MENACHOS 55 (5 CHESHVAN) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Reb Naftali (Tuli) ben Reb Menachem Mendel Bodner Z"L, Niftar on 5 Cheshvan 5765. Tuli was an Ish Chesed and Ish Ma'aseh radiating joy, and his Ahavas Yisrael knew no bounds. Dedicated by his son, Mordechai Bodner of Givat Mordechai, of Yerushalayim.

[55a - 29 lines; 55b - 46 lines]

1)[line 2]U'MINAH- (lit. and from it) and from the Beraisa itself (on Daf 54b), we may ask a question [regarding the proposal that the Beraisa is referring to Terumas Ma'aser]

2)[line 5]SHE'HEN- (This word should be SHE'HAYU)

3)[line 6] BATZIR LEHU- they (the dried figs separated as Ma'aser) are less [than one tenth of the entire produce]

4)[line 8]L'SHOLKAN- to cook them thoroughly

5)[line 21]HA'MISKAYEIM- that does not spoil

6a)[line 24] 'DACHKINAN U'MUKMINAN MASNISIN- we force [an explanation] and put the case of the Mishnah

b)[line 24] BI'TREI TA'AMEI- [as referring] to two distinct cases

7)[line 25] NILOSHOS B'FOSHRIN- are kneaded in lukewarm water (see TOSFOS to Menachos 57a DH Minchas, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 12:21, CHAZON ISH to Menachos 34:1)

8)[line 25] U'MESHAMRAN SHE'LO YACHMITZU - and they guard them so that they do not become Chametz (MECHAMETZ ES HA'MINCHAH)

(a)There is a prohibition to cause the dough of Menachos (either the Kometz or the Shirayim, the part that the Kohanim eat) to become leavened as it states, "Kol ha'Minchah... Lo Se'aseh Chametz" (Vayikra 2:11). An additional verse, "Lo Se'afeh Chametz," (Vayikra 6:10), specifically prohibits baking leavened Menachos.

(b)This extra verse is used to teach that once the dough of a Minchah offering is leavened, each and every subsequent process involved in preparing a baked Minchah offering is also prohibited ("Mechametz Achar Mechametz"). For example, if one person leavens the dough and another bakes it, they both transgress a Lav (Shabbos 111a, Menachos 55b).

9a)[line 27]LISHASAH- its kneading

b)[line 27]ARICHASAH- shaping it into loaves

c)[line 27]AFIYASAH- its baking

10)[line 28]" ...""LO SE'AFEH CHAMETZ, CHELKAM [NASATI OSAH ME'ISHAI...]"- "It shall not be baked with leaven. [I have given it to them for] their portion [of My fire-offerings...]" (Vayikra 6:10) - Chazal apply the word "Chelkam" to the first half of the verse also, rendering it as, "Even the portion of it [that the Kohanim may eat, the Sheyarei ha'Minchah,] shall not be baked with leaven."

55b----------------------------------------55b

11)[line 1]"... ..."" LO SE'ASEH CHAMETZ"- " it shall not be made leavened" (Vayikra 2:11)

12)[line 3] ACHAS AL KULAM- one [set of Malkus] for all of them (Lishah, Arichah and Afiyah)

13)[line 4] BI'CHLAL HAYESAH- it was included in a general rule (see below, entry #16)

14)[line 6] MA'ASEH YECHIDI- an important action

15)[line 8]KITUF- smoothing down the surface of the loaves with water

16)[line 12] D'FARAT BAH RACHMANA- that HaSh-m (lit. the Merciful One) singled out [in the Torah]

17)[line 14] DAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZA MIN HA'KLAL L'LAMED

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Kol Davar she'Hayah bi'Chelal v'Yatza Min ha'Kelal l'Lamed, Lo l'Lamed Al Atzmo Yatza, Ela l'Lamed Al ha'Kelal Kulo Yatza." Accordingly, if an action or object was included in a general category of Halachah and was then singled out by the verse in order to tell us that certain Halachos apply to it, the Halachos that apply to that object are applicable to everything in the general category. There are three applications of this rule:

1.When a new Halachah is explicitly written in the Parshah discussing the object that was singled out.

2.When there is no new Halachah written there, then we look for some new law that the Torah may be teaching us by the fact that it singled it out (for example, l'Chalek - to differentiate all of the actions so that each one will be Mechayav a separate Korban or a separate set of Malkus).

3.If we cannot say that the object was singled out to teach us l'Chalek, we say that it comes to limit the general category only to those members that are similar to and share the characteristics of the object that was singled out (this is similar to the rule of "Kelal u'Ferat u'Chelal" - see Background to Shevuos 4:13).

(b)This rule should not be confused with "Davar she'Hayah bi'Chelal v'Yatzah li'Don b'Davar he'Chadash" (see Background to Yevamos 7:6), which refers to a case where the new law that is mentioned with regard to the object that was singled out is in contradiction to the general rule of the Kelal.

18)[line 17] KLAL U'FRAT EIN BA'CHLAL ELA MAH SHEB'PRAT

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Kelalei and Peratei (see Background to Menachos 28:31), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Kelal u'Ferat, Ein ba'Kelal Ela Mah sheba'Perat."

(b)When a Kelal (general term) is followed by a Perat (specification), without teaching any new Halachos that pertain to that Perat, then the Halachah of the verse is limited and applies only to the Perat.

19)[line 20] HA'MERUCHAKIN ZEH MI'ZEH- that are separated from each other (i.e. the verses that contain the Kelal and the Perat, respectively are in different places in the Torah)

20)[line 22] V'AMREI LAH KEDI- (a) and some say it was [stated by a sage named] Kedi (MAHARSHAL to Bava Metzia 2a citing RASHI, possibly referring to Gitin 85b DH v'Lurchei #2, but see YOSEF DA'AS to Bava Metzia 2a); (b) and some say it was asked without a specific sage's name being mentioned (Rashi to Gitin ibid.)

21)[line 24]"... , '; ""... V'SHACHAT OSO BI'MEKOM ASHER YISHCHAT ES HA'OLAH, LIFNEI HASH-M; CHATAS HU"- "... and he shall slaughter it in the place where the [Korban] Olah is slaughtered, before HaSh-m; it is a [Korban] Chatas" (Vayikra 4:24) - This verse in Parshas Vayikra is among the verses of the Korban Chatas that is offered by the Nasi.

22)[line 27]"... ..."" BI'MEKOM ASHER TISHACHET HA'OLAH TISHACHET HA'CHATAS"- "in the place where that [Korban] Olah is slaughtered, you shall slaughter the [Korban] Chatas..." (Vayikra 6:18) - This verse in Parshas Tzav is among the general verses of the Korban Chatas.

23)[line 29]L'KOV'O- to teach that it is Me'akev (to show that a Chatas that is not slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash is invalidated)

24)[line 32]"... ""... V'SHACHAT ES HA'CHATAS BI'MEKOM HA'OLAH"- "... and he shall slaughter the [Korban] Chatas in the location of the [Korban] Olah" (Vayikra 4:29) - This verse in Parshas Vayikra is among the verses of the Korban Chatas that is offered by an individual.

25)[line 39] PRAT U'CHLAL HU, V'NA'ASEH KLAL MOSIF AL HA'PRAT

(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael, who is Doresh Kelalei and Peratei (see Background to Menachos 28:31), lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is "Perat u'Chelal, Na'aseh Kelal Mosif Al ha'Perat."

(b)When a Perat (specification) is followed by a Kelal (general term), then the Halachah of the verse is all-inclusive and applies to all of the cases of the general category.

26)[line 43]('' '' '' '' )NACHSHO"N V'SHACHA"T O"F BA'PESAC"H SIMAN- this is a mnemonic device for remembering the four attempts by the Gemara to answer the question, "What does the word "Oso" (Vayikra 4:24) exclude?" as follows:

1.Nachshon refers to "Oso ba'Tzafon v'Ein Se'ir Nachshon b'Tzafon" (line 44)

2.v'Shachat refers to "Oso (Ta'un) [ba']Tzafon v'Ein ha'Shochet Omed ba'Tzafon" (Daf 56a, line 10)

3.Of refers to "Oso ba'Tzafon v'Ein Ben Of ba'Tzafon" (Daf 56a, line 17)

4.Pesach refers to "Oso ba'Tzafon v'Ein Pesach ba'Tzafon" (Daf 56a, line 21)

27)[line 44] SE'IR NACHSHON- the voluntary Korban Chatas of Nachshon Ben Aminadav, the Nasi (prince) of the tribe of Yehudah. The Nesi'im offered inauguration sacrifices for the dedication service of the Mishkan in the desert (Bamidbar 7:1-88)

28)[line 44] HO'IL V'ISRABI L'INYAN SEMICHAH- since it was taught that the Se'ir Nachshon requires Semichah

29)[line 45]SEMICHAH

Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).

30)[line 45]" ...""V'SAMACH YADO AL ROSH HA'SA'IR..."- "and he shall press his hand on the head of the he-goat..." (Vayikra 4:24)

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