HOW MANY PEOPLE MUST ATTEND A FUNERAL
(Beraisa): We stop learning Torah to accompany a Mes or a bride. R. Yehudah bar Ilai would do so.
This does not apply if enough people already accompany him.
Question: What is the proper amount?
Answer #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Inya): We need 12,000 men and 6,000 Shofar blowers. Some say that the 6,000 are included in the 12,000.
Answer #2 (Ula): We need enough to make a wall from the city to the cemetery.
Answer #3 (Rav Sheshes): The taking of Torah should be like Matan Torah, in front of 600,000.
This applies to one who learned. There is no limit to the proper amount for one who taught.
BATEI KENESIYOS IN BAVEL
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): Yisrael is so dear to Hash-m that wherever we are exiled, the Shechinah accompanies us:
In Mitzrayim - "I was revealed to your father's house in Mitzrayim";
In Bavel - "For your sake I was sent to Bavel."
Hash-m will return with us in the future redemption. It says "Hash-m Yashuv (will return with) your captivity", not 'Heshiv (He will return us)'.
Question: Where in Bavel is the Shechinah?
Answer (Abaye): It alternates between the Batei Kenesiyos of Hutzal and Shaf v'Yatziv.
Abaye: When I am within a Parsah (a 72 minute walk), I go to pray there.
Shmuel's father and Levi were in the Beis ha'Keneses of Shaf v'Yatziv in Nehardai. The Shechinah came. They heard a noise and left.
A similar episode occurred to Rav Sheshes (who was blind); he did not leave. Angels came and frightened him.
Rav Sheshes (to Hash-m): Who should be pushed aside, one who is shamed (me), or one who is not shamed?
Hash-m told the angels to leave him.
(R. Yitzchak): "I will be to them a small Mikdash" refers to Batei Kenesiyos and Batei Medrashos in Bavel;
(R. Elazar): It refers to Rav's house in Bavel.
(Rava): "Hash-m, You were a dwelling place for us" refers to Batei Kenesiyos and Batei Medrashos in Bavel.
(Abaye): I used to learn at home and pray in a Beis ha'Keneses. After I was struck by David's words, "Hash-m, I love Your dwelling" I also learn in a Beis ha'Keneses.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer ha'Kapar): In the future, Batei Kenesiyos and Batei Medrashos of Bavel will be fixed in Eretz Yisrael;
We learn from "Like Tavor among the mountains and Karmel on the sea will come". These mountains came once to learn (at the time of Matan) Torah, and they were fixed in Eretz Yisrael. People learn and spread Torah in Batei Kenesiyos and Batei Medrashos of Bavel, all the more so they will be fixed in Eretz Yisrael!
(Bar Kapara): "Lamah Teratzdun Harim Gavnunim" - a Bas Kol told the other mountains 'why Tirtzu Din (do you want a judgment) with Har Sinai' (to see on which Torah should be given)? You are blemished compared to Sinai (which is the lowest)!
"Gavnunim" is like "Giben" (a Mum),
(Rav Ashi): This shows that haughtiness is a Mum.
(Mishnah): We do not use a Beis ha'Keneses for a shortcut.
(R. Avahu): If there used to be a path there, it is permitted.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): If one entered for a different reason, he may make it a shortcut.
(R. Chelbo): If one entered to pray, he may make it a shortcut;
We learn from "One who enters (the Mikdash) in the north to bow will leave in the south."
(Mishnah): If weeds grow we do not cut them, to cause grief.
Contradiction (Beraisa): We may not cut them and feed them (to animals), but we may cut them and leave them!
Answer: Also the Mishnah forbids only cutting them to feed them.
(Beraisa): We do not act frivolously in a cemetery:
We do not graze animals there, or route an irrigation ditch through it. We do not gather weeds in it; if one gathered, they are burned there, for the honor of the deceased.
Question: What is 'for the honor of the deceased'?
It cannot be burning the weeds, for this does not honor them!
Answer: It refers to the Reisha, we do not act frivolously there.
WHEN WE READ PARSHAS SHEKALIM
(Mishnah): When Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, we read Parshas Shekalim. If it falls during the week, we read it the previous Shabbos, and the next Shabbos has no special Parshah.
The second, third and fourth Shabbosos we read Parshiyos Zachor, Parah Adumah and ha'Chodesh. The fifth Shabbos we resume the normal order.
We interrupt (the normal order) for all of the following - Rosh Chodesh, Chanukah, Purim, Ta'aneisim, Ma'amados, and Yom Kipur.
(Gemara - Mishnah): We announce about Shekalim and Kil'ayim on Rosh Chodesh Adar.
Question: We understand regarding Kil'ayim, for this is when it sprouts;
Why is this the time to announce about Shekalim?
Answer (R. Tavi): "Zos Olas Chodesh b'Chodsho" - bring Korbanos from new money. (A Gezeirah Shavah teaches that this refers to Nisan.)
Since new money is needed for Nisan, we read the Parshah on the first of Adar.
Suggestion: These Mishnayos are unlike R. Shimon ben Gamliel:
(Beraisa): We begin learning Hilchos Pesach 30 days before Pesach;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, we begin two weeks before.
Rejection: They can even be like R. Shimon ben Gamliel. (Moneychangers') tables are set up on the 15th outside the Mikdash, and on the 25th in the Mikdash (to enable people to give half-Shekalim). We read two weeks before the tables are set up.
WHAT IS PARSHAS SHEKALIM?
Question: What is Parshas Shekalim?
Answer #1 (Rav): It is "Tzav... (the Tamid offering)";
Answer #2 (Shmuel): It is "Ki Sisa (the Mitzvah to give half-Shekelim)."
Question: According to Rav, why is it called Parshas Shekalim?
Answer: This is like R. Tavi taught ("Zos Olas Chodesh b'Chodsho" is in Parshas "Tzav... ").
Question: According to Rav, we understand why we read "Tzav", for it alludes to (bringing Shekalim for) Korbanos; like R. Tavi taught.
According to Shmuel, how does Parshas Shekalim relate to (Shekalim for) Korbanos? "Ki Sisa" discusses Shekalim given for the Adanim (sockets of the Mishkan) not for the Korbanos themselves)!
Answer: This is like a Beraisa that Rav Yosef taught. Three collections were made. One was for Korbanos, one for the Adanim, and one for Bedek ha'Bayis.
According to Rav, why does the Mishnah mention Rosh Chodesh Adar on Shabbos? Whenever Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, we read Tzav!
Answer: On another Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, six read from the weekly Parshah and one in Tzav. On Rosh Chodesh Adar, all read in Tzav.
Question: This is like the opinion that we interrupt from reading the usual weekly Parshah;
How can we answer for the opinion that we read the weekly Parshah and a special Haftorah?
Answer: This Rosh Chodesh, three read from the weekly Parshah and four read from Tzav.
Question (Beraisa): When Rosh Chodesh Adar is on Shabbos, we read Parshas Shekalim, and Yehoyada ha'Kohen for the Haftorah.
The Haftorah discusses "Kesef Nafshos Erko" - this is like Ki Sisa (which discusses "Kofer Nafsho");
However, if Parshas Shekalim is Tzav, how does the Haftorah relate to it?
Answer: This is like R. Tavi (Tzav alludes to bringing Shekalim for Korbanos).
Question (Beraisa): If Rosh Chodesh Adar is in the week before or after (we normally read) Parshas Shekalim, we read it and repeat it.
We read Ki Sisa about this time, but Tzav is read much later!
Answer: The Beraisa discusses Eretz Yisrael, where they read the Torah over the course of three years (they reach Tzav in Adar of the third year).
Support (for Shmuel - Beraisa): When Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, we read Ki Sisa. The Haftorah is Yehoyada ha'Kohen.
THE KRI'AH FOR ROSH CHODESH TEVES
(R. Yitzchak Nafcha): When Rosh Chodesh Adar falls on Shabbos, we take out three Sefrei Torah, in which we read the weekly Parshah, Musaf of Rosh Chodesh, and Parshas Shekalim;
When Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos, we take out three Sefrei Torah, in which we read the weekly Parshah, Musaf Rosh Chodesh; and Chanukas ha'Mizbe'ach.
He needed to say both teachings:
Had he only taught the latter, one might have thought that the Halachah follows Rav, and only two Sefrei Torah are needed when Rosh Chodesh Adar is on Shabbos since the reading for Rosh Chodesh is in Tzav).
Question: Why did he need to teach the second? The first would have sufficed!
Admission: Indeed, he did not teach the second. It was deduced from the first.
(R. Yitzchak Nafcha): When Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on a weekday, three read the Parshah of Rosh Chodesh, and one reads Chanukas ha'Mizbe'ach.
(Rav Dimi of Chaifa): Three read from Chanukas ha'Mizbe'ach, and one reads Rosh Chodesh.
(R. Mani): Presumably, R. Yitzchak Nafcha is correct. Rosh Chodesh is preferred,since it comes more frequently.
(R. Avin): Presumably, Rav Dimi is correct. There is a fourth Aliyah because it is Rosh Chodesh, therefore, he should read about Rosh Chodesh.
Question: What was the conclusion?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): Rosh Chodesh is not primary.
Answer #2 (Rabah): Chanukah is not primary.
The Halachah follows Rabah.