PESACHIM 59 - dedicated by Rav Gedalya Weinberger of Brooklyn, N.Y., in memory of his father, Reb Chaim Tzvi ben Reb Shlomo Weinberger, in honor of his Yahrzeit (18 Adar). Reb Chaim Tzvi, who miraculously survived the holocaust, raised his children with a strong dedication to Torah and its study.

[59a - 57 lines; 59b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]יאוחרYE'UCHAR- postpone

2)[line 7]"מערב ועד בקר...""... ME'EREV AD BOKER"- "[... Aharon and his sons shall arrange for the lamps to burn] from evening to morning [before HaSh-m...]" (Shemos 27:21).

3)[line 13]ותניא כי קושייןV'TANYA KI KUSHYAN- there is a Beraisa that agrees with the Gemara's question (that the incense and lamps should precede the Pesach sacrifice)

4)[line 24]בעידןB'IDAN- at the time

5)[line 32]ומחוסר כפוריםMECHUSAR KIPURIM

(a)There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, or Metzora:

1.Tevilah (immersing in a Mikvah or Ma'ayan);

2.He'erev Shemesh (nightfall following the Tevilah);

3.bringing a Korban.

(b)The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only completed the immersion stage is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.

(c)A Mechusar Kaparah who forgot to offer his Korban on Erev Pesach is allowed to offer it after the Korban ha'Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim, so that he will be able to eat the Korban Pesach that night.

6a)[line 41]בחטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of a Chatas ha'Of consists of three procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles the blood of the bird on the Mizbe'ach (directly from its neck) below the Chut ha'Sikra (a red line which ran from halfway up one end of the Mizbe'ach to the other, dividing it in half).

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)After this process is complete, the Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim.

b)[line 41]בחטאת בהמהCHATAS BEHEMAH

(a)The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures:

1.SHECHITAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah north of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen slaughters the animal, making sure to cut through both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus).

2.KABALAS HA'DAM - A Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil. The Eimurim (fats and other parts of the Korban which are burned on the Mizbe'ach) are removed from the animal.

3.HOLACHAH - The Kohen walks with the blood up to the top of the Mizbe'ach.

4.NESINAS HA'DAM - The Kohen smears the blood with his finger on each of the four Keranos (corner-pieces) of the Mizbe'ach.

5.HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - The Eimurim are cast into the fire that is upon the Mizbe'ach.

(b)The rest of the Chatas Behemah is eaten by the Kohanim.

7)[line 43]ומלינה בראשו של מזבחU'MELINAH B'ROSHO SHEL MIZBE'ACH- [the Kohen performed all of the procedures in offering the Chatas Behemah except for the burning of the Eimurim, and then] left them at the top of the Mizbe'ach (where remaining overnight does not invalidate them Nosar)


8)[line 1]"והעלה הכהן...""V'HE'ELAH HA'KOHEN..."- "And the Kohen shall offer the Olah and the Minchah upon the Mizbe'ach. And the Kohen shall make atonement for him, and he shall be Tahor" (Vayikra 14:20) - Rashi states that since the verse is describing a future event, the word Ya'aleh is preferable to He'elah. The unusual wording suggests that even if the Olah was offered before the Chatas, the Metzora would achieve Kaparah.

9)[line 6]כהנים זריזין הןKOHANIM ZERIZIN HEN- the Kohanim are very meticulous in their performance of the Avodah and can be relied upon to perform it with utmost care.

10)[line 8]כמה דלא מתקטרי אמוריןKAMAH D'LO MISKATRI EMURIN- as long as the Emurin have not been [placed on the Mizbe'ach to be] burned

11)[line 10]בחזה ושוקCHAZEH VA'SHOK

The chest and the hind leg of a Shelamim (peace offering) are waved in a prescribed manner and then given as a gift to the Kohanim, as described in Vayikra (7:28-36).

12)[line 14]"ואכלו אותם אשר כפר בהם...""V'ACHLU OSAM ASHER KUPAR BAHEM..."- "And they shall eat those things with which the atonement was made..." (Shemos 29:33).

13)[line 25]כשנתותרוKESHE'NITOSRU- when they were left over (not offered)

14)[line 32]דחלבי שבתCHELVEI SHABBOS- the fats of [a Korban Pesach offered on] Shabbos

15)[line 36]שבקיה לקרא דאיהו דחיק ומוקים אנפשיהSHAVKEI LI'KERA D'IHU DACHIK U'MUKIM A'NAFSHEI- leave aside (i.e. ignore) the literal meaning of the verse as it is written in a forced matter; it must be interpreted based on its Halachic context

16)[line 37]ששחטוSHE'SHACHTO (ARBA AVODOS)

Offering a Korban consists of four main actions. These four Avodos are:

1.Shechitah (slaughtering),

2.Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban which will then be sprinkled upon the Mizbe'ach),

3.Holachah (carrying the blood to the Mizbe'ach),

4.Zerikah (dashing the blood against the side of the Mizbe'ach).


(a)If one of the four Avodos (see previous entry) of a Korban Pesach or Chatas is performed she'Lo Lishmo, it is Pasul. If this occurred in any other sacrifice, it would still be Kosher and able to be offered on the Mizbe'ach. However, if a person made a vow to bring a particular Korban and it was brought she'Lo Lishmo, he must bring another sacrifice in its stead to fulfill the vow.

(b)The above applies only if the Pesach was slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo during the afternoon of Erev Pesach, which is the time during which a Korban Pesach may be slaughtered. A Korban Pesach which was not slaughtered during that time but rather after or before that time ("Mosar ha'Pesach" or "Hifrisho l'Pesach") has most of the laws of a Korban Shelamim, and consequently if it is slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. as a Shelamim) it is Kosher.

(c)The law mentioned in the previous paragraph - that a Korban Pesach before Pesach is like a Shelamim - has one catch. In order for a Korban Pesach to gain the status of a Shelamim before Pesach, it must have an "Akiras Shem" (that is, it must be designated something other than a Pesach by its owner). There is an argument among the Amora'im as to whether a Korban Pesach requires an Akirah in order to be considered like a Shelamim after Pesach as well (even though it is no longer able to be offered as a Pesach - Menachos 49a, Pesachim 73a, according to TOSFOS 60b DH b'She'ar). If the animal is slaughtered at a time other than Erev Pesach without Akirah, it is still considered a full-fledged Pesach and is Pasul since it was not slaughtered during its proper time (see Pesachim 60b). The act of slaughtering an animal she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. slaughtering it for the sake of offering a Shelamim or Olah), however, qualifies as an Akirah and makes the animal into a Shelamim.

18)[line 44]אף בגמר דבריו אדם נתפס / תפוס לשון ראשוןAF BI'GEMAR DEVARAV ADAM NITPAS / TEFOS LASHON RISHON

(a)Tefos Lashon Rishon means, "Grab the first [part of the] statement." That is, if a person utters a two-fold statement designating an object as Hekdesh with contradictory Halachic ramifications, we view the second [part of the] statement as an addition to the first. Therefore, the first [part of the] statement is valid, while the second is ignored.

(b)The dissenting opinion maintains that "bi'Gemar Devarav Adam Nitpas" - "A person is bound (lit. caught) by his last words." There is a Machlokes Rishonim regarding this opinion. The RAN (Nedarim 26a) writes that this opinion maintains that the second [part of the] statement categorically revokes the first [part of the] statement. Therefore, the second [part of the] statement is valid while the first one is ignored. The ROSH and RASHI (Pesachim 53b DH Rebbi Shimon) understand this opinion to maintain that "Af bi'Gemar Devarav Adam Nitpas" - the person originally intended that both [parts of his] statement[s] should apply, since he did not realize that they were Halachically contradictory. According to this opinion, both [parts of the] statement[s] are valid, and a compromise should be found between the two when possible.