MOED KATAN 11 - sponsored by Dr. Eli Turkel l'Iluy Nishmas his mother, Golda bas Chaim Yitzchak Ozer (Mrs. Gisela Turkel), whose Yahrzeit is 25 Av. Mrs. Turkel accepted Hashem's Gezeiros with love; may she be a Melitzas Yosher for her offspring and for all of Klal Yisrael.

[11a - 42 lines; 11b - 36 lines]

1)[line 1]לירידYARID- market day (that may occur on a Nochri festival)

2)[line 2]וכותב ומעלה בערכאות שלהןKOSEV U'MA'ALEH B'ERKA'OS SHELAHEN- he may write [a contract] and record it in their offices]

3a)[line 4]למיגדל אוהריL'MIGDAL OHAREI- to construct fish nets [woven from willow branches (ROSH)] (O.F. ruse - fishing snare)

b)[line 6]איזליIZLEI- (a) bird nets (RASHI); (b) fish nets [woven from rope] (ROSH)

4)[line 7]לאמי תנוראAMI TANURA'A- Ami the oven-maker

5)[line 7]למיגדל תנוריL'MIGDAL TANUREI- (a) to construct earthenware ovens (RASHI); (b) to mix [clay and water in order to make] earthenware ovens (NIMUKEI YOSEF, who explains that states that "L'MIGDAL" is similar to "L'MIGBAL")

6)[line 8]מהולתאMEHULTA- a sieve

7a)[line 10]כאן בימות החמהKAN BI'YEMOS HA'CHAMAH- that [which one may construct earthenware ovens] is during the summer [on Chol ha'Mo'ed Pesach, when it is likely that the oven will harden immediately]

b)[line 10]כאן בימות הגשמיםKAN BI'YEMOS HA'GESHAMIM- that [which one may not construct earthenware ovens] is during the winter [on Chol ha'Mo'ed Sukos when it is likely that rain will fall and the oven will need to be redone]

8)[line 11]מעקהMA'AKEH- a fence [which one is required to build around his roof (Devarim 22:8)]

9)[line 12]ולמרפסתMIRPESES- a common balcony from which the residents of a second story descend by way of a ladder into a courtyard, and from there to the Reshus ha'Rabim

10a)[line 12]מעשה הדיוטMA'ASEH HEDYOT- that which can be accomplished even by an amateur

b)[line 12]מעשה אומןMA'ASEH UMAN- that which can only be accomplished by a professional

11)[line 13]שפין את הסדקיןSHAFIN ES HA'SEDAKIN- one may smooth plaster over cracks [in (a) an oven (RASHI); (b) a roof (NIMUKEI YOSEF)]

12)[line 13]ומעגילין אותן במעגילהMA'AGILIN OSAN B'MA'AGILAH- one may flatten [the plaster in the cracks] with a [wooden] roller

13)[line 14]במחלציםMACHALATZAYIM- (a) a wooden utensil in the shape of a foot (RASHI); (b) a wide iron tool with a handle (BARTENURA) used to tamp plaster into cracks

14a)[line 15]הצירTZIR- a peg sticking out of either the upper or lower inner corners of a door, upon which the door pivots

b)[line 15]והצינורTZINOR- the socket for the Tzir in both the threshold and the lintel

c)[line 15]והקורהKORAH- (O.F. overdure) the lintel (the piece of wood that constitutes the horizontal crossbeam of a doorway)

d)[line 15]והמנעולMAN'UL- (O.F. clavedure) a bolt

15)[line 16]יתכויןYISKAVEIN- plan

16)[line 16]כבשיןKEVASHIN- (O.F. conposte) fresh food items pickled in vinegar or brine, or preserved in salt

17)[line 17]בהוצא ודפנאHUTZA V'DAFNA- [a screen woven from horizontally woven] palm fronds (Hutza) and [vertically placed] laurel branches (Dafna; O.F. lorier - laurel)

18a)[line 18]צר בצרורTZAR BI'TZROR- one may pile stones on top of one another

b)[line 18]ואינו טח בטיטV'EINO TACH B'TIT- but one may not cement them with mortar

19)[line 20]כעין מעגילהK'EIN MA'AGILAH- similar to [the way in which one would with] a Ma'agilah

20)[line 22]עד ימיו היה פטיש מכה בירושליםAD YAMAV HAYAH PATISH MAKEH BI'YERUSHALAYIM- until his days (of Yochanan Kohen Gadol, who decreed against it), hammers pounded in Yerushalayim. Yochanan Kohen Gadol was a member of the original Chashmona'i family (see Background to Ta'anis 18:28), who lived a couple hundred years before the earliest Tana'im quoted in the Mishnah.

21a)[line 23]בדנפחיD'NAPACHEI- [metal bolts, etc.] made by smiths [that ring loudly when struck with a hammer]

b)[line 23]בדנגריD'NAGAREI- [wooden bolts, etc.] made by carpenters [that make a dull sound when struck with a hammer]

22)[line 23]קלא רבה אסיר קלא זוטר שרי?KALAH RABAH ASIR, KALA ZUTAR SHARI?- [to produce] a loud sound is forbidden, [but to produce] a lower sound is permitted? [This seems arbitrary!]

23a)[line 24]במגליMAGALEI- saws [which are normally used in the repair of the aforementioned objects (RAV BETZALEL ASHKENAZI, quoted in MELECHES SHLOMO)]

b)[line 24]בחציניCHATZINEI- (O.F. barde) axes [which are not normally used in the repair of the aforementioned objects (RAV BETZALEL ASHKENAZI, quoted in MELECHES SHLOMO)]

24)[line 26]שינוי במועד בדבר האבדSHINUY B'MO'ED B'DAVAR HE'AVAD- [that Melachos performed] on Chol ha'Mo'ed so as to avoid a loss must be done so irregularly

25)[line 27]מדלינן האידנא קביותא דדשאMADLINAN HA'IDNA KAVYUSA D'DASHA- do we currently (a) drive in (lit. lift) wooden nails [that have fallen out of the lintel] (RASHI); (b) fix (lit. lift) the bolt of a door (O.F. cheville) [in place] (NIMUKEI YOSEF) [in the normal manner]

26)[line 28]בדיתא לבאי כווריBEDISA LIBA'I KAVREI- [the River] Bedisa [dried up near the city of] Liba'i [in Bavel on Chol ha'Mo'ed, and many grounded] fish [were available for the taking]

27)[line 29]אזיל כולי עלמאAZIL KULEI ALMA TZUD- everyone [from Liba'i] went to take (lit. to hunt) [the fish]

28)[line 29]אייתו כווראAISUY KAVRA- they brought fish

29)[line 29]למימלח מינייהוL'MIMLACH MI'NAIHU- to salt some of them [so as to preserve them, thereby rendering them too salty to eat on Chol ha'Mo'ed]

30)[line 34]שביקSHAVIK- leave

31)[line 34]אגב איצצאAGAV ITZETZA- through extraction [of the salt by washing it thoroughly in water]

32)[line 35]שיתיןSHISIN- sixty

33)[line 35]איקלע לבי ריש גלותאIKLA L'VEI REISH GALUSA- visited the house of the Exilarch, the hereditary position of religious leader of Babylonian Jewry

34)[line 36]תילתא בישולא תילתא מילחא ותילתא טוויאTILTA BISHULA, TILTA MILCHA, TILTA TAVYA- one third cooked, one third salted [and washed], and one third roasted

35)[line 37]אדא ציידאADA TZAIDA- Ada the fisherman

36)[line 37]סמוך למיסרחיה מעליSAMUCH L'MISRECHEI, MA'ALEI- is best [eaten] close to when it will spoil

37a)[line 38]טווייא באחוהTAVYA B'ACHUHA- [should be] roasted in its brother (i.e., salt, which comes from the sea as the fish does)

b)[line 38]אסוקיה באבוהASUKEI B'AVUHA- [and then] placed into its father (i.e., cold water)

c)[line 39]מיכלי בבריהMEICHLEI BI'VREI- [and then] eaten with its son (i.e., fish brine)

d)[line 39]אשתי עליה אבוהISHTI ALEI AVUHA- [and] drink its father after it [is eaten]

38)[line 40]תחליTACHALEI- cress

39)[line 40]וחלבאCHALBA- milk

40a)[line 40]ליטעון גופאLIT'ON GUFEI- one should exercise (lit. load his body) [after eating these three items]

b)[line 40]ולא ליטעון פוריאV'LO LIT'ON PURYA- and not sleep (lit. load his bed) [immediately after eating them]

41)[last line]מיא ולא שיכראMAYA V'LO SHICHRA- water is preferable to beer [after eating these three items]

42)[last line]שיכרא ולא חמראSHICHRA V'LO CHAMRA- beer is preferable to wine [after eating these three items]



43)[line 1]שהפך את זיתיוHAFACH ES ZEISAV- turned over his olives. After olives are picked, they are placed in a vat wherein they ripen prior to pressing. When they soften and begin to exude liquid, they are stirred and then tossed until all of the olives are soft. They are then ground and pressed. If they are not pressed soon after they are tossed, they become moldy (TIF'ERES YISRAEL).

44)[line 1]ואירעוIR'O- it happened to him

45)[line 1]אבלEVEL (AVEILUS)

(a)One who loses his father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter, or spouse is obligated to bury his dead relative and then observe specific laws of mourning. Until the burial, one has the status of an Onen (see Background to Yoma 13:23). After the burial, his status changes to that of an Avel.

(b)For the following twelve months, an Avel may not buy new clothing nor attend weddings or other celebrations. For the first thirty days (Sheloshim), in addition to these restrictions, he may not receive a haircut nor iron his clothing. Additionally, for the first seven days (Shiv'ah), he must refrain from bathing, washing his clothing, anointing himself with oils, wearing leather shoes, and performing Melachah.

(c)Our Mishnah refers to one who lost one of these seven relatives and therefore cannot press his olives, since this constitutes Melachah.

46a)[line 1]אונסONES- an unpreventable occurrence [just before a festival, so that he now has overturned olives on Chol ha'Mo'ed]

b)[line 2]שהטעוהו פועליםHIT'UHU PO'ALIM- he was tricked by workers [who agreed to come and press the olives before the festival, and never showed up]

47a)[line 2]טוען קורה ראשונהTO'EN KORAH RISHONAH- he may lower the pressing beam once

b)[line 3]ומניחהU'MANICHAH- and then [he must] leave it

48a)[line 4]זולףZOLEF- he may pour [the contents of the vat into the press]

b)[line 4]וגומרGOMER- finish [pressing]

c)[line 4]וגף כדרכוGAF K'DARKO- and seal [the barrels that he subsequently fills with oil] in his usual manner. (RASHI and other Rishonim do not have the word "v'Gaf" in their version of the Mishnah, in which case "k'Darko" modifies the pressing process.)

49)[line 4]פתח באבל וסיים במועד!PASACH B'EVEL, V'SIYEM B'MO'ED!- [the Mishnah] began with [a case of one prevented from pressing his olives by] mourning, and finished by [ruling in a case of one prevented from doing so by] Chol ha'Mo'ed!

50)[line 12]העושין לאבלHA'OSIN L'AVEL- that others may do on behalf of an Avel

51)[line 13]וכדוKADO- his jar

52a)[line 14]ופשתנוPISHTANO- his flax

b)[line 14]המשרהMISHRAH- water in which the flax is soaking [so as to soften, and in which it will be ruined if left too long]

53a)[line 14]וצמרוTZEMARO- his wool

b)[line 15]היורהYOREH- the vat in which wool soaks in dye

54)[line 15]ומרביציםMARBITZIM- they irrigate

55)[line 15]עונת המים שלוONAS HA'MAYIM SHELO- his turn to irrigate [all of the fields in the valley where his field is located, where there is a set irrigation rotation]

56a)[line 16]זורעין לו שדה נירZOR'IN LO SEDEI NIR- they may sow his plowed field for him [since he will otherwise miss the early grain-planting season]

b)[line 17]ושדה העומדת לפשתןSADEH HA'OMEDES L'PISHTAN- a field that is intended for flax [which must be planted early]

57a)[line 18]בבכירBACHIR- the early crop

b)[line 18]באפלAFEL- the late crop

58)[line 23]בצינעאB'TZIN'A- privately

59a)[line 24]וספרSAPAR- a barber

b)[line 24]ובלןBALAN- a bathhouse attendant

60a)[line 25]האריסיןARISIN- sharecroppers who receive a percentage of the produce of the field that they work

b)[line 25]והחכיריןCHAKIRIN- sharecroppers who receive a fixed salary in bushels of produce from the field that they work

c)[line 25]והקבלניןKABLANIN- sharecroppers who receive a fixed salary in cash that is independent of the yield from the field that they work

61a)[line 26]החמריןCHAMARIN- donkey drivers

b)[line 26]הגמליןGAMALIN- camel drivers

c)[line 26]והספניןSAPANIN- ship captains

62a)[line 26]היו מוחכריןHAYU MUCHKARIN- if the [donkeys, camels, or ships and their drivers] were leased

b)[line 26]מושכריןMUSKARIN- rented

63)[line 27]שכיר יוםSECHIR YOM- a laborer hired for an entire day

64)[line 28]לא יעשהLO YA'ASEH- he should not work [but rather back out of the job, as is his right (Bava Kama 116b)]

65)[line 28]שבקיבולתKIBOLES- work that has been contracted [and therefore Halachically belongs to the artisan until he completes it]

66)[line 31]בביתו לא יעשוB'VEISO LO YA'ASEH- they should not work on it in his house [since it will seem as if he either (a) is lending a hand; or (b) commissioned the work after he was already an Avel]

67)[line 32]גמלא דתורא בהדי הדדיGAMLA D'SORA B'HADEI HADADEI- pair of oxen together [such that each owned one]

68)[line 33]איתרעא ביה מילתאISRA'A BEI MILSA- something happened to him; this is a euphemism stating that he became an Avel

69)[line 33]ופסקיה לגמליהPASKEI L'GAMLEI- he did not send his ox [to join that of Meryon brei d'Ravin in working Meryon's field]

70)[line 34]נהיNEHI- although it is true

71)[last line]אדם חשוב שאניADAM CHASHUV SHANI- a distinguished person is different (see Insights)