if there is more than one woman present. If there is more than one man present, than the prohibition does not apply, assuming that they have an honorable reputation.

(d)A man may seclude himself with his daughter, granddaughter, great-granddaughter, etc.; likewise, a woman may seclude herself with her son, grandson, great-grandson, etc. A brother and sister may seclude themselves with each other as well, although they may not arrange to reside indefinitely in such a state.

24b----------------------------------------24b

29)[line 1]אף באיש אחד ושתי נשיםAF B'ISH ECHAD U'SHTEI NASHIM- Aba Shaul maintains that there is no need to be concerned that individuals will fall prey to their desires when overcome with grief, and therefore the prohibitions of Yichud were never decreed in such a situation (see Kidushin 80b).

30)[line 2]בשורהSHURAH

After a burial, the close relatives of the deceased are comforted before they leave the cemetery. Those present line up in rows of at least ten people per row (Shurah), and offer words of comfort to the mourners as they pass by to their left (Rambam Hilchos Avel 13:1-2).

31a)[line 3]ברכת אבליםBIRKAS AVELIM

After a burial, the close relatives of the deceased are greeted on their way back home in the street (Rechavah). Others prepare a meal that the mourners eat before entering the house where they are to sit in mourning. During this meal, one of the comforters present recites a blessing known as Birkas Rechavah, which ends with the words "Baruch... Menachem Aveilim" (Kesuvos 8b).

b)[line 3]ותנחומי אבליםTANCHUMEI AVEILIM- [the] comfort offered to mourners [over the Shiv'ah period]

32)[line 4]בדלוסקמאDELUSKEMA- a coffin

33a)[line 5]בכתףB'KASEF- on the shoulder [of one person]

b)[line 6]באגפייםB'AGAPAYIM- on the arms [of two people, in an honorable manner]

34)[line 8]במטהB'MITAH- on an [open] stretcher

35)[line 11]מצהיבין עליוMATZHIVIN ALAV- grieve for him

36)[line 14]ומה הן בהספדMAH HEN B'HESPED?- how old of a child [is there a Mitzvah] to eulogize?

37)[line 16]עניים בני שלשANIYIM BNEI SHALOSH- [there is a Mitzvah to eulogize] the children of the poor when they are three years old. Since poor people have so few worldly possessions, their children are that much more precious to them.

38)[line 19]אפיתחא דבי נשיאהA'PISCHA D'VEI NESI'AH- while standing in the doorway of the Nasi's house. Since the Nasi was the spiritual leader, this was an effective way of publicizing a Halachic ruling.

39)[line 20]הרי כאן ארבעה עשרHAREI KAN ARBA'AH ASAR- fourteen days of the Sheloshim are considered to have already passed by. This is because (a) the festival of Shavuos cancels Shiv'ah, and so seven days are considered to have passed by; and (b) the festival of Shavuos itself is considered to be a seven-day festival similar to Sukos and Pesach (see below, entry #43).

40)[line 20]ואיקפדIKPID- took offense

41)[line 20]אטו דידיה היאATU DIDEI HI?- did this ruling originate with Rav Anani bar Sason?

42)[line 21]אקילעא דריש גלותאA'KIL'A D'REISH GALUSA- on the porch of the Exilarch, the hereditary position of religious leader of Babylonian Jewry. The Resh Galusa was the Babylonian equivalent of the position of Nasi in Eretz Yisrael; as such, the porch of the Resh Galusa was a prime position from which to publicize a Halachic ruling.

43)[line 24]תשלומין כל שבעהTASHLUMIN KOL SHIV'AH

(a)Every Jewish male must offer a Korban Re'iyah on each of the three festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos. If he did not do so on the first day of the festival, then he may do so on any of the other days of the festival. This includes the last six days of Pesach and the last seven days of Sukos. If one did not offer the Korban Chagigah on the one day of Shavuos, he may do so on the six days following the festival.

(b)There is a disagreement among the Amora'im as to whether or not the primary obligation to offer the Korban Chagigah lies upon the first day of the festival. Those who rule such consider the successive days as "Tashlumin" (compensation) for the first day. Others maintain that the obligation is to offer the Korban on one of the days of the festival - not necessarily the first (Chagigah 2a).

44)[line 26]אדבריהADBEREI- took him for a walk

45)[line 28]החגHA'CHAG- the festival [of Sukos]

46)[line 28]ושמיני שלוSHEMINI SHELO- the eighth day [of Sukos; i.e., the festival of Shemini Atzeres]

47)[line 29]איקלע לסורא דפרתIKLA L'SURA D'FERAS- came to Sura on the Euphrates River (as opposed to Sura in Southern Bavel). This refers to Soura-Soura, identified with modern-day Surie.

48)[last line]חולציןCHOLTZIN- bare their arm and shoulder [in mourning]

49)[last line]מבריןMAVRIN- provide with a meal (see above, entry #31a)

50)[last line]ואין מברין אלא על מטה זקופהEIN MAVRIN ELA AL MITAH ZEKUFAH- (a) the mourner; (b) those who provide the meal sit on an upright bed while this meal is eaten (see Insights to 26:4)

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