[25a - 33 lines; 25b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]בית סאתיםBEIS SE'ASAYIM- a parcel of land large enough to plant with two Se'ah of grain. This area is equal to that of the Azarah of the Mishkan; namely, 50 by 100 Amos (approx. 1,152 square meters [12,400 square feet] or 1,659 square meters [17,856 square feet], depending upon the differing Halachic opinions).

2)[line 1]דירה שתשמישיה לאוירDIRAH SHE'TASHMISHEI L'AVIR (KARPAF)

(a)An enclosed, non-residential area larger than a Beis Se'asayim (see previous entry) is called a "Karpaf Yoser mi'Beis Se'asayim she'Lo Hukaf l'Dirah." Karpifos are enclosed areas located outside of the settlement, used for storage and other such purposes. "Lo Hukaf l'Dirah" means that the enclosure around the Karpaf was not built for residential purposes.

(b)Since it is fully enclosed, a Karpaf is a Reshus ha'Yachid. If one were to unintentionally throw an object into it from a Reshus ha'Rabim, he would be obligated to offer a Korban Chatas mid'Oraisa. However, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in it more than four Amos in any direction lest people mistake it for a Reshus ha'Rabim.

(c)Our Gemara explains that the area enclosed within the tree's drooping branches is not a Dirah. Even if it was specifically planted for the purpose of serving as a guardhouse, it is a Dirah she'Tashmishah l'Avir since its purpose is to service the open area surrounding it.


(a)One may walk for up to two thousand Amos (approximately 960 meters [3147 feet] or 1,152 meters [3774 feet], depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the outskirts of his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wishes to walk any farther, then he must make an Eruv Techumin.

(b)This is accomplished by placing enough food for two meals at a location up to two thousand Amos away from his current dwelling place, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The place where his food is placed is then considered his "Makom Shevisah" (residence) for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk two thousand Amos in any direction from that point.

4a)[line 3]תלTEL- a raised area

b)[line 5]נקעNEKA- a) (O.F. valede - a valley) a naturally formed depression (RASHI); b) a ditch (ARUCH)

c)[line 7]קמה קצורהKAMAH KETZURAH- [a patch of] felled wheat stalks [in the middle of a wheat field]

5)[line 7]שבולותSHIBOLOS- [standing] stalks of grain [at least ten Tefachim tall]

6)[line 10]שלוחי מצוהSHELUCHEI MITZVAH- those on their way to perform a Mitzvah

7)[line 11]משמשיהןMESHAMSHEIHEN- those tending to them

8)[line 12]עראיARAI- in a temporary fashion

9)[line 12]מה"מ?MI'NA HANI MILI?- what is the source [for the rule that one involved in one Mitzvah is exempt from another]?

10)[line 13]פרטPRAT- this excludes [from the obligation to recite Kri'as Shema]

11)[line 15]הכונסHA'KONES- one who marries

12)[line 23]טרידTARID- is preoccupied with concern [that a) his bride may not be a Besulah (RASHI to Berachos 11a DH uv'Lechtecha; RAMBAM, Perush ha'Mishnayos Berachos 2:5); b) he may damage himself in the attempt to break through her Besulim (Bartenura Berachos ibid.; see also Rashi here DH Tarid)]

13)[line 25]טבעה ספינתו ביםTAV'AH SEFINASO BA'YAM- [one whose] ship is sinking in the sea

14)[line 27]אבלAVEL- one in mourning for his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse

15)[line 28]נאמר בהן פארNE'EMAR BA'HEM PE'ER- they are described as "Pe'er" -- "glory." This is the manner in which HaSh-m described Tefilin to Yechezkel ha'Navi (see below, entry #26). It is not fitting for one in a state of mourning to wear that which is described as "glory."

16)[line 29]טירדא דמצוהTIRDA D'MITZVAH- preoccupation with the Mitzvah [of having children]

17)[line 31]"וַיְהִי אֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ טְמֵאִים לְנֶפֶשׁ אָדָם...""VAYHI ANASHIM ASHER HAYU TEME'IM L'NEFESH ADAM..." - "There were people who were Tamei due to contact with a Mes..." (Bamidbar 9: 6-14) (PESACH SHENI)

(a)In the Midbar, after Klal Yisrael were instructed regarding the Korban Pesach (see Background to Yoma 49:36), those who were Tamei and therefore unable to offer it complained to Moshe Rabeinu. They, too, wished to participate in the Korban. HaSh-m responded, "Any man who is Tamei Mes, or who is far away... [who wishes to] make a Pesach for HaSh-m; In the second month, on the fourteenth day in the afternoon they shall make it; together with Matzah and Maror they shall eat it" (Bamidbar 9:10-11).

(b)The Gemara explains that this verse refers not only to one who was Tamei with Tum'as Mes, but also to one who cannot eat a Korban Pesach due to Tum'ah of any kind. The Gemara defines one who is "far away" as one who is more than fifteen Mil away from the walls of Yerushalayim on midday of Erev Pesach. The Gemara concludes that the Halachah of Pesach Sheni applies to nearly anyone who is unable to offer the Korban Pesach on Pesach Rishon (the fourteenth of Nisan; see Pesachim 93a-b).

(c)As the above verse states, the Korban Pesach Sheni is offered on the fourteenth of Iyar. There is discussion among the commentaries whether the Pesach Sheni should be offered specifically after the afternoon Korban Tamid, or whether it may be offered even before the Korban Tamid. (See Tosfos to Yoma 29a, DH Ela, and Sha'ar ha'Melech 3:9.)

18)[last line]ארונו של יוסףARONO SHEL YOSEF- the coffin of Yosef [which accompanied Klal Yisrael from Mitzrayim to Eretz Yisrael (see Bereishis 50:25 and Shemos 13:19)]


19)[line 1]מישאל ואלצפןMISHA'EL V'ELTZAFAN- the sons of Uzi'el, uncle of Aharon, who removed the bodies of Nadav and Avihu (see next entry) from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 10:4)

20)[line 2]נדב ואביהואNADAV V'AVIHU (MISAS NADAV V'AVIHU)

(a)The Mishkan in the desert was dedicated on Rosh Chodesh Nisan, during the second year following the Exodus from Egypt. On that day, Aharon and his sons were initiated as Kohanim (servants) of HaSh-m. They offered special sacrifices for the consecration (Korbenos ha'Milu'im), along with the Korbanos that were to be offered every day. The latter group included the daily Tamid sacrifice, and, since it was the first of the month, the additional sacrifices (Korbenos Musaf) of Rosh Chodesh.

(b)As a display of their unbounded love for HaSh-m, Nadav and Avihu (righteous sons of Aharon) decided to offer Ketores (incense) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. Such an action had not been sanctioned by HaSh-m. When they proceeded to do so, a fire descended from the sky and entered their nostrils, consuming their souls but leaving their bodies intact.

21a)[line 3]כבר היו יכולין ליטהרKVAR HAYU YECHOLIN LI'TAHER- they could have already become Tahor, as Klal Yisrael had been encamped at Har Sinai for ten months prior to the fifteenth of Nisan, and the Taharah process takes only seven days (see below, entry #23). Since this was the case, they did not fit the category of those who "were unable to offer the Korban Pesach on that day" (Bamidbar 9:6).

b)[line 4]יכולין היו ליטהרYECHOLIN HAYU LI'TAHER- they could have already become Tahor [as the Parah Adumah was burned on the second day of Nisan, the day after the death of Nadav and Avihu and fourteen days prior to the Korban Pesach]

22)[line 5]מת מצוהMES MITZVAH- the burial of any dead person, which is a Mitzvah

23)[line 5]שביעי שלהןSHEVI'I SHE'LAHEN (MEI CHATAS)

(a)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah (see Background to 13:10:a:1) and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).)

24)[line 10]מטאMATA- arrived

25)[line 12]התם דאיכא כרתHASAM D'IKA KARES (KARES AND MISAH B'YEDEI SHAMAYIM: Heavenly Punishment of Untimely Death)

(a)Some sins are so severe that they are punished with untimely death. There are two types of untimely death that are used as heavenly punishments: Kares, and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. Kares means "being severed" from the world and dying before one's time. Misah b'Yedei Shamayim means "death at the hands of heaven." These punishments are not administered by the courts, but through divinely administered justice.

(b)One who deliberately transgresses a commandment that is punishable with either Kares or Misah b'Yedei Shamayim is punished even if there are no witnesses to his act, and even if he was not warned at that time of his transgression that his violation will result in his untimely death.

(c)The Tif'eres Yisrael, in his commentary to Sanhedrin 9:6, lists a number of differences between Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and Kares:

1.One who is punished with Kares will die before age 60 (according to Moed Katan 28a, or before the age of 50, according to the Yerushalmi Bikurim 2:1). One punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim will die after the age of 60 but before his time has come (according to Moed Katan ibid., or before the age of 60, according to the Yerushalmi ibid.)

2.When one is punished with Kares, even his children (who are minors at the time of his sin) die, and he bears no further children. When one is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, only he is punished and not his children (Yevamos 55a and RASHI there; see, however, RIVA in Tosfos to Yevamos 2a DH Eshes, who maintains that Kares only involves the death of one's children in the two cases where the Torah adds the word "Ariri." However, he might be referring to the death of children who are not minors.)

3.Some add that when punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, the sinner's cattle and possessions slowly expire until he is left destitute - see Insights to Yevamos 73:2 and Insights to Pesachim 32:2.

4.In addition to the above, in certain instances a form Kares is prescribed in which the sinner not only dies before his time but is also 'severed' (Nichras) from receiving a portion in the World to Come (see Sanhedrin 64b, 90b).

(d)As stated in the Mishnah at the beginning of Kerisus, there are 36 sins listed in the Torah for which one receives Kares: the sixteen forbidden conjugal relations listed in the Torah (Vayikra 18); one who curses G-d; an idol worshipper; one who worships Molech (see Background to Sanhedrin 53:5); one who practices Ov (see Background to Pesachim 113:62); one who desecrates Shabbos; one who ate Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while in a state of Tum'ah; one who consumed blood, Nosar (see Background to Pesachim 120:9), or Pigul (see Background to 6:60); one who slaughters or offers a sacrifice outside of the Mikdash; one who eats Chametz on Pesach; one who eats or performs Melachah on Yom Kipur; one who compounds Shemen ha'Mishchah (the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty) or the Ketores (see Background to 11:25) for his own use; one who anoints himself with Shemen ha'Mishchah; one who neglects to give himself a Bris Milah; and one who neglects to offer a Korban Pesach.

26)[line 16]"... פְּאֵרְךָ חֲבוֹשׁ עָלֶיךָ, [וּנְעָלֶיךָ תָּשִׂים בְּרַגְלֶיךָ...]""... PE'ERCHA CHAVUSH ALECHA, [U'NE'ALECHA TASIM B'RAGLECHA...]" - "[Son of man, I am about to take your beloved (your wife) from you through a plague. Do not eulogize her, do not weep, nor shed any tears. Do not sigh nor exhibit any signs of mourning;] don your Tefilin [and wear your shoes]" (Yechezkel 24:16-17) (YECHEZKEL IS COMMANDED NOT TO MOURN)

(a)Shortly before the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, Yechezkel ha'Navi received this prophecy. These instructions contravened virtually all customary practices of mourning; indeed, many laws of mourning are derived from the description in these verses. Yechezkel followed them after the death of his wife, which indeed occurred the following night.

(b)The strange actions of Yechezkel were meant to serve as a warning and premonition of what was to take place during the impending Churban. Although many people would perish, nobody would be left to mourn.

27)[line 18]"[וְשַׂמְתִּיהָ כְּאֵבֶל יָחִיד,] וְאַחֲרִיתָהּ כְּיוֹם מָר""[V'SAMTIHA K'EVEL YACHID,] V'ACHARISAH K'YOM MAR"- "[And I shall make it as a personal mourning,] and what follows it as a bitter day" (Amos 8:10).

28)[line 23]צערא דממילאTZA'ARA D'MEMEILA- misery as a result of sitting in the Sukah (such as that from hot or cold temperatures, the smell of the Sechach, etc.)

29)[line 24]איבעי ליה ליתובי דעתיהIBA'I LEI L'YASUVEI DAITEI- he must settle his mind (see Insights)

30a)[line 26]שושביניןSHOSHVININ- personal attendants of the bride and groom, appointed by the bride's family to insure that the groom does not falsely accuse his bride of misrepresenting her status as a Besulah

b)[line 26]בני החופהBNEI HACHUPAH- those who attend the wedding and Sheva Berachos

31)[line 27]כל שבעהKOL SHIV'AH- all seven days of Sheva Berachos. The discussion in our Gemara concerns a wedding held close to Sukos, but not on the festival itself. Marriage is forbidden on Chol ha'Mo'ed.

32)[line 27]למיחדיL'MECHDEI- to be happy [with the Chasan and Kalah]

33)[line 27]וליכלו בסוכה וליחדו בסוכה?V'LEICHLU BA'SUKAH V'LEICHDU B'SUKAH?- Can they not eat in the Sukah and be happy in the Sukah?

34)[line 28]בחופהB'CHUPAH- in the place where the marriage took place

35a)[line 31]משום ייחודMISHUM YICHUD- since one other than the Chasan may remain alone with the Kalah [as the Sukah is out of the way] (see Insights)

b)[line 31]משום צער חתןMISHUM TZA'AR CHASAN- since the Chasan will be unhappy [since a) the Sukah affords he and his bride no privacy, as it is open on three sides (RASHI); b) not all of his friends fit in the Sukah (ME'IRI)]

36)[line 33]דנפקי ועייליD'NAFKEI V'AILEI- that leave and enter

37)[line 36]ליבאיLIBA'I- my heart

38)[line 37]תרתיTARTEI- two [Mitzvos; getting married and that of Sukah]

39)[last line]פטורין מן התפלה ומן התפילין וחייבין בק"שPETURIN MIN HA'TEFILAH U'MIN HA'TEFILIN V'CHAYAVIN B'KRI'AS SHEMA...- Neither of the two opinions expressed in this Beraisa rule that one who is involved in one Mitzvah is exempt from another. The reasoning of the Tana Kama is that during a wedding, drunkenness and lightheadedness are common, making it difficult to concentrate. Therefore, Tefilah is difficult, and the wearing of Tefilin is inappropriate. As the recitation of Kri'as Shema requires concentration only during the first verse, it is more manageable. Rebbi Shila maintains that the Chasan himself, due to his preoccupation, is exempt from even that Mitzvah.