[30a - 52 lines; 30b - 53 lines]
PEREK #4 SHEVU'AS HA'EDUS
1)[line 1]שבועת העדותSHEVU'AS HA'EDUS
(a)One of the litigants in a court case has the right to force a person to take an oath when he feels that the person is concealing testimony about the case. The oath that the alleged witness takes to claim that he is not harboring any testimony is called a Shevu'as ha'Edus (Vayikra 5:1).
(b)For example, a person asks two witnesses to testify on his behalf, in order to oblige the opposing litigant to pay him. The witnesses deny all knowledge of the case and even swear in court to that effect. If they admit afterwards that they did know testimony, they must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. If they are wealthy they each bring a female sheep or female goat. If they cannot afford the animal, they may each bring two turtledoves or two common doves, one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. If they cannot even afford birds, they may each bring an offering of 1/10 of an Eifah of flour as a Minchas Chatas (ibid. 5:5-13).
2a)[line 4]בפני בית דין ושלא בפני בית דין, מפי עצמוBIFNEI BEIS DIN VESHE'LO BIFNEI BEIS DIN, MI'PI ATZMO- whether the witnesses made the Shevu'ah in court or out of court, in the instance in which they made the Shevu'ah of their own volition
b)[line 5]ומפי אחרים אין חייבין עד שיכפרו בהן בבית דיןMI'PI ACHERIM EIN CHAYAVIN AD SHE'YICHPERU VAHEN B'VEIS DIN- in the instance that the witnesses made the Shevu'ah due to the inducement of others (i.e. the litigant), they are not obligated [to bring a Korban] unless they denied [the fact that they know testimony] in court
3a)[line 8]וחייבין על זדון השבועהCHAYAVIN AL ZEDON HA'SHEVU'AH- they are obligated [to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored even] if they intentionally make a false Shevu'ah
b)[line 9]ועל שגגתה עם זדון העדותV'AL SHIGEGASAH IM ZEDON HA'EDUS- and if they are Shogeg with regard to the Shevu'ah (that is, they do not know that this Shevu'ah will obligate them to bring a Korban — Daf 31b), even if they [intentionally make a false Shevu'ah, while they] actually know testimony
c)[line 9]ואינן חייבין על שגגתהV'EINAN CHAYAVIN AL SHIGEGASAH- but they are not obligated [to bring a Korban] if they are Shogeg with regard to the testimony (that is, they forgot at the time of the Shevu'ah that they know testimony)
4)[line 12]"ועמדו שני האנשים אשר להם הריב [לפני ה'; לפני הכהנים והשפטים אשר יהיו בימים ההם]""V'AMDU SHENEI HA'ANASHIM ASHER LAHEM HA'RIV..."- "Then both the men, between whom the controversy is, shall stand [before HaSh-m; before the Kohanim and the judges who shall be in those days]" (Devarim 19:17).
5)[line 17]ואם נפשך לומרIM NAFSHECHA LOMAR- and if you desire to say otherwise [and ask a different question on the previous teaching]
6)[line 18]"[לא יקום עד אחד באיש לכל עון ולכל חטאת בכל חטא אשר יחטא; על פי] שני [עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר]""[LO YAKUM ED ECHAD B'ISH L'CHOL AVON UL'CHOL CHATAS B'CHOL CHET ASHER YECHETA; AL PI] SHENEI [EDIM O AL PI SHELOSHAH EDIM YAKUM DAVAR]"- "[One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he may commit; according to] two [witnesses or three witnesses, shall the matter be established]" (Devarim 19:15) - This verse discusses witnesses directly, and a Gezeirah Shavah teaches that the verse mentioned above in the Gemara (Devarim 19:17) also refers to witnesses.
7)[line 38]"כל כבודה בת מלך פנימה; [ממשבצות זהב לבושה]""KOL KEVUDAH VAS MELECH PENIMAH; [MI'MISHBETZOS ZAHAV LEVUSHAH]"- "All of the glory of the princess is within; [her clothing is of embroidered gold]" (Tehilim 45:14) - The noble princess stays in the inner rooms of the palace, not exposing her glory to the people (IBN EZRA, RADAK et al. to Tehilim ibid.). This verse could serve as a source for women not appearing in court.
8)[line 45]"[לא תעשו עול במשפט, לא תשא פני דל ולא תהדר פני גדול;] בצדק תשפוט עמיתך""... B'TZEDEK TISHPOT AMISECHA"- "... in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor" (Vayikra 19:15).
9)[line 50]עם שאתך בתורה ובמצותAM SHE'ITCHA B'TORAH UV'MITZVOS- [a member of] the nation that is with you in [the observance of] Torah and Mitzvos
10)[line 51]עולא חברנו, עמית בתורה ובמצותULA CHAVEREINU, AMIS B'TORAH UV'MITZVOS- Ula, our friend, is our associate, fellowman in [the observance of] Torah and Mitzvos
11)[last line]למישרא בתיגריהL'MISHRA B'SIGREI- to resolve his dispute first
12)[line 1]לשודא דדייניSHUDA D'DAYANEI- (a) a court case that is settled by the personal opinion of the judges, which is influenced by the fact that one of the litigants is a Talmid Chacham (for an example of this, see Kesuvos 85b and Background to Kesuvos 85:32, and Kesuvos 94a and Background to Kesuvos 94:7) (RASHI); (b) the opinion of the judges as to which of the two should win the case (as such, it is necessary to assume that the other litigant was also a Talmid Chacham) (TOSFOS DH Iy Nami, citing Rabeinu Tam)
13a)[line 4]בשעת משא ומתןSHE'AS MASA U'MATAN- during the litigation
b)[line 5]בשעת גמר דיןSHE'AS GEMAR DIN- the time when the verdict is handed down
14)[line 10]עדים כגמר דין דמוEDIM KI'GEMAR DIN DAMU- when the witnesses testify, it has the severity of the time when the verdict is handed down
15)[line 11]דביתהו דרב הונאDEVIS'HU D'RAV HUNA- the wife of Rav Huna
16)[line 13]אי איקום מקמהIY EIKUM MI'KAMAH - if I stand up for her (MITZVAS KIMAH)
(a)The Torah commands all Jews to show respect for Torah scholars as the verse states, "Mipenei Seivah Takum v'Hadarta Penei Zaken" (Vayikra 19:32). Targum Onkelus renders the word "Seivah" as, "d'Savar b'Oraisa" - "the one understands, or is well-versed, in the Torah." The Gemara (Kidushin 32b) proves that "Ein 'Zaken' Ela 'Zeh she'Kanah Chochmah'" - "the meaning of the word 'Zaken' [in this verse] is 'the one who has acquired wisdom.'" Showing respect for the wife of a Torah scholar is also included in this Mitzvah, since "Eshes Chaver k'Chaver" - "the wife of a Talmid Chacham is like the Talmid Chacham himself" (Avodah Zarah 39a). (The actual term "Chaver" refers to a Talmid Chacham with a specific status — see below, entry #18.)
(b)Our Gemara relates that Rav Nachman was unsure how to act when he was informed that the wife of Rav Huna was about to appear before him in court. He felt obligated to stand up for her but was worried that it would cause her opponent to be intimidated to the extent that he would not be able to properly plead his case.
17)[line 13]מסתתמן טענתיה דבעל דינאMISTATMAN TA'ANASEI D'VA'AL DINA- the pleas of her opponent will be stopped (because he will be intimidated)
18)[line 15]אשת חבר הרי היא כחברESHES CHAVER HAREI HI K'CHAVER - the wife of a Chaver is like the Chaver himself (CHAVER)
(a)A Chaver is a Talmid Chacham who is meticulous in his observance of the Halachah. A person is called a Chaver if he accepts upon himself four things:
1.never to give Terumah and Ma'asros to an Am ha'Aretz;
2.never to prepare Taharos in the vicinity of an Am ha'Aretz;
3.to always eat Chulin b'Taharah;
4.to take Ma'aser from all produce that one eats, sells and buys (Tosefta Demai 2:2-3). The Gemara in Bechoros 30b explains exactly how one goes about accepting this distinguished status.
(b)The wife of a Chaver, his daughters, slaves and the members of his household have the same status as the Chaver, even after his death, as long as there is no evidence to prove that they are not acting appropriately (Avodah Zarah 39a).
19)[line 15]אמר ליה לשמעיהAMAR LEI L'SHAM'EI- he (Rav Nachman) said to his attendant
20a)[line 16]צא ואפרח עלי בר אווזאTZEI V'AFRACH ALAI BAR AVZA- go out and cause a goose to fly for me
b)[line 16]ושדי עלוואי, ואיקוםV'SHADI ILAVAI, V'EIKUM- and direct it to fly towards me (lit. throw it on me), and I will stand up
21)[line 17]והאמר מר...V'HA'AMAR MAR...- that is, Rav Nachman's ploy will only be effective for a limited amount of time. At the time that he announces the verdict, the Halchah states that the judge must sit while the litigants stand up. At the time that Rav Huna's wife stands up, Rav Nachman will again be obligated to stand as a sign of respect to her (RITVA).
22)[line 19]דיתיב כמאן דשרי מסאניהD'YASIV K'MAN D'SHARI MESANEI- he sits as one who is untying his shoe (i.e., he assumes a position that looks like he is sitting while he is in actuality standing up)
23a)[line 22]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a Talmid Chacham (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 21:4, SHULCHAN ARUCH Choshen Mishpat 17:2)
b)[line 22]ועם הארץAM HA'ARETZ- an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b
24)[line 27]בטש ביהBATASH BEI- (a) he kicked him (RASHI); (b) he pleaded extensively with him (RASHI to Chulin 7b DH Mivtash)
25)[line 31]דלא מפייס מינאיLO MIFAYEIS MINAI- he (the court attendant) is not on good terms with me
26)[line 34]כמאן דסדר ליה לדיניהK'MAN D'SADAR LEI L'DINEI- like one who prepares [his arguments before the judge in order to be ready for] his case
27)[line 36]קביע ליה עידניהKEVI'A LEI IDNEI- who has a scheduled learning session with the judge
28)[line 38]דידע בסהדותאD'YADA B'SAHADUSA- who knows testimony
29a)[line 39]וזילא ביה מילתאZILA BEI MILSA- and it is degrading for him
b)[line 39]למיזל לבי דיינא דזוטר מיניה לאסהודי קמיהL'MEIZAL L'VEI DAYANA D'ZUTAR MINEI L'AS'HUDEI KAMEI- to go to testify in a Beis Din where the judges are inferior to him
30)[line 42]שקSAK- a sack
31)[line 42]קופהKUPAH- a basket or chest
32)[line 42]ואין דרכו ליטולEIN DARKO LITOL- it is not customary for him (the finder) to pick up [in public]
33)[line 43]הרי זה לא יטולHAREI ZEH LO YITOL (HASHAVAS AVEIDAH: EINO LEFI CHEVODO)
The Torah (Devarim 22:1-3) commands that a person who finds a lost object must return it to its owner. This Mitzvah applies at all times and is not limited to any particular time. However, since the verse uses the word "v'His'alamta" - "[You shall not see the bull of your brother or his sheep cast off,] and hide yourself [from them; you must certainly return them to your brother,]" this teaches that there are cases when the Mitzvah of returning a lost object does not apply, as the Beraisa discusses (Sanhedrin 18b).
34a)[line 48]האי עשהHAI ASEH- this is a positive commandment (the requirement for witnesses to stand at the time that they testify)
b)[line 48]והאי עשהV'HAI ASEH- and this is a positive commandment (the requirement to show respect for Talmidei Chachamim, and in this case, to make them sit in court) (See SHA'AREI TESHUVAH 3:155-198)
35)[line 48](סימן סניגרון בור גזלת מרמה)SIMAN SANIGRON BUR GEZELAS MIRMAH- this is a mnemonic device for remembering the four statements of the Beraisa that follow:
1.Sanigron refers to "Minayin l'Dayan she'Lo Ya'aseh Sanigron l'Devarav" (line 49)
2.Bur refers to "Minayin l'Dayan she'Lo Yeshev Talmid Bur Lefanav" (line 50)
3.Gezelas refers to "Minayin l'Dayan she'Yode'a l'Chaveiro she'Hu Gazlan" (line 51)
4.Mirmah refers to "Minayin l'Dayan she'Yode'a l'Din she'Hu Merumeh" (line 52)
36)[line 49]סניגרוןSANIGRON- a defense [of his preceding arguments, when he realizes that those arguments may be incorrect — RASHI]
37)[line 50]"מדבר שקר תרחק""MI'DEVAR SHEKER TIRCHAK"- "Keep far away from falsehood" (Shemos 23:7).
38)[line 50]תלמיד בורTALMID BUR- a student who is an ignoramus (i.e. who does not have proper manners)
39)[last line]מרומהMERUMEH- that is dishonest (i.e. he realizes that the witnesses are not telling the truth)
40)[last line]אחתכנוACHATCHENU- I will decide it (lit. cut it) [based upon their testimony]