SUKAH 5 (3 Av 5781) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter Diane Koenigsberg and her husband Dr. Andy Koenigsberg. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael be passed on to all of his descendants.

[5a - 34 lines; 5b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1] ME'OLAM LO YARDAH SHECHINAH L'MATAH- the presence of HaSh-m never descended to the earth below. This proves that ten Tefachim above the earth is the beginning of a new domain, since we know that HaSh-m descended to speak with Moshe until above the Kapores, which was ten Tefachim above the ground.

2)[line 9]"... ""... VA'YA'AL ELIYAHU BA'SE'ARAH HA'SHAMAYIM" - "[And it was, as they were walking along and talking, that a fiery chariot and fiery horses appeared and separated the two.] And Eliyahu ascended (alive) in a stormy wind to Heaven" (Melachim II 2:11) (ELIYAHU ASCENDS TO HEAVEN)

(a)The tenure of Eliyahu ha'Navi in this world was drawing to a close. In the final miracle he performed, he split the Jordan River and crossed it on dry land, together with his disciple, Elisha.

(b)While crossing, Eliyahu asked what favor he could perform for Elisha before he leaves this world. Elisha requested a spirit of prophecy twice that of his Rebbi. Eliyahu replied that this request was a difficult one for him to fulfill (for how can one grant another that which he himself does not possess?). He notified Elisha that if he would be able to observe the proceedings when Eliyahu would be taken to Shamayim, then he would know that his request had been granted. Eliyahu then cried, "Father, father - chariot of Yisrael and its riders!" (ibid verse 12).

3)[line 10] L'MATAH ME'ASARAH- [Eliyahu ascended until] ten Tefachim below [Shamayim] (EIN YAKOV; CHASAM SOFER 6:98; see also HAGAHOS MAHARSHAM)

4)[line 11]" () [], ""ME'ACHEZ PNEI KISEI, PARSHEZ ALAV ANANO" - "He closes in the face of his throne, and spreads his cloud upon it" (Iyov 26:9) - [The heavenly cloud protected Moshe when he "grasped" the heavenly throne] (MOSHE RESPONDS TO THE MAL'ACHIM)

(a)The Gemara (Shabbos 88b) relates that when Moshe Rabeinu ascended Har Sinai to receive the Torah, the Mal'achim objected. They claimed that the rightful place of the Torah is in Heaven, not on earth. HaSh-m ordered Moshe to respond to their argument. Moshe explained that he was afraid to approach them to do so, as he feared that the angels would burn him with their fiery breath.

(b)The Gemara explains that HaSh-m responded with the offer to hold on to his Heavenly throne. "He seized the front of His throne; He spread upon it His cloud" (Iyov 26:9). After being afforded such protection, Moshe Rabeinu felt sufficiently secure to present his counter-argument to the Mal'achim.

5)[line 12] PIRES SHAKAI MI'ZIV SHECHINASO- the Almighty spread from the splendor of his Presence. The letters of the word "Parshez" stand for the main letters of this phrase.

6)[line 13] ISHTARBUVEI ISHTARBEV LEI KISEI AD ASARAH- the throne descended to him until [it was] ten [Tefachim below Shamayim]

7)[line 16] ATZEI SHITIM- cedar wood

8)[line 22]" , [ , ]""V'ASISA LO MISGERES TOFACH SAVIV, [V'ASISA ZER ZAHAV L'MISGARTO SAVIV]"- "And you shall make a Tefach-high border surrounding it, [and you shall make a golden crown to rest upon the border surrounding it]" (Shemos 25:25). This verse refers to the Shulchan, the table upon which two stacks of Lechem ha'Panim stood (see Background to 38:16).


(a)This principle states that "If you have grabbed hold of the larger then you have nothing; if you have grabbed hold of the smaller than you have a hold upon it." This parable instructs one to always assume the least of the available options when faced with a choice of how to interpret an open-ended instruction from the Torah.

(b)The logic behind this principle is that one cannot go wrong if he chooses the least of his options. This is because even if the correct choice was the larger option, what he has chosen is included in that larger amount. If, however, one chooses a larger option then what was intended, then he is left with a partly incorrect conclusion (RASHI here; TOSFOS to Chagigah 17a).

10)[line 24]TZITZ- a thin golden band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38)

11)[line 25]TAS- a band

12)[line 26]ETZBA'OS- see Background to 2:1

13)[line 28]TACHSHIT- ornament

14)[line 29]ZER- the golden crown that sat upon the Misgeres of the Shulchan; see above, entry #8

15)[line 29] HECHSHER KLI- the decorative part of a vessel


(a)The Shulchan, a table which stood in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash and upon which two stacks of Lechem ha'Panim stood (see Background to 38:16), was adorned with two decorative additions. It was surrounded by a Tefach-high Misgeres (border), and atop this border sat a golden Zer (crown) (Shemos 25:25).

(b)Amora'im disagree as to the placement of these features. Rebbi Yosi maintains that the Misgeres rose up vertically from the Shulchan, and the Zer sat directly on top of it. Those who disagree contend that the Misgeres ran from the top of each leg to the next leg, and helped support the top of the Shulchan. According to this view, the Zer lay directly upon the edge of the tabletop, above the Misgeres (Menachos 96b).

17)[last line]"[ , ] ...""[V'LAKACH MI'DAM HA'PAR, V'HIZAH B'ETZBA'O] AL PNEI HA'KAPORES KEDMA..."- "[And he shall take from the blood of the bull, and sprinkle with his finger] on the eastern face of the Kapores..." (Vayikra 16:14). This verse refers to the Par Shel Yom ha'Kipurim (see Background to Yoma 61:36).

18)[last line]PANIM- a [human] face


19)[line 1] BAR YUCHNI- a bird of enormous proportions; a roc

20a)[line 2]TZIPARTA- a (common) bird

b)[line 2] ZUTAR TUVA- that is much smaller [than an Amah]

21)[line 8]KRUV (KERUVIM)

(a)In both the Mishkan in the desert and the Beis ha'Mikdash in Yerushalayim, Keruvim joined the Aron ha'Kodesh (Holy Ark) and Kapores (cover of the Ark) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. The Keruvim, child-faced winged figures fashioned from solid gold, were attached to the Kapores and stood ten-Tefachim tall with their wings extended over their heads toward each other (Shemos 25:18-21). They symbolized the relationship between HaSh-m and His nation. When Klal Yisrael fulfilled the will of their Father in Heaven, the Keruvim faced each other. When, G-d forbid, they did not, then the Keruvim turned away from one another (Yoma 54a-b).

(b)Aside from the Keruvim of the Kapores, an additional pair of Keruvim adorned the Kodesh ha'Kodashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash. These were ten Amos tall, and they stood upon the ground to either side of the Aron. They were fashioned out of olive wood and plated with gold. They heads were positioned at an angle facing slightly eastward of each other, towards the entrance of the Heichal (Bava Basra 99a), and their wings were spread to either side. Their combined wing-span reached diagonally across the entire Kodesh ha'Kodashim and their wings met over the center of the Kapores (Melachim I 6:23-29).

22)[line 10]GEMIREI- we learn from a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai

23)[line 12]K'RAVYA- like a child

24)[line 13]"... , ...""... PNEI HA'ECHAD PNEI HA'KRUV, U'FNEI HA'SHENI PNEI ADAM..." - "[And each one had four faces;] one face was that of a Kruv, the second face that of a man[, the third face that of a lion, and the fourth face that of an eagle]" (Yechezkel 10:14) (THE CHAYOS HA'KODESH)

(a)At the time of the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, the Shechinah (the presence of HaSh-m) departed from its dwelling place above the Keruvim in the Kodesh Kodshim. At that time, Yechezkel ha'Navi was shown the Ma'aseh ha'Merkavah - the vision of HaSh-m's chariot - for a second time.

(b)Yechezkel saw the throne of HaSh-m supported by four Chayos (angels referred to in this Perek as "Keruvim"). Each Chayah had the body of a man, and four wings. "And each one had four faces; one face was that of a Kruv, the second face that of a man, the third face that of a lion, and the fourth face that of an eagle" (Yechezkel 10:14). The first time that Yechezkel had seen this vision, the first face of each Chayah was that of an ox. At Yechezkel's behest, HaSh-m changed it to that of a Kruv.

(c)Beside each Chayah was an Ofan - an angel shaped like a wheel. The Ofanim were full of eyes, and they moved together with the Chayos, rolling in whichever direction the Chayos turned without turning around. Additionally, when the Chayos flapped their wings and rose into the air, the Ofanim rose with them.

25)[line 15] APEI RAVREVEI V'API ZUTREI- [the] face [of a man is] larger, and [the] face [of a Kruv is] smaller (as it is the face of a child)

26)[line 15]CHALALAH- [the height of] its airspace

27)[line 16]BAR- aside from

28)[line 17] BEIS OLAMIM- the Beis ha'Mikdash

29)[line 23] ?MISHKAN KAMAH HEVEI?- how [tall] was the Mishkan?

30)[line 24]KERESH- a beam which was stood upright as part of the outer wall of the Mishkan

31)[line 25] SHISIN PUSHCHEI- sixty Tefachim

32)[line 26]PASHU- there remains

33)[line 30] GADFINHU ILAVEI RASHAIHU KAIMEI- that their wings rose above their heads

34)[line 32] MIDLI TUVA- they rose high [above their heads]

35)[line 34]BEINONIYOS- average (i.e., consisting of six Tefachim)

36)[line 37] CHAD SREI- eleven

37a)[line 40]SHIURIN- amounts [through which one transgresses various sins, such as a k'Zayis for most forbidden foods, or a k'Koseves ha'Gasah for food eaten on Yom ha'Kipurim]

b)[line 40]CHATZITZIN- [that which] an intervening substance [upon one's body invalidates his immersion in a Mikvah]

c)[line 40]MECHITZIN- [all laws pertaining to] partitions [necessary for various Halachos such as defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos or creating a Kosher Sukah (see, for example, Background to 4:15 and 17)]

38)[line 42]" , , , ; ""ERETZ CHITAH U'SE'ORAH, V'GEFEN, U'SE'ENAH, V'RIMON; ERETZ ZEIS SHEMEN U'DEVASH"- "A land of wheat and barley, and grapes, figs, and pomegranates; a land of oil-producing olives and honey" (Devarim 8:8). This verse details the seven species indigenous to Eretz Yisrael; "honey" refers to date honey.


(a)For a description of how a house becomes afflicted with Tzara'as and the pertinent Halachos, see Background to 3:9.

(b)Just as a Metzora (see Background to Yoma 61:13) causes objects in the house that he is in to become Tamei, a house afflicted with Tzara'as is Metamei all objects that are in it. If stones from such a house are brought into another house, they are Metamei objects in that house as well.

(c)There are two different rates at which objects may become Tamei in a Beis ha'Menuga. This is derived from the following two Pesukim:

1."And he who enters the house as long as it is in quarantine shall be Tamei until evening" (Vayikra 14:46).

2."And he who lies down in the house must wash his clothing, and he who eats in the house must wash his clothing" (ibid. 14:47).

(d)From these two verses Chazal understand that one who enters a Beis ha'Menuga becomes Tamei immediately. His clothing, however, do not. They become Tamei only after he lingers in the house long enough to eat a Pras (half a loaf) of wheat bread dipped in relish eaten while reclining.

(e)The RASH (Kelim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah spread by a Mes in an Ohel (see Background to 4:5) and the Tum'ah received by that which enters a house with Tzara'as (or stones from a Beis ha'Menuga or a Metzora inside of it):

1.A person becomes Tamei when even a bit of his body enters an Ohel ha'Mes. When entering a Beis ha'Menuga, he becomes Tamei only after most of his body enters the house.

2.A person becomes Tamei when a bit of his body enters an Ohel ha'Mes even when entering backwards. When entering a Beis ha'Menuga, he becomes Tamei when entering backwards only after his entire body enters the house.

3.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) prevents the spread of Tum'ah only if it reaches the ceiling. In a Beis ha'Menuga, a Mechitzah ten Tefachim high or a ditch ten Tefachim deep prevents the spread of Tum'ah.

4.A k'Zayis of a Mes will cause anything in the Ohel to become Tamei while simply passing through. If a Metzora or stones from a Beis ha'Menuga pass through a house, they will not cause Tum'ah to the objects therein until they stop still. (TOSFOS to Yevamos 103b DH Keivan maintains that a Metzora or stones from a Beis ha'Menuga do cause Tum'ah even when passing through a house. Even Tosfos agrees, however, that if a Metzora or stones from a Beis ha'Menuga pass underneath an unenclosed tree or canopy, they will not cause Tum'ah to other objects in these areas unless they cease to move.)

40)[line 45] KELAV AL KESEIFAV- his clothing carried over his shoulder (as opposed to being worn upon his body)