MOURNING ON SHABBOS (cont.)
Shmuel said to R. Yochanan: Mourning is not observed (not even in private) on Shabbos.
Someone said in the name of Shmuel that a mourner who engages in marital relations (on Shabbos - Rashash) is deserving of the death penalty (by the hand of G-d - Rashi MS.), but R. Papa corrected the name from Shmuel to R. Yochanan (because, as above, Shmuel permitted it).
What Shmuel really said was: A mourner who does not grow his hair or rip his clothes is deserving of death, as derived from the Torah.
Shmuel said some manifestations of mourning are forbidden on Shabbos and some are not. The forbidden ones are those which are unmistakable signs of mourning, namely:
Wearing the mourning head-wrapping.
Showing the rip in the garment.
Keeping the beds turned over.
The manifestations of mourning that are permitted are those which are not such obvious signs of mourning (for sometimes ordinary people act in this way), namely:
Going without shoes.
Abstention from marital relations
Refraining from washing in warm water (that was warmed before Shabbos, of course).
Rav disagreed with 4:j:1 (where Shmuel prohibited wearing the head-wrapping on Shabbos), because Rav required only a minimal head covering, and ordinary people often wear head coverings. Shmuel, however, said two things:
Keri'ah must be done at the time of intense emotions, otherwise it is invalid.
The head must be wrapped in the fashion of the Arabs, otherwise it is invalid. (This is why Shmuel forbade it on Shabbos; ordinary people (non-Arabs) never wear this kind of headdress.)
(R. Nachman): The wrapping must come around and cover the chin.
(R. Yochanan): Removal of the mourner's head-wrapping for Shabbos is not required if he is wearing shoes; the shoes alone demonstrate that he is not observing mourning on Shabbos.
KERI'AH AT THE TIME OF INTENSE EMOTIONS
Question: How could Shmuel say (above, 4:l:1) that Keri'ah must only be done at the time of intense emotion (i.e., at the time of death - Rashi)? Shmuel and R. Yochanan both did Keri'ah when they heard of the deaths of colleagues (some time after their deaths).
Answer: Rabbis are different, because their words of Torah are constant reminders of how much they are missed. Therefore "the time of intense emotions" lasts much longer.
Question: A Beraisa states that when a mourner changes clothes during Shiv'ah he must rip the new clothes also - and that is already after "the time of intense emotion."
Answer: That Beraisa is dealing with mourning for a parent, and is an exception. It is not a bona fide Keri'ah, but an expression of honor for the parent.
Question: May those rips (in the new change of clothing, mentioned in 1:c and 1:d) be sewn up (unlike the regular Keri'ah rip for a parent; see above 22b, 2:i)?
Answer: There is a disagreement between Amora'im about this.
Going back to the topic of mourning on Shabbos:
(Rava): The mourner can wear his ripped garment on Shabbos around the house.
R. Yosef held like R. Yochanan, that mourning is observed in private on Shabbos, so he wore his head-wrap on Shabbos (in the house).
SOME DETAILS ABOUT YOM TOV CANCELLING MOURNING
(R Gidel bar Menashia in the name of Shmuel): The Halachah is like Raban Gamliel in the Mishnah (above, 19a, 2:d:2), that all Yamim Tovim are equal in their cancellation of Shiv'ah and Shloshim.
There is another version of R. Gidel bar Menashia's statement - that it was in the name of Rav, and that it was applied to a different Beraisa altogether, one dealing with burying young children. The Beraisa makes several points:
A baby under 30 days old is carried out for burial in someone's arms (without a bier or coffin).
The burial (in a secluded place) should not involve Yichud, i.e., one man and one woman, or one man and two women. (But Abba Shaul permits one man and two women in this case.)
No Shurah is held for the infant, nor are there Birkas Aveilim or consolation calls.
A baby over 30 days old is taken for burial in a coffin (R. Yehudah: not one carried on the shoulder, but in the arms).
Shurah is held for the baby, as well as Birkas Aveilim and consolation calls.
A baby over one year old is taken on a regular bier.
R. Akiva disagrees: To be put on a bier the baby has to be either actually two years old or developed like a two-year old.
(R. Shimon Ben Elazar): Whichever child is carried on a bier is to be grieved over by the public, and conversely.
(R. Elazar Ben Azariah): Whichever child was known to people in his lifetime is to be dealt with (by participating in his burial and in consoling the relatives - Rashi MS.) by the public, and conversely.
The issue of how old a child should be to be given a eulogy has two opinions:
(R. Meir in the name of R. Yishmael): for poor children, three years old and up; for rich children, five years old and up.
(R. Yehudah in the name of R. Yishmael): for poor children, five years and up; for rich children, six years and up. According to the second version of R. Gidel's statement (above, 2:b), he ruled like this position of R. Yehudah.
R. Anan bar Sason ruled that if a relative died the day before Shavuos, fourteen days of the Shloshim are taken off - seven for the Shiv'ah that is cancelled by Yom Tov (in accordance with Raban Gamliel, who considers Shavuos a regular Yom Tov in this respect), and seven for Shavuos, which is actually celebrated (with holiday sacrifices) for seven days.
R. Papa said the same thing about Rosh Hashanah (although there is no seven-day celebration connected to it) - it removes fourteen days from the Shloshim.
Ravina said the same thing about Shemini Atzeres - altogether twenty-one days are removed (seven for the cancelled Shiv'ah, seven for Sukkos and seven for Shemini Atzeres).
MISHNAH - RELATIVES ONLY
Keri'ah is done by relatives only, as is the baring of the shoulder and the eating of the first meal, served by others (henceforth: the mourner's meal).
During the mourner's meal the consolers should sit on upright beds.