[6a - 43 lines; 6b - 48 lines]

1)[line 2]במסובכיןMESUBACHIN- scattered [throughout the field]

2)[line 6]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a sharp, young Torah scholar (RASHI to Ta'anis 4a)

3)[line 6]במתאMASA- a town

4)[line 7]עליה רמיאALEI RAMYA- are his responsibility

5)[line 9]סידSID- plaster

6)[line 10]ואף על גב דליכא חורש?V'AF AL GAV D'LEIKA CHORESH?- and [may the area between two marked stones be considered Tahor] even though there is no [sign of it having been] plowed?

7)[line 14]ומרודה לכאן ולכאןMERUDAH L'KAN UL'KAN- [the plaster] has overflowed both sides [of the stones so that some of it is indeed between them]

8)[line 16](דאיקפל) [דאיקלף](IKPAL) [IKLAF]- broken off

9)[line 18]מצרMETZAR- border

10)[line 22]אין מרחיקיןEIN MARCHIKIN...- one should not distance the marker... [and therefore all four borders of the field were marked so as to give advance warning to those approaching from all directions]

11)[line 25]נפקינן?NAFKINAN?- do [the messengers of Beis Din] go out?

12)[line 26]משמיעיןMASHMI'IN- [Beis Din send out messengers to] announce

13)[line 26]השקליםSHEKALIM

(a)Many sacrifices are offered on behalf of the public in the Beis ha'Mikdash, such as the daily Temidim and the Korbenos Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and the festivals. The funds used to purchase the animals for these Korbanos are taken from a treasury known as the Terumas ha'Lishkah (see below, entry #23). Every Jewish male, regardless of whether he lives in Eretz Yisrael or the Golah or how wealthy he is, must contribute one half-Shekel annually to this fund.

(b)The half-Shekalim are collected prior to Rosh Chodesh Nisan, so that the Korbanos of the following year (which begins with the month of Nisan with regard to Korbanos) would be purchased from the money collected for that year. One month earlier, on the first of Adar, Beis Din would begin the drive to collect the Shekalim (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Despite this early effort, some commentaries maintain that some Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan. Others understand that all of the Shekalim would arrive by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, as the collection from areas distant from Yerushalayim began earlier in the year. This appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi as well (Daf 2a; see Mishnas Eliyahu 2b).

(c)The RAMBAM maintains that this yearly donation was not fixed at exactly half a Shekel; it was set as half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (basic monetary unit in use at the time). If, however, the value of the Matbe'a ha'Yotzei was less than the value of one half-Shekel, then a larger coin was required. The RA'AVAD and RAMBAN, however, are of the opinion that the value of the half-Shekel remains constant.

14)[line 27]בכרכיםKERACHIM- cities walled [from the times of Yehoshua bin Nun]

15)[line 28]לקווץKAVETZ- remove thorns

16)[line 29]ולמודLA'MUD- to measure

17)[line 30]ויוצאין על הכלאיםYOTZ'IN AL HA'KIL'AYIM

(a)The term Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture." Any two items which are permitted in and of themselves but may not be combined are called Kil'ayim (see Background to Kidushin 39:23a). Our Mishnah is referring to Kil'ei Zera'im.

(b)One may not sow two different crops in close proximity to one another (Vayikra 19:19). This is called Kil'ei Zera'im. The Mishnayos in Maseches Kil'ayim specify how much distance must be left between different species of crops.

(c)This prohibition applies only in Eretz Yisrael, and does not apply to vegetables (Kidushin 39a). Although one who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkus, the crops themselves do not become forbidden.

(d)One who has mistakenly sown his field with Kil'ei Zera'im must uproot one of the two crops. He need not uproot it entirely, however. The Mishnah in Maseches Kil'ayim (2:1) teaches that if the second species amounts to less than a quarter of a Kav per Se'ah (1/24) of the first species, then it is Batel to the first and the field is not considered Kil'ayim (see TOSFOS YOM TOV ibid. for an explanation as to why this should be so).

(e)This Mishnah (Shekalim 2a) teaches that Beis Din sends messengers on the fifteenth of Adar to uproot any Kil'ei Zera'im they find growing.

18a)[line 32]כאן בבכירKAN B'BACHIR- that [which Beis Din send messengers on the fifteenth of Adar is to uproot] early crop

b)[line 32]כאן באפילKAN B'AFIL- that [which Beis Din send messengers on Chol ha'Mo'ed (of Pesach) is to uproot] late crop

19a)[line 32]בזרעיםZERA'IM- grains (which grow earlier)

b)[line 33]בירקותYERAKOS- vegetables (which grow later)

20)[line 33]לא שנוLO SHANU- that which we learned [that the messengers of Beis Din do not search for Kil'ayim before the fifteenth of Adar] does not apply

21)[line 34]ניצןNITZAN- their blossoms

22)[line 37]דמוזלי גבןMOZLEI GABAN- they work at a reduced rate [since any other type of work is prohibited on Chol ha'Mo'ed and their options are limited]

23)[line 39]מתרומת הלשכהTERUMAS HA'LISHKAH

(a)Every year, each Jew must contribute one half-Shekel toward the purchase of the Korbenos Tzibur offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din then places the collected Shekalim into a Lishkah - a room in the Beis ha'Mikdash - reserved for that purpose.

(b)Fifteen days prior to each of the three festivals, a representative of Beis Din enters the Lishkah and fills three boxes with Shekalim. Each box holds three Se'in (approximately 25 or 43.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions). The coins removed in the boxes are called the "Terumas ha'Lishkah," while those Shekalim remaining are called the "Sheyarei ha'Lishkah" (Shekalim 7b, 8a). (The Rambam has a different understanding of this process, see Hilchos Shekalim 2:4. See also Insights to Shekalim 9:2 for more on the process of the Terumas ha'Lishkah.)

(c)Why is the Terumas ha'Lishkah performed three times a year, rather than only once? One opinion is that this is in order to publicize the Terumas ha'Lishkah. Others maintain that the reason for the division of this process into three is so that even those whose Shekalim arrive later in the year should have a share in the Korbenos Tzibur (Yerushalmi 2b; see Background to Shekalim 2:b and Insights ibid.).

(d)The Shekalim of the Terumas ha'Lishkah go toward purchasing public offerings, whereas the Shekalim of the Sheyarei ha'Lishkah are designated for the upkeep of the Beis ha'Mikdash and the city of Yerushalayim (Shekalim 4a-b).

24)[line 40]מדידהוMI'DIDHU- [that the messengers' wages come] from the [coffers of those who planted the Kil'ayim]

25)[line 41]כל כמה דבעוKOL KAMAH D'BA'U- as much as they wish

26)[line 42]ועד כמה?AD KAMAH?- how much [Kil'ayim must there in order for the messengers of Beis Din to uproot the plants]?

27)[last line]ס אה... רובעSE'AH... ROVA (MEASUREMENTS OF VOLUME)

(a)Measurements of volume:

1.1 Kur = 30 Se'ah

2.1 Se'ah = 6 Kav

3.1 Kav = 4 Log

4 .1 Log = 4 Revi'iyos

5.1 Beitzah = 2 k'Zeisim

(b)A Rova refers here to a quarter-Kav, which is one twenty-fourth of a Se'ah.


28)[line 1]ימעטYIMA'ET- must be lessened; i.e., just the lesser amount of plants must be uprooted

29)[line 4]ומשליכיןMASHLICHIN- they would throw

30)[line 6]שמנכשיןMENAKSHIN- they would weed

31)[line 8]עוקריןOKRIN- uproot

32)[line 11]מושכיןMOSHCHIN- one may draw

33)[line 13]שלא שתוSHE'LO SHASU- that were not irrigated

34)[line 16]מטוננתMETUNENES- a moist field that has dried up [(a) completely (RASHI); (b) but still retains some of its moisture (RABEINU CHANANEL)]

35)[line 21]שדה גרידSEDEI GERID- (a) a field that does not require irrigation (Sadeh Beis ha'Ba'al) (TOSFOS, NIMUKEI YOSEF); (b) a Sadeh Beis ha'Ba'al that has dried out (TOSFOS HA'ROSH, RASHI KSAV YAD) (See Insights)

36)[line 22]תרביצאTARBITZA- (a) a vegetable garden (RASHI); (b) an irrigated field that has not yet been sown (RABEINU CHANANEL cited by TOSFOS DH Sharei)

37)[line 23]לתרבוציTARBUTZEI- (a) irrigate minimally [so that seeds sprout] (RASHI); (b) irrigate properly (TOSFOS DH Tarbitzin); (c) sprinkle with water [so as to remove the dust preventing the seeds from growing] (REBBI YITZCHAK cited by RASHI KSAV YAD)

38)[line 24]דאפלא משוי לה חרפאAFLA MESHAVI LAH CHORFA- it causes later-developing crops to develop early

39)[line 25]שדה לבןSEDEH LAVAN- a field of grain or vegetables (which appears "white" due to that which it is not shaded from the sun)

40)[line 33]צדיןTZADIN- one may trap

41a)[line 33]האישותEISHUS- (a) a mole; (b) a weasel (YERUSHALMI, unlike our Gemara; cited by TOSFOS DH Tzadin and RABEINU CHANANEL)

b)[line 33]העכבריםACHBARIM- mice

42)[line 34]משדה האילןSEDEH HA'ILAN- an orchard

43)[line 34]כדרכוK'DARKO- in the usual manner (the Gemara [7a] details what this is)

44)[line 36]ומקרין את הפירצהMEKARIN ES HA'PIRTZAH- one may repair a breach [in the fence surrounding his field]

45)[line 37]בונה כדרכוBONEH K'DARKO- he may build the fence to begin with

46)[line 38]בריהBERYAH- a creature

47)[line 40]"כמו שבלול תמס יהלך נפל אשת בל חזו שמש""KEMO SHABLUL TEMES YAHALOCH; NEFEL ESHES BAL CHAZU SHAMESH"- "Like a snail (alt. slug) which melts away; [like] the miscarriages of a woman that do not see the sun" (Tehilim 58:9) - This verse compares the wicked to that which fades quickly. Our Gemara derives that an "Eishus" is blind by comparing it to the word "Eshes" in this verse.

48)[line 43]ומחריבין חורי נמליםMACHARIVIN CHOREI NEMALIN- one may destroy anthills

49)[line 44]מחורCHOR- a hole

50)[line 45]חונקיןCHONKIM- they strangle

51)[line 47]דקאי בתרי עברי נהראKA'I B'TREI IVREI NAHARA- [the earth and the anthill] are from the two opposite sides of a river [as the ants then do not recognize its smell]

52a)[last line]גשראGISHRA- a bridge

b)[last line]גמלאGAMLA- a bridge consisting of a single plank

c)[last line]מצראMEITZRA- a bridge consisting of a narrow plank with a rope strung above it to hold on to for balance