[4a - 33 lines; 4b - 39 lines]
1)[line 1]מכוונותMECHUVANOS- equal to each other
2)[line 7]מצומצמותMETZUMTAMOS- exact
3)[line 14]יסוד ... סובב ... הקרנותYESOD ... SOVEV ... HA'KERANOS
(a)The Mizbach ha'Olah of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. The Yesod (bottom platform) was 32 Amos long, 32 Amos wide, and 1 Amah high. The second platform was 30 Amos long, 30 Amos wide, and 5 Amos high. The third platform (which the Rambam calls "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah"), upon which the sacrifices were offered, was 28 Amos long, 28 Amos wide, and 3 Amos high. (The Amos of the Yesod, the Sovev and the Keranos were Amos of five Tefachim (Menachos 97a).) A Keren (horn), which was a one-Amah cube, was formed on each corner of the upper platform. (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8)
(b)The Yesod protruded outward one Amah further than the middle section on two complete sides, the northern and the western. It protruded on the eastern and southern sides only for the length of one Amah from the northern and western corners. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner. The blood of many of the Korbanos was cast on the sides of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, and it ran down to the Yesod (Midos 36a, Mishnah 2; Zevachim 37a, based on Vayikra 5:9). The remainder of the blood of animal Korbanos was poured directly onto the Yesod, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.).
(c)The Kohanim would walk upon the part of the middle platform that jutted out one Amah on each side past the upper platform. This was called the "Sovev" because it encircled the Mizbe'ach.
(d)The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)
(e)The ramp was 32 Amos long and 16 Amos wide, and was separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It was indented on the bottom, at the face of the Mizbe'ach, such that it covered the Sovev.
4)[line 15]"ואלה מדות המזבח באמות אמה אמה וטפח וחיק האמה ואמה רוחב וגבולה אל שפתה סביב זרת האחד וזה גב המזבח""V'ELEH MIDOS HA'MIZBE'ACH BA'AMOS, AMAH AMAH VA'TOFACH; V'CHEIK HA'AMAH, V'AMAH ROCHAV, U'GEVULAH EL SEFASAH SAVIV ZERES HA'ECHAD, V'ZEH GAV HA'MIZBE'ACH."- "And these are the measurements of the altar by Amos: the Amah is an Amah and a Tefach; the foundation (the Yesod) shall be an Amah, and the breadth (the Sovev) an Amah, and its border by its edge all around (the Keranos) shall be a Zeres (the span of a hand), and this shall be the higher part of the altar (this refers to the Golden Altar of Incense)." (Yechezkel 43:13)
5)[line 20]מזבח הזהבMIZBACH HA'ZAHAV
The Golden Altar was made of Shitim wood, and was one Amah square and two Amos high. The Kohanim offered the Ketores (incense) upon it twice daily (Shemos 30:1). The blood of certain Korbanos was sprinkled on the top of this Mizbe'ach (Shemos 30:10, Vayikra 4:7, 18, 16:18).
6)[line 21]שיעוריןSHI'URIN- the Halachic measurements, sizes, etc. required for performing or transgressing various Mitzvos, and for receiving Tum'ah
7)[line 21]חציציןCHATZITZIN- the laws pertaining to intervening substances that disqualify immersion in a Mikvah
8)[line 22]מחיציןMECHITZIN- the laws pertaining to partitions
9)[line 24]לשיעורין נאמרL'SHI'URIN NE'EMAR- this verse praises Eretz Yisrael in that its fruits are used for Torah measurements
10)[line 25]בית המנוגעBAYIS HA'MENUGA
(a)For a detailed description of how a house becomes a Bayis ha'Menuga (a house that has Tzara'as), see Background to Nidah 19:13. Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as, there are two verses:
1."veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev" (Vayikra 14:46)
2."veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav" (ibid. 14:47)
(b)From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.
(c)The RASH (Keilim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora (or an article of clothing or a stone from a house that has Tzara'as) inside of it:
1.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters. In a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora inside it, a person becomes Tamei only when most of his body enters the house.
2.In an Ohel ha'Mes, even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters the house. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it a person becomes Tamei when entering backwards only when his entire body enters.
3.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it, a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim in height (or even a ditch of ten Tefachim in depth) is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah.
4.In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. In a house that has a Metzora (or an article that has Tzara'as, as mentioned above) inside it, the people in the house become Tamei only if the Metzora stops passing through and is stationary. (TOSFOS to Yevamos 103b, DH Keivan, maintains that the people in the house do become Tamei even if the Metzora is just passing through it. However, if a Metzora or an article with Tzara'as passes under an unenclosed tree or canopy, the people under the tree or canopy do not become Tamei unless the Metzora or article with Tzara'as stops and is stationary.)
11)[line 26]טבעותיו בידיוTAB'OSAV B'YADAV- his rings are in the palms of his hands
12)[line 31]מיסב ואוכל בליפתןMEISEV V'OCHEL B'LIFTAN- when he is reclining and eating it with a relish
13)[line 31]עצם כשעורהETZEM K'SE'ORAH (TUM'AS MAGA, MASA, OHEL)
(a)The bones of a Mes are Metamei through Ohel only under one of three conditions: 1. they constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. they consist of the majority of the body (whether they are the majority of the build (Rov Binyano) of the human body or the majority of the number (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. the bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column.
(b)In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (grain of barley) .
14)[last line]כדי רביעית יין לנזירKEDEI REVI'IS YAYIN L'NAZIR
(a)A Nazir (see next entry) receives lashes for drinking a Revi'is of wine (RASHI here). (According to this explanation, wine is the prohibited object, rather than the method of measuring the prohibited object.)
(b)RASHI (Berachos 41a) and TOSFOS (here, and Berachos 41a) explain that a Nazir receives lashes if he eats the amount of grape leaves, stems, peels, or pits that will displace a Revi'is of wine, not water. TOSFOS explains that wine is more viscous than water, and as a result the Nazir can eat more of these grape products before he is liable to punishment.
(a)If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any products of the grapevine.
(b)If a Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings his sacrifices and begins counting his Nezirus days anew. The sacrifices he brings are two turtledoves (Tor) or two young common doves (Yonah), one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. He may then start counting his Nezirus days anew. These Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving of every Nazir upon the completion of his Nezirus. (Sefer ha'Chinuch #377)
16)[line 1]הוצאת שבתHOTZA'AS SHABBOS
The last of the thirty-nine categories of forbidden Melachos (creative acts) of Shabbos is ha'Motzi me'Reshus l'Reshus. A person is not allowed to transfer objects from one Reshus (domain) to another on Shabbos. It is a capital offense to transfer objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain) to a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) or vice versa. (Mishnah Shabbos 73a). If the object transferred is food, one is liable to punishment only if the food is the size of a dried fig (k'Grogeres).
17)[line 2]כלי בעלי בתיםKLEI BA'ALEI BATIM
Since home owners try to make the most out of their utensils, a bowl that cracks is still useful (and therefore is still Mekabel Tum'ah) until the hole becomes so large that pomegranates may fall through. At that point the utensil will no longer be Mekabel Tum'ah.
18)[line 6]ככותבת הגסה ליום הכיפוריםK'KOSEVES HA'GASAH L'YOM HA'KIPURIM
The amount of solid food for which a person is liable for eating on Yom ha'Kipurim is the size of a fat date. The size of a Koseves is estimated at slightly less than a Beitzah (Yoma 79b; see Midos v'Shi'urei Torah 15:8-10 by Chaim P. Beinish, Keser Torah Radomsk, Bnei Brak, 5760).
19)[line 11]מי מקוהMEI MIKVAH- water that has gathered together in a cavity. Immersion in rainwater (Notfin) is Metaher if the water is collected in a cavity, or "b'Ashboren." This is learned from Vayikra 11:36, where the verse states that a Mikveh Mayim (an accumulation of water) purifies.
20)[line 15]נימאNIMA- a hair
Gud Achis or (Gud Asik) is a Halachic device by which Mechitzos which are ten Tefachim tall and enclose an area of four by four Tefachim are considered to extend downward to the ground (or upward to the ship).
(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. for Reshus ha'Yachid of Shabbos and for Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high and enclose an area of four by four Tefachim.
(b)A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that even though the Mechitzah is not complete, there are times when we may consider it complete for Halachic purposes (Sukah 5b).
(c)One of these cases is Lavud (lit. a branch or connection). This Halachah states that when there are not three full Tefachim between the Mechitzah and the surface (or object) next to, above or below it, we consider it to be a complete Mechitzah in which the surfaces or objects are connected without any gaps. (The space that is provided by the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Lavud is measured along with and as a part of the existing segment of the partition.)
23)[line 34]דופן עקומהDOFEN AKUMAH - The Bending Wall
If invalid Sechach lies around the perimeter of Kosher Sechach, we view the invalid Sechach as though it is a horizontal extension of the vertical wall at its side. As long as the invalid Sechach is not wider than four Amos, and the Kosher Sechach measures seven by seven Tefachim, the wall may be considered to bend over to the Kosher Sechach and the Sukah is Kosher.