[56a - 46 lines; 56b - 25 lines]
1)[line 6]תיתי בבנין אבTEISI B'VINYAN AV (BINYAN AV)
In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" - father in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated in that subject to other comparable subjects.
2a)[line 7]לישתוק קרא מיניהLISHTOK KRA MINEI- the verse (Vayikra 4:24) did not have to mention it (Semichah)
b)[line 8]ותיתי בבנין אבV'TEISI B'VINYAN AV- and it can be learned through a Binyan Av (see above, entry #1), from the verse that deals with the Korban Chatas of the individual (Vayikra 4:29 or 33)
3)[line 8]שעה מדורות לא ילפינןSHA'AH MI'DOROS LO YALFINAN
Kodshei Sha'ah, Korbanos that are required to be offered at a specific time, for a specific occasion, such as the Se'ir Chatas of Nachshon, that was offered during the consecration of the Mishkan in the desert, cannot be learned from Kodshei Doros, Korbanos that are required to be brought for all time, in all generations, such as the Se'ir Chatas of an individual.
4)[line 14]ומקבל בצפוןU'MEKABEL BA'TZAFON- and he collects (lit. receives) the blood in the northern part of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash
5)[line 18]שלא קבע לו כהןSHE'LO KAVA LO KOHEN- it does not require a Kohen [to slaughter it]
6)[line 20]קבע לו כליKAVA LO KELI- it does require a utensil [for its slaughter]
7)[line 27]כלילKALIL- it shall be entirely offered; it was totally burned on the fires of the Mizbe'ach
8)[line 35]"וְלָקַח [הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעוֹ ...]""V'LAKACH [HA'KOHEN MI'DAM HA'CHATAS B'ETZBA'O...]"- "And the Kohen shall take [of the blood of the Chatas with his finger...]" (Vayikra 4:25)
9)[line 36]לא משמע ליהLO MASHMA LEI- he does not agree with the teaching of "Lakach - v'Lakach"
10)[line 42]בכור שאחזו דםBECHOR SHE'ACHAZO DAM - a Bechor animal that turned red because of a sudden surge of blood (BECHOR: HATALAS MUM)
(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Eimurim (see Background to Menachos 47:8) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night.
(c)If the animal has or develops a Mum, it becomes the property of the Kohen. It must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner. It may not be redeemed with money.
(d)Intentionally inflicting a Mum in a Bechor is prohibited, as in all animals of Kodshim, as the verse states, "Tamim Yiheyeh l'Ratzon Kol Mum Lo Yiheyeh Vo" - "it shall be complete (unblemished) to find favor, no blemish shall be in it" (Vayikra 22:21). RASHI (here DH Lo Yiheyeh and to Bechoros 33b DH Kol Mum) teaches that the intention of Chazal is that the verse is read, "Lo Yehayeh Vo" - "do not cause [a blemish] in it." A person who inflicts a blemish in an animal of Kodshim (or its Temurah, with the exception of the Temurah of a Bechor and Ma'aser Behemah,) receives Malkus. (See SEFER HA'CHINUCH #287.)
(e)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #393, #445).
11)[line 43]מקיזיןMEKIZIN- to perform blood-letting, an accepted medical practice until modern times
12)[line 43]במקום שאין עושין בו מוםB'MAKOM SHE'EIN OSIN BO MUM- [he should perform the blood-letting, but only] near a limb in which a cut will not render the animal a Ba'al Mum (see TOSFOS to Bechoros 34a DH Ileima)
13)[line 45]יקיז אף במקום שעושין בו מוםYAKIZ AF AL PI SHE'OSEH BO MUM- he may perform the blood-letting even near a limb in which a cut will render the animal a Ba'al Mum (as long as he does not intend to make a Mum)
14)[last line]ובלבד שלא ישחוט [על אותו מום]U'VILVAD SHE'LO YISHCHOT [AL OSO MUM]- as long as he does not slaughter the animal [because of that blemish] (i.e. he must wait for the animal to develop another blemish)
15)[line 2]אפילו מתAFILU MES- even if it will die if we do not let its blood
16)[line 4]מחמץ אחר מחמץMECHAMETZ ACHAR MECHAMETZ
(a)There is a prohibition to cause the dough of Menachos (either the Kometz or the Shirayim, the part that the Kohanim eat) to become leavened as it states, "Kol ha'Minchah... Lo Se'aseh Chametz" (Vayikra 2:11). An additional verse, "Lo Se'afeh Chametz," (Vayikra 6:10), specifically prohibits baking leavened Menachos.
(b)This extra verse is used to teach that once the dough of a Minchah offering is leavened, each and every subsequent process involved in preparing a baked Minchah offering is also prohibited ("Mechametz Achar Mechametz"). For example, if one person leavens the dough and another bakes it, they both transgress a Lav (Shabbos 111a, Menachos 55b).
17)[line 5]מסרס אחר מסרסMESARES ACHAR MESARES - castrating after castrating (SEIRUS: MESARES ACHAR MESARES)
(a)It is prohibited to perform castration, as the Torah states, "[You shall not offer to HaSh-m an animal that has its testicles bruised or crushed, broken or cut;] neither shall you do this in your land" (Vayikra 22:24). A person who performs castration receives Malkus. (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #291)
(b)A person who adds to the mutilation of the genitals caused by another person is also liable to Malkus.
18a)[line 6]ומעוךU'MA'UCH- an animal whose testicles were crushed by hand
b)[line 6]וכתותVE'CHASUS- or with an instrument
c)[line 7]ונתוקVE'NASUK- (a) or pulled loose (and completely detached from the body) (RASHI); (b) or severed (but remaining in their sac) (TOSFOS DH l'Havi, according to the Girsa of the TZON KODASHIM)
d)[line 7]וכרותVE'CHARUS- (a) or severed (but remaining in their sac) (Vayikra 22:24) (RASHI); (b) dislodged from their original position, but not severed (TOSFOS DH l'Havi, according to the Girsa of the TZON KODASHIM)
19)[line 9]מטיל מום בבעל מוםMATIL MUM B'VA'AL MUM - to inflict a blemish in a blemished animal (HATALAS MUM B'KODSHIM)
(a)It is forbidden to blemish an animal of Hekdesh, as the verse states, "Tamim Yiheyeh l'Ratzon Kol Mum Lo Yiheyeh Vo" - "it shall be complete (unblemished) to find favor, no blemish shall be in it" (Vayikra 22:21). RASHI (here DH Lo Yiheyeh and to Bechoros 33b DH Kol Mum) teaches that the intention of Chazal is that the verse is read, "Lo Yehayeh Vo" - "do not cause [a blemish] in it."
(b)A person who inflicts a blemish in an animal of Kodshim (or its Temurah, with the exception of the Temurah of a Bechor and Ma'aser Behemah,) receives Malkus. (See SEFER HA'CHINUCH #287.) (According to most Rishonim, it is even forbidden to indirectly cause a sanctified animal to become blemished - see YOSEF DA'AS.)
20)[line 10]"[וְאִישׁ כִּי יַקְרִיב זֶבַח שְׁלָמִים ...] כָּל מוּם לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ.""[V'ISH KI YAKRIV ZEVACH SHELAMIM...] KOL MUM LO YIHEYEH VO."- "[And a man who will bring a Korban Shelamim...] it shall not have any blemish." (Vayikra 22:21)
21)[line 11]"תָּמִים יִהְיֶה לְרָצוֹן""TAMIM YIHEYEH L'RATZON"- "it shall be complete (unblemished) to find favor" (Vayikra 22:21)
22)[line 13]דיקלא בעלמא הואDIKLA B'ALMA HU- it is comparable to a mere date-palm (i.e. since it had a Mum before it was sanctified and was never fit to be brought as a Korban, it is equivalent to a palm tree that one sanctified for the purpose of using its value to buy a Korban, to which the prohibition of inflicting a blemish does not apply)
23)[line 14]פסולי המוקדשים לאחר פדיונםPESULEI HA'MUKDASHIM L'ACHAR PIDYONAM (PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIM)
(a)Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is still forbidden to work with them ("Avodah") or to shear them ("Gizah"). The milk they produce is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being slaughtered (Bechoros 15b).
(b)The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mukdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done to a Bechor (see above, entry #10:c)
24)[line 16]אסירי בגיזה ועבודהASIREI V'GIZAH VA'AVODAH- it is prohibited to shear them or to work with them
25)[line 19]שלא יגרום לו ע''י אחריםSHE'LO YIGROM LO AL YEDEI ACHERIM- that he should not cause in it a blemish through other means
26a)[line 20]בצקBATZEK- dough
b)[line 20]דבילהDEVEILAH- a cake of pressed figs
27)[line 21]האוזןHA'OZEN- the ear [of an animal of Kodshim]
28)[line 23]הניח שאורHINI'ACH SE'OR- he place a piece of sourdough
29)[line 23]עיסהISAH- a dough [from a Korban Minchah]
30)[line 24]כמעשה שבתK'MA'ASEH SHABBOS- like something that was produced on Shabbos by transgressing one of the 39 forbidden Melachos (categories of creative acts), such as roasting meat on coals (where the meat becomes roasted after some time)