[6a - 57 lines; 6b - 57 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 6a [line 24]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #10
 Gemara [line 43]:
"Shishah Asar Shel Shishah Asar Maneh" ששה עשר של ששה עשר מנה
The word "Shel" של is unnecessary (Shitah Mekubetzes #23)
 Gemara [line 46] : רבי שמעון אומר הצרי אינו אלא שרף
"Rebbi Shimon Omer ha'Tzari Eino Ela Seraf..."
Rashi's Girsa is Raban Shimon ben Gamliel Omer... רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר (as is found in the Yerushalmi (Yoma 4:5), Tosfos to Nidah 8a DH Ketaf, and in most Sidurim). The Girsa of the Gemara Shabbos 26a is Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar Omer... אומר רבי שמעון בן אלעזר (YEFEH EINAYIM)
 Gemara [last line]:
The words "mi'Terumas ha'Lishkah" מתרומת הלשכה
should be "mi'Terumah Chadashah" מתרומה חדשה (RASHASH)
 Rashi 6a DH Kilufah ד"ה קילופה:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #39
 Rashi DH Yein Kafrisin ד"ה יין קפריסין :
The words "she'Osin mi'Kafra Shel Ilan Hu she'Shemo..." שעושין מקפרא של אילן הוא ששמו
should be "she'Osin mi'Pri Shel Ilan she'Shemo..." שעושין מפרי של אילן ששמו
The words "Kegon ha'Tzelaf veha'Kafras" כגון הצלף והקפרס
should be "Kegon ha'Kafras Shel Tzelaf" כגון הקפרס של צלף
 Rashi 6a DH she'Tehei Azah ד"ה שתהא עזה:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #40 (and as corrected in the margin)
 Gilyon ha'Shas 6a DH Kipas ד"ה כיפת :
The words "Rashi DH Ginas ha'Yarden:" ד"ה גינת הירדן
should be "Rashi DH Ginas ha'Veradin:" ד"ה גינת הוורדין
 Gemara 6b [line 37]:
The words "Klal bi'Chlal Rishon u'Frat bi'Frat Rishon" כלל בכלל ראשון ופרט בפרט ראשון
should be "Klal k'Chlal Rishon u'Frat k'Frat Rishon" (Ya'avetz) כלל ככלל ראשון ופרט כפרט ראשון (YA'AVETZ)
 Rashi 6b DH Achas Esrei Samemanim אחת עשרה סמנים :
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #36
 ibid. [at the end]:
"k'Divrei Rebbi Yishmael"כדברי רבי ישמעאל
These words are printed in the wrong place. They belong at the end of the next Dibur (DH v'Eima Samim Klalד"ה ואימא סמים כלל )
 Rashi DH d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael: ד"ה דבי רבי ישמעאל:
This is part of the previous Dibur (the Dibur ends with the words "O Eino v'Chulei" או אינו וכו' as the Hagahos ha'Bach #8 suggests)
 Rashi DH v'Nelif Nami : ד"ה ונילף נמי
The words "b'Frat Rishon" בפרט ראשון
should be "k'Frat Rishon" כפרט ראשון (See above, Girsa #10)
1)[line 1]בבואה לבבואהBAVU'A D'VAVU'A- the shadow of a shadow (i.e. an extended, or especially dark, shadow — see Pischei Teshuvah EH 17:49)
2)[line 2]חלשא דעתיה ומתרע מזליהCHALSHA DAITEI U'MISRA MAZALEI- he will become upset (when he does not see a good omen), and this will cause his fortune (Mazal) to go bad
3)[line 4]סימנא מילתא היאSIMANA MILSA HI- an omen is something of significance
4)[line 5]ריש שתאREISH SHASA- the beginning of the year, Rosh Hashanah
5a)[line 5]קראKARA- gourd
b)[line 5]רוביאRUBYA- black-eyed peas
c)[line 5]כרתיKARTEI- leeks
d)[line 5]סילקאSILKA- beets (alt. boiled vegatables)
e)[line 5]תמריTAMREI- dates
6)[line 11]תמשוך שמעתכוןTIMSHOCH SHEMAITCHON- (a) your teachings will endure, and will not cease from your mouth (RASHI, Horayos 12a); (b) your teachings will carry on for perpetuity (Rabeinu Gershom; perhaps Rabeinu Gershom means that "you will continue to learn until old age")
7a)[line 11]אקילקי דמתא מחסיאA'KILKEI D'MASA MECHASYA- on the garbage heaps of the city of Mechasya
b)[line 12]ולא אפדני דפומבדיתאV'LO APADNEI D'PUMBEDISA- and not in the mansions of Pumbedisa
8)[line 13]גילדנא סריאGILDENA SARYA- a spoiled small fish
9)[line 13]כותחא דרמיכיפיK USCHA D'RAMEI KEIFEI- a Kutach dish (a dip prepared by cooking whey with stale bread and salt), which is so strong that it can be said (in exaggeration) that it would break stones if poured on them (i.e. it is of high quality)
10)[line 15]"ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' רמה קרני בה' [רחב פי על אויבי כי שמחתי בישועתך]""VA'TISPALEL CHANAH VA'TOMAR: ALATZ LIBI BA'HASH-M, RAMAH KARNI BA'HASH-M, [RACHAV PI AL OYVAI KI SAMACHTI BI'YESHU'ASECHA.]" - "And Chanah prayed and said: My heart exults in HaSh-m, my horn has been raised by HaSh-m, [my mouth is open wide against my antagonists (to reply to their insults), for I rejoice in Your salvation.]" (Shmuel I 2:1) (CHANAH'S SONG)
(a)This Tefilah, most of which consists of praises of HaSh-m, turns into a prayer only towards the end, as is the proper sequence of Tefilah as the Chachamim have prescribed (i.e. it begins with words of praise, which are followed by supplications and requests).
(b)Chanah, the wife of Elkanah, was childless. Upon visiting the Mishkan in Shiloh, she prayed extensively in the Mishkan for a child. Seeing her while she was so focused on her silent prayer, Eli the Kohen Gadol initially assumed that she was intoxicated and accused her of such. When he discovered that she was praying from the depths of her heart, he compensated her by bestowing upon her a blessing that her prayers should be accepted.
(c)She left the Mishkan a changed person, all her bitterness gone. Sure enough, the following Rosh Hashanah (like Sarah and Rachel) she experienced a miracle and became pregnant and gave birth to a son, whom she called Shmuel, because "me'HaSh-m She'iltiv" ("from HaSh-m I asked for him"). Upon weaning him are the age of two, she kept the promise she had made to dedicate the son that she would bear to the service of HaSh-m forever, a prophecy referring to the fifty years (which are called "forever" in the context of the Avodah of the Leviyim) that he was destined yet to live. When she visited the Mishkan in Shiloh, she took with her not only sacrifices in honor of the occasion, but also her young son, whom she duly presented to Eli the Kohen Gadol, under whose tutelage he would remain. It was before taking leave of him that she "sang her song."
(d)Rashi cites a Midrash which explains, based on the verse (2:5), "Until the barren one bore seven and the one with many children mourned," that Chanah actually gave birth to another six children (four in reality, as we will now explain) besides Shmuel. She gave birth to another two boys and two girls, and each time she bore a child, one of the children of Peninah (Elkanah's other wife) died. When she bore her fifth child, Peninah fell at her feet and pleaded with her to have mercy on her. Her remaining two children lived, but they were considered Chanah's, therefore Chanah is considered to have had six children. This is the opinion of Rebbi Nechemyah. According to Rebbi Yehudah, Shmuel remained Chanah's only child, and "seven" refers to her grandchildren. Others (Rebbi Nasan) point out that "seven" refers to Shmuel, since the word "Shiv'ah" has the same numerical value as the word "Shmuel."
(e) Eli ha'Kohen, who served as Shofet for forty years, was appointed on the day that Chanah prayed for a child. After the birth of Shmuel (one year later), he served for another 39 years. After the death of Eli, Shmuel served as Shofet for 13 years, until his death at age 52. He died four months before Shaul ha'Melech, although not before he had crowned David as King of Yisrael.
11)[line 15]רמה קרני ולא רמה פכיRAMAH KARNI V'LO RAMAH PACHI- "My horn shall become exalted, and my jar shall not become exalted." This alludes to the fact that the anointing of David was done with oil poured from a horn, and thus his sovereignty endured ("was exalted"). Shaul and Yehu, in contrast, were anointed with oil poured from an ordinary jar, and their sovereignty did not endure. (When Shaul died, his descendants did not succeed him as king.)
12)[line 23]ריח אחר שתעלה תמרתו אין בו משום מעילהREI'ACH, ACHAR SHE'TA'ALEH TIMRASO, EIN BO MISHUM ME'ILAH- an aroma, once its cloud of smoke has risen up, is not subject to the prohibition of Me'ilah. The Gemara is answering its question that we find that the laws of Me'ilah sometimes do apply to the scent of the Ketores — that is, before the smoke of the Ketores rises and its Mitzvah is performed.
13)[line 25]תרומת הדשןTERUMAS HA'DESHEN
(a)Every morning a Kohen must remove some of the ashes from the consumed sacrifices and place them southeast of the Mizbe'ach alongside the ramp, at a distance of three Tefachim (approximately equal to 22.8, 24 or 28.8 cm, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the ramp and 10 Amos (4.56, 4.8 or 5.76 m) from the foot of the ramp, as described in Vayikra 6:3.
(b)It is forbidden to derive benefit from these ashes even after they are placed at the side of the ramp. Generally, after the completion of a Mitzvah that is performed with a particular object, it becomes permitted to derive benefit from the object (if it was previously forbidden). The Torah specifies that with regard to Terumas ha'Deshen, however, even though its Mitzvah has been completed once the ashes are placed on the floor of the Azarah, they remain Asur b'Hana'ah.
14)[line 28]שני כתובין הבאין כאחד אין מלמדיןSHNEI KESUVIM HA'BA'IN K'ECHAD EIN MELAMDIN - we do not learn from two subjects that express the same Halachah (lit. that come together)
(a)A Binyan Av (lit. "building through a father" — "father" in this sense means a Biblical source), is a rule of Biblical interpretation in which one subject is deemed a prototype in order to apply a Halachah stated by that subject to other comparable subjects.
(b)If two verses express the same Halachah regarding two different subjects, the Tana'im argue as to whether or not we can apply the Halachah elsewhere through a Binyan Av. The Tana'im who rule that we cannot, teach that the fact that the Torah found it necessary to repeat the law a second time means that the Halachah is not meant to be applied automatically in all situations.
(c)All opinions rule that if three verses express the same Halachah, we do not apply the Halachah elsewhere.
15)[line 27]בגדי כהונהVIGDEI KEHUNAH (BIGDEI LAVAN SHEL KOHEN GADOL)
(a)The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are the four white linen garments that the Kohen Gadol wore when performing the Avodas Penim (the service that included entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim on Yom ha'Kipurim). They are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Mitznefes (turban).
(b)The Kohen Gadol did not use these garments again. There is a dispute among the Tana'im as to what is done with the Bigdei Lavan after each Yom ha'Kipurim. According to Rabanan, they were never used again. According to Rebbi Dosa, a Kohen Hedyot, whose uniform consists only of these four white garments, is permitted to use them.
16)[line 30]"והניחם שם""V'HINICHAM SHAM"- "[Aharon shall then go into the Ohel Mo'ed, and take off the white linen garments that he wore when he entered the inner sanctuary;] and he shall leave them (these garments) there." (Vayikra 16:23)
17)[line 34]עגלה ערופהEGLAH ARUFAH
(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Eretz Yisrael) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1). The procedure is as follows:
(b)Five elders (according to the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, which is the Halachah) of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish Supreme Court) measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c)The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked (see Background to Bava Metzia 30:12:b) to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe. This calf is the "Eglah Arufah" and becomes Asur b'Hana'ah.
(d)The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people, Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).
(e)The calf that is used as the Eglah Arufah must be fully healthy and cannot be a Tereifah, as the Gemara derives from the verse (Devarim 21:6; see TOSFOS DH ha'Arufah).
18)[line 42]פיטום הקטרתPITUM HA'KETORES - the ingredients of the Ketores (see Background to Kerisus 2:8)
1.הצרי HA'TZARI - the sap of the balsam tree
2.הציפורן HA'TZIPOREN (SHECHELES) - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.
3.החלבנה CHELBENAH - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant that presently grows in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree.
4.הלבונה HA'LEVONAH - the frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of present-day Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter nauseous taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned.
5.מור MOR - myrrh
6.קציעה KETZI'AH - cassia
7.שיבולת נרד SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard
8.כרכוםKARKOM - saffron
9.הקושט HA'KOSHT - the costus
10.קילופה KILUFAH - cinnamon bark
11.וקנמון V'KINAMON - and cinnamon
19a)[line 44]בורית כרשינהBORIS KARSHINAH- vetch lye
b)[line 44]יין קפריסיןYEIN KAFRISIN- (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus
20)[line 45]חמר חיוריין עתיקCHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK- very old, strong, white wine
21)[line 45]מלח סדומיתMELACH SEDOMIS- Sodomite salt
22)[line 45]מעלה עשןMA'ALEH ASHAN- probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which contains nitric acid, causing the smoke to rise up in a straight column
23)[line 45]כיפת הירדןKIPAS HA'YARDEN- probably cyclamen
24)[line 46]סממניהSAMEMANEHA- its ingredients
25)[line 46]שרף הנוטף מעצי הקטףSERAF HA'NOTEF ME'ATZEI HA'KETAF- sap that drips from the balsam tree, Commiphora opobalsamum (which grows wild in present day Yemen and around Mecca)
26)[line 48]יפין להYAFIN LAH- they are better for it (for strengthening the smell of Tziporen)
27)[line 55]שס''ח מנה 368MANEH- 368 weights of a Maneh, which is equal to 25 Sela'im, or 100 Dinerin (1 Sela = 4 Dinar)
28)[line 1]אחת לששים או לשבעים שנה היו מפטמין אותה לחצאיןACHAS L'SHISHIM O L'SHIV'IM SHANAH HAYU MEFATMIN OSO LA'CHATZA'IN- once every 60 or 70 years, they would prepare the Ketores in half amounts. That is, after every sixty or seventy years, the yearly leftovers of Ketores would reach the weight of half of the required amount of Ketores for an entire year. When that would happen, they would prepare only a half-measure instead of a full measure of the normal yearly Ketores, and combine it with the leftovers, making the full measure of Ketores.
29)[line 10]למכתשתL'MACHTESHES- for mortar
30)[line 11]פזורה שלא תתעפשPEZURAH, SHE'LO TIS'APESH- spread out, so that it should not become moldy
31)[line 12]צבורהTZEVURAH- heaped
32)[line 21]הדיבור רע לייןHA'DIBUR RA LA'YAYIN- speaking near wine that is fermenting can cause damage to the wine (i.e. it can cause it to become vinegar instead of wine)
33a)[line 29]קיטר ועולהKITER V'OLAH- its smoke rises
b)[line 29]ריחו נודףREICHO NODEF- its fragrance spreads
34)[line 30]לאייLE'AYEI- truthfully
35)[line 32]א''כ מ"קח לך" נפקא ליהIM KEN, MI"KACH LECHA" NAFKA LEI- if so, it is learned from the words "Kach Lecha." That is, the word "Samim" is indeed extra and therefore we may derive from this word how many ingredients were used for the Ketores. The words "Kach Lecha" are used for the Kelal and the word Samim is not needed as a "Kelal" (for the "Kelal u'Ferat u'Chelal").
36)[line 54]מה נתינה דעלמא כזיתMAH NESINAH D'ALMA KEZAYIS- just as an ordinary "giving" is done with an amount of a k'Zayis, so, too, one transgresses giving the Shemen ha'Mishchah upon someone who does not need it only when one gives an amount of a k'Zayis upon him. (As Rashi explains, the Torah says that a non-Kohen must "give to the Kohen" (Vayikra 22:14) compensation for Terumah that he ate. Since the obligation to pay for eating Terumah applies only when a k'Zayis was eaten, the word "give" in the verse must be referring to giving the value of a k'Zayis of Terumah.)