[21a - 41 lines; 21b - 50 lines]

1)[line 1]"ועמד ואמר לא חפצתי לקחתה""V'AMAD V'AMAR, 'LO CHAFATZTI L'KACHTAH'" - "[And the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him,] and he shall stand and say, 'I do not wish to marry her'." (Devarim 25:8) (YIBUM V'CHALITZAH)

(a)Should a married man die childless, his widow is not free to marry whom she pleases. The brothers of her deceased husband have a Mitzvah of Yibum (levirate marriage); that is, they are obligated to marry her (Devarim 25:5-10). If the deceased has more than one brother, the oldest brother is offered to carry out the Mitzvah of Yibum first (Yevamos 24a).

(b)There may be a number of reasons why a brother does not wish to carry out this Mitzvah. In that case, after declining to perform Yibum, he must perform Chalitzah. This is a procedure in Beis Din which dissolves the ties binding the widow to her brother(s)-in-law (termed "Zikah"), thus allowing her to marry anyone she pleases. After stating that he does not wish to marry her, his sister-in-law approaches him, removes his right sandal, and spits on the ground in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build his brother's family." Following this ceremony she is no longer bound to her deceased husband's brothers.

2)[line 3]מוטהMUTEH- leaning to the side

3)[line 6]מילתא יתירתאMILSA YESEIRTA- [an expression of mourning] above and beyond that which is required

4)[line 7]"[ויקם איוב ויקרע את מעלו] ויגז את ראשו""[VA'YAKAM IYOV VA'YIKRA ES ME'ILO,] VA'YAGAZ ES ROSHO"- "[And Iyov arose and tore his tunic,] and he tore out his hair...." (Iyov 1:20) - This verse describes Iyov's reaction to the death of his children.

5)[line 8]"ויקם המלך ויקרע את בגדיו וישכב ארצה וכל עבדיו נצבים קרעי בגדים""VA'YAKAM HA'MELECH VA'YIKRA ES BEGADAV VA'YISHKAV ARTZA V'CHOL AVADAV NITZAVIM KERU'EI BEGADIM" - "And the king arose and tore his clothing [and he lie on the ground and all his servants stood with torn clothing.]" (Shmuel II 13:31) (AMNON AND TAMAR)

(a)Tamar was the daughter of David. Her mother was Ma'achah bas Talmai (the king of Geshur), who was an Eshes Yefas To'ar (see Background to Sanhedrin 21:21) who had been taken by David ha'Melech. Tamar was conceived from the first union of David ha'Melech and Ma'achah, when she was still a Nochris. Tamar was therefore a Giyores (convert) and was not Halachically related to any of the other children of David.

(b)David's son Amnon was a biological half-brother of Tamar. He desired his sister Tamar. Instead of going through the proper channels to marry her, as was Halachically acceptable, he pretended to be sick so that Tamar would visit him in his bedroom. He then raped her. Immediately, he hated her with greater force than he had loved her previously, and wanted nothing to do with her.

(c)Avshalom, a full brother of Tamar born after his mother's conversion, hated Amnon for this mistreatment of his sister. Two years after this incident, he arranged for the murder of Amnon.

6)[line 11]אודייניUDAINI- a mortar (some have the Girsa "URAINI"; Dikdukei Sofrim #2)

7a)[line 11]גדולה [מכולן אמרו אפילו] על גביGEDOLAH [MI'KULAN AMRU AFILU] AL GABEI KARKA (MI'KULAN)- most surprising of all was that they ruled that even if one slept upon the ground

b)[line 12]לא יצא ידי חובתוLO YATZA YEDEI CHOVASO- he has not [yet] fulfilled his obligation [of mourning]

8)[line 13]כפיית המטהKEFIYAS HA'MITAH- overturning one's bed [so that it cannot be slept in] (a sign of mourning)

9)[line 13]כעין ארצהK'EIN ARTZA- [David ha'Melech did not add to his expression of mourning; rather, he sat upon his overturned bed which was] close to the ground

10a)[line 15]במלאכהMELACHAH- engaging in profitable enterprise

b)[line 15]ובסיכהSICHAH- anointing [oneself with oil or cream]

c)[line 16]ובתשמיש המטהTASHMISH HA'MITAH- intimate relations with one's wife

d)[line 16]ובנעילת הסנדלNE'ILAS HA'SANDAL- wearing leather shoes

11a)[line 18]ובהש''סSH''S- Shishah Sedarim, the six orders of Gemara (Zera'im, Mo'ed, Nashim, Nezikin, Kodshim, and Taharos). The Girsa was changed from "HA'TALMUD" by the censor (Hagahos Dikdukei Sofrim #4).

b)[line 18]ובהלכותHALACHOS- the Halachic discussions of the Gemara

c)[line 18]ובאגדותAGADOS- the homiletic discussions of the Gemara

12)[line 19]צריכין לוTZERICHIN LO- require him [to teach them Torah]

13)[line 19]נמנעNIMNA- refrain

14)[line 20]בציפוריTZIPORI- a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between Tiberias and Haifa

15)[line 22]איתרעא ביה מילתאISRA'A BEI MILSA- something happened to him; i.e., he became an Avel

16)[line 22]למיפק לפירקאL'MEIFAK L'FIRKA- to go out [and deliver] the public Torah lecture

17a)[line 24]לאוקמי אמורא עליהL'UKMEI AMORA ALEI- to have a Meturgeman (see next entry), stand by him

b)[line 25]תורגמןTURGEMAN- he who (a) repeats the lesson of the Rav in a louder voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) translates the lesson of the Rav from Hebrew into the vernacular (RASHI to Yoma 20b)

18)[line 29]ולחשLACHASH- whispered

19)[line 31]פנים חדשותPANIM CHADASHOS- those who have not yet come [to comfort the mourner]

20)[line 31]אינו חולץEINO CHOLETZ- he need not remove [his Tefilin so that the new arrivals do not mistakenly think that he had been wearing them throughout Shiv'ah]

21)[line 34]"ויתמו ימי בכי אבל משה""VA'YITMU YEMEI VECHI EVEL MOSHE"- "[And Bnei Yisrael cried for Moshe in the plains of Mo'av for thirty days,] and the days of mourning for Moshe came to an end." (Devarim 34:8) - From the fact that the verse describes the period of mourning as "days" it is clear that there must be at least two days of intense mourning.

22)[line 35]"ואחריתה כיום מר""V'ACHARISAH K'YOM MAR"- "[... and I shall make it as the day upon which a father mourns his only son,] and their end shall be as a bitter day" (Amos 8:10). This verse implies that the intense period of mourning lasts for only one day.

23)[line 36]דתקיף אבליהTAKIF AVLEI- the mourning for him was more intense than usual

24a)[last line]הלכה כתנא דידןHALACHAH K'TANA DIDAN- the Halachah follows the view cited in (a) our Mishnah; (b) the Beraisa [quoted on 20a (see Insights there)]

b)[last line]דאמר שלשהD'AMAR SHELOSHAH- who rules [that the intense period of mourning lasts for] three days


25)[line 3]בצינעאB'TZIN'A- in private

26)[line 4]טווה בפלךTOVAH B'FELACH- may spin thread with a spindle

27)[line 5]לבית האבלL'BEIS HA'EVEL- to the house of another in mourning [so as to offer comfort]

28a)[line 7]המנחמיןMENACHAMIN- those who offer comfort

b)[line 7]המתנחמיןMISNACHAMIN- those who are comforted

29)[line 8]בשאילת שלוםSHE'EILAS SHALOM- blessing another with "Shalom" (peace)

30)[line 13]בשעת פטירתןB'SHA'AS PETIRASAN- when the [comforters were ready to] leave

31)[line 14]ספסלSAFSAL- a bench

32)[line 15]שמעוSHIM'U!- listen [to me]!

33)[line 15]אפילו שני בנים חתנים מנוחם הואAFILU SHNEI BANIM CHASANIM, MUNUCHAM HU- even though [I have buried] my two young sons, I (lit. he, referring to himself in the third person) am comforted

34)[line 17]הרי כמה עקיבא בשוקHAREI KAMAH AKIVA B'SHUK!- there are many [others named] "Akiva" in the marketplace [whom you have not honored and comforted thus]!

35)[line 19]ששכרכם כפולSECHARCHEM KAFUL- your reward is doubled [for not only have you comforted a mourner, but you have also demonstrated honor for the Torah]

36)[line 23]ואינו שואל בשלומוV'EINO SHO'EL BI'SHLOMO- Our Gemara assumes the following: If another may not bless an Avel with Shalom for a full thirty days, then certainly the Avel himself may not bless others with Shalom during that time! If this is so, this Beraisa contradicts the earlier Beraisa.

37)[line 25]ונשאNASA- he married

38)[line 26]רשאיRASHAI- permitted

39a)[line 27]בשפה רפהSAFAH RAFAH- a gentle tone

b)[line 27]ובכובד ראשKOVED ROSH- a dignified bearing

40)[line 29]שרויין בשלוםSHERUYIN B'SHALOM- in a state of peace

41)[line 32]דלא ידעיD'LO YAD'EI- (the Gemara answers) that he [who greeted the mourner] did not know [that he was in mourning]

42)[line 32]התםHASAM- regarding [returning a blessing offered in error to an Avel during his first three days of mourning]

43a)[line 32]מודע להוMODA LEHU- [the Avel] must notify them [that he is in mourning]

b)[line 33]ולא מהדר להוV'LO MEHADER LEHU- and not return the blessing

44)[line 37]מדבר עמו מן הצדMEDABER IMO MIN HA'TZAD- he may speak to him indirectly; i.e., he may offer a general consolation without mentioning the deceased specifically

45)[line 40]וחיתהCHAYESAH- it healed

46)[line 41]כלךKALECH- turn

47)[line 42]שסממניןSAMEMANIM- healing potions

48)[line 43]התםHASAM- there [regarding the propriety of one who is mourning a relative other than his father or mother blessing another with Shalom after thirty days]

49a)[line 47]ממקום קרובBA MI'MAKOM KAROV- one [of the relatives] who has arrived from [within ten Parsa'os (approximately 38.4 kilometers (24 miles) or 46 kilometers (28.8 miles), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) (TOSFOS DH Makom)]

b)[line 47]מונה עמהןMONEH IMAHEN- may count [his Shiv'ah] with [the other mourners, even if he arrived after the first day]

50)[last line]גדול הביתGADOL HA'BAYIS- the oldest sibling