[7a - 39 lines; 7b - 32 lines]
1)[line 1]עד כמה?AD KAMAH?- [from] how far [must the earth deposited in the anthill be taken so that they will not recognize it, (a) even though there is river in between? (RASHI, second explanation of TOSFOS DH d'Ha); (b) when there is no river in between? (first explanation of TOSFOS DH d'Ha)]
2)[line 1]פרסהPARSAH- a Persian mile. This is equal to approximately 3.84 kilometers (2.4 miles) or 4.6 kilometers (2.88 miles), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
3a)[line 3]חופר גומאCHOFER GUMA- one digs a hole
b)[line 3]ותולה בה מצודהV'TOLEH BAH METZUDAH- and hangs a snare within it
4a)[line 4]נועץ שפודNO'ETZ SHEFUD- one drives a spit into the ground
b)[line 5]ומכה בקורדוםU'MAKEH B'KARDOM- and strikes it with a hatchet
c)[line 5]ומרדה האדמה מתחתיהU'MERADEH HA'ADAMAH MI'TACHTEHA- and shakes the earth beneath it [in order to (a) collapse the rodents' tunnels, killing them (RASHI, RAN); (b) dig a hole indirectly (with a Shinuy) within which to lay a snare (RAMBAM Hilchos Yom Tov 8:5, SHITAS RIBAV)]
5)[line 12]בהוצא ודפנאHUTZA V'DAFNA- [a screen woven from horizontally woven] palm fronds (Hutza) and [vertically placed] laurel branches (Dafna; O.F. lorier - laurel)
6a)[line 13]צר בצרורTZAR BI'TZROR- one may pile stones on top of one another
b)[line 13]ואינו טח בטיטV'EINO TACH B'TIT- but one may not cement them with mortar
7)[line 14]הגינהGINAH- a garden
8)[line 16]הגוחהGOCHEH- leaning [dangerously]
9)[line 16]סותרSOSER- he may dismantle it
10)[line 24]מימנעMIMNA- people will refrain
11)[line 25]מתניתין נמי דיקאMASNISIN NAMI DEIKA- it is also implicit in our Mishnah [that one may not build a wall in a garden on Chol ha'Mo'ed] (see Insights)
12)[line 27]צריכא למימרTZERICHAH L'MEIMAR?- is it necessary to say [that one may build a wall around a courtyard in which no plants grow on Shemitah]?
13)[line 28]נטירותאNETIRUSA- protection
14)[line 29]רואין את הנגעיםRO'IN ES HA'NEGA'IM (METZORA)
(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen. Our Mishnah discusses whether or not a Kohen may view a possible spot of Tzara'as on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.
(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.
(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.
(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).
(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.
(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.
(h)After all of the Korbanos of the Metzora are offered, a Kohen then pours some of the Log of oil into his left hand and sprinkles it with his right finger seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, dipping his finger into the oil each time. Some oil is placed on the Metzora, in the same places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The remainder of the Log is given to the Kohanim; it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim, and therefore must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusrei Kaparah 4:2-3).
15a)[line 30]להקלL'HAKEL- to be lenient [and proclaim the person Tahor]
b)[line 30]להחמירL'HACHMIR- to be stringent [and proclaim the person Tamei]
16)[line 35]נזקקNIZKAK- require
17)[line 36]נראין דברי רבי מאירNIR'IN DIVREI REBBI MEIR- Rebbi rules like Rebbi Yosi, who maintains that a Kohen may not remain silent when faced with a Nega Tzara'as that is Tamei. However, he nonetheless rules that a Kohen may view a Nega under certain circumstances, like the opinion of Rebbi Meir.
18)[line 36]במוסגר... במוחלטMUSGAR... MUCHLAT- see above, entry #14:a
19)[line 38]חזוCHAZU- view
20)[line 38]בהסגר ראשוןHESGER RISHON- the first week in which a Metzora Muchlat is of uncertain status; see above, entry #14:a
21)[line 3]...לטהרו או לטמאו כתיב ...L'TAHARO O L'TAM'O KSIV- it is written [regarding Tzara'as of clothing (see below, entry #34)], "... to make it Tahor or Tamei" (Vayikra 13:59) [which implies that the Kohen must do one or the other]
22a)[line 6]מר סבר צוותא דעלמא עדיף ליהMAR SAVAR TZAVSA D'ALMA ADIF LEI- [the] one [who allows a Kohen to see a Metzora Muchlat on Chol ha'Mo'ed] maintains that a person [is presumed to] prefer the companionship of others [to the intimate companionship of his wife, and he will therefore prefer to become Tahor even if this will mean that he would then be prohibited from relations with his wife for the seven-day purification process.] (See also Insights.)
b)[line 7]ומר סבר צוותא דאשתו עדיפא ליהMAR SAVAR TZAVSA D'ISHTO ADIF LEI- [the] one [who allows a Kohen to see a Metzora Musgar on Chol ha'Mo'ed] maintains that a person [is presumed to] prefer the [intimate] companionship of his wife [to that of others, and he will therefore not overly mind becoming Tamei as his wife can accompany him outside of the city. A Metzora Muchlat, however, will be unhappy if he becomes Tahor on Chol ha'Mo'ed, as he would then be prohibited from relations with his wife for the seven-day purification process.] (See also Insights.)
23)[line 8]בתשמיש המטהTASHMISH HA'MITAH- intimate relations with one's wife
24)[line 9]והתניאVEHA'TANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof of the Gemara's thesis.
25)[line 11]"לך אמור להם שובו לכם לאהליכם""LECH EMOR LAHEM, 'SHUVU LACHEM L'OHALEICHEM'"- "Go say to them, 'Return to your tents.'" (Devarim 5:27) - This verse relates what HaSh-m said to Moshe Rabeinu regarding Bnei Yisrael following the Aseres ha'Dibros. Prior to that, Moshe had instructed them to separate from their wives.
26)[line 12]"[ואחרי טהרתן] שבעת ימים יספרו לו""[V'ACHAREI TAHARASO,] SHIV'AS YAMIM YISPERU LO."- "[And following his purification,] they shall count seven days for him." (Yechezkel 44:26)
27)[line 13]ימי ספירוYEMEI SEFIRO- the [seven] days which [a Metzora] must count [as part of his purification process]; see above, entry #14:d-e
28)[line 15]דנתיDANTI- I deliberated
29a)[line 16]יותם לא היה לו לעוזיהוYOSAM LO HAYAH LO L'UZIYAHU- Yosam was not born to Uziyahu
b)[line 16]יותםYOSAM (YOSAM BEN UZIYAHU)
(a)Yosam ben Uziyahu, king of Yehudah, was a righteous individual and a man of extreme humility. His righteous father Uziyahu was punished with Tzara'as over the last twenty-seven years of his life, and was forced to live in seclusion outside of Yerushalayim (Melachim II 15:5). Yosam therefore took over the day-to-day running of the kingdom when he came of age. He did not usurp his father's authority, however; he attributed all of his verdicts and edicts to his father. The Navi Mal'achi's description of a "son who honored his father" (Mal'achi 1:6) is ascribed to him. Furthermore, RASHI (Divrei ha'Yamim II 27:2) writes that Yosam was the only king of Yehudah who was totally free of sin.
30)[line 18]גלי רחמנאGALI RACHMANA- HaSh-m revealed to us [through the Torah]
31)[line 22]והתניאVEHA'TANYA- This Beraisa is offered as proof of the Gemara's thesis.
32)[line 22]"וביום הראות בו [בשר חי יטמא]""UV'YOM HERA'OS BO [BASAR CHAI, YITMA]."- "And on the day that [healthy skin] is seen within it, [it shall be Tamei.]" (Vayikra 13:14) - Unaffected skin in the middle of a Nega Tzara'as is a sign of Tum'ah; see above, entry #14:a.
33)[line 24]שבעה ימי המשתהSHIV'AH YEMEI HA'MISHTEH- the seven days of celebration [following a wedding during which Sheva Berachos are recited]
34)[line 25]ולביתוBEISO (NIG'EI BATIM)
(a)If a streak or spot that is a stark green or red color is found upon the stones of a house, it may be Tzara'as (a spiritual malady). A Kohen is called to determine the status of the marks; if they are found to indeed have the status of Tzara'as, the house is placed into quarantine for a week. Since any utensil or clothing that is in the house when it is pronounced Tamei with Nega'im become Tamei as well, they are all removed before the Kohen checks the house.
(b)The Kohen returns after seven days to review the markings. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove the stones (Choletz) that have the Tzara'as, scrape off the surrounding plaster (Tach), insert new stones, and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then placed into quarantine for a second week. Should the Tzara'as return to the house during that week, then the owner is required to dismantle his house (Notetz). The stones from the house must be removed to a place outside of the city; they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever (Vayikra 14:45).
(c)If, on the other hand, the Tzara'as remained unchanged after the first week, then the Kohen leaves the house in quarantine for an additional week. If after the second week the Tzara'as has spread - or even if it has remained as is - then one must remove the stones (Choletz) that have the Tzara'as, scrape off the surrounding plaster (Tach), insert new stones, and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then placed into quarantine for an additional week (Vayikra 14:40). Should the Tzara'as return to the house during that week, then the procedure for dismantling the house described above must be followed.
(d)If the Kohen finds during one of his inspections that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it is no longer a Nega, then the spot alone is scraped away and the house is declared Tahor (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2).
(e)On the day that the house is declared by the Kohen to be free of Nega'im, its owner procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times toward the lintel on the house. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields. This completes the purification of the house (Vayikra 14:49-53).
35)[line 25]ולכסותוKESUSO (NIG'EI BEGADIM)
(a)If an article of clothing develops a spot stark green or red in color at least the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime), it may be Tzara'as (a spiritual malady). It must be shown to a Kohen to determine its status (Nega'im 11:4).
(b)If the mark is found to be Tzara'as, then the garment is placed into Hesger (quarantine) by the Kohen for one week. If the marks do not decrease in size, the garment is washed and then put into quarantine for another week (ibid. 11:5).
(c)If the marks have increased in size at the end of the week or when the Kohen next sees them, the garment has the status of "Muchlat" and must be burned.
(d)The garment becomes Muchlat and must be burned at the end of the second week even if the marks have remained the same size. If the Tzara'as remains but has faded somewhat, then only that part of the garment that bears the marks must be cut from the garment and burned, whereas the rest of the garment is Tahor. A patch is then sewn onto the part of the garment to replace that which was removed. If Tzara'as returns to either the garment or the patch after that point, then the entire garment must be burned (Vayikra 13:47-59).
(e)One may not derive any benefit from garments with the status of Muchlat.
36)[line 25]ברגלB'REGEL- on a festival
37)[line 27]"וצוה הכהן ופנו את הבית""V'TZIVAH HA'KOHEN U'FINU ES HA'BAYIS..."- "And the Kohen shall command, and they shall clear the house [before the Kohen arrives to see the mark....]" (Vayikra 14:36) - This verse teaches that the Kohen should instruct those who own a house that may be afflicted with Tzara'as to remove all of their belongings from it before he looks at it, lest they become Tamei. Just as a Metzora causes objects in the house that he is in to become Tamei (see Background to Sukah 5:39), a house afflicted with Tzara'as is Metamei all objects within it.
38a)[line 28]לדבר הרשותDVAR HA'RESHUS- that which is not a Mitzvah; i.e., the removal of objects in the house
b)[line 29]לדבר מצוהDVAR MITZVAH- that which is a Mitzvah; i.e., a groom or anyone on a festival, who have a Mitzvah to be happy
39)[line 30]משמעות דורשין איכא בינייהוMASHMA'OS DORSHIN IKA BEINAIHU- how the teaching is derived is the difference between them [resulting in no practical difference]
40a)[line 31]דבר הרשות איכא בינייהוDVAR HA'RESHUS IKA BEINAIHU- [whether or not one may wait to show a Nega on his body to a Kohen for] reasons unrelated to Mitzvah observance is the difference between them [as Rebbi Yehudah does not allow this]
b)[last line]מהתםME'HASAM- from there (the case of Nig'ei Batim)