THE LENGTHS OF THE AMOS (cont.)
Version #2 (Rava citing Rav Nachman): All Amos [that Chachamim taught, that are not written in Tanach] are six Tefachim. Those [of Kil'ayim] are smiling (the hand-width is measured with space between the fingers, like one who smiles separates his lips), and those [of Mavoy and Sukah] are sad (without spaces between the fingers).
Question (Beraisa): All of these are six Tefachim, just they are not all the same.
This is not difficult for Rava. Some are smiling, and others are sad.
However, this is difficult for Abaye!
Answer: It should say that [all] Amos taught regarding Kil'ayim have six Tefachim.
Question (Seifa - R. Gamliel): All the Amos regarding Kil'ayim are six Tefachim, just they are not minimal (sad).
This implies that the first Tana holds that all Amos are six Tefachim!
Answer: Abaye holds like R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
Question: Abaye must say that Tana'im argue about this. Must Rava agree? (Or, can he say that R. Shimon merely explains the first Tana?)
Answer: Rava can say that R. Shimon merely explains the first Tana. He teaches that the Amos of Kil'ayim are smiling.
Question: If so, he should have said just this! Why did he say 'all the Amos of Kil'ayim are six Tefachim'?
Suggestion: He excludes Amos of Sukah and Mavoy.
Answer: No, he excludes Amos of the Yesod (base) and Sovev (walkway surrounding the Mizbe'ach. We explain like the Hagahah in Rashi):
"V'Eleh Midos ha'Mizbe'ach ba'Amos Amah Amah v'Tofach" refers to Amos [of the outer Mizbe'ach -- "veha'Ari'el Shteim Esre Orech..." - 43:16] that are a [small] Amah and a Tefach (six Tefachim in all);
(The following are small Amos.) "V'Cheik ha'Amah" refers to the base. "V'Amah Rochav" is the Sovev. "U'Gvulah El Sefasah Soviv Zeres ha'Echad" are the corners. "V'Zeh Gav ha'Mizbe'ach" is the inner Mizbe'ach.
SHI'URIM, CHATZITZOS AND MECHITZOS
(R. Chiya bar Ashi): Shi'urim, Chatzitzos (blockages that invalidate immersion) and Mechitzos are a tradition from Moshe from Sinai.
Question: Shi'urim are explicit in the Torah!
(Rav Chanan): The entire verse "Eretz Chitah u'Se'orah v'Gefen u'Se'enah v'Rimon Eretz Zeis Shemen u'Dvash" teaches about Shi'urim!
Chitah - (Mishnah): If one enters Beis ha'Menuga (a house with Tzara'as) with clothes resting on his shoulder, and holding sandals and rings, he and his clothes are Temei'im immediately;
If he enters wearing his clothes, sandals and rings, he is Tamei immediately, but his clothes are Temei'im only after he tarries the time needed to eat a half loaf of bread (the volume of three or four eggs);
We gauge the time to eat wheat bread (this is less than the time to eat barley bread), reclining, with an accompaniment on the bread.
Se'orah - (Mishnah): A bone [of a Mes] the size of a barley seed is Metamei through Maga and Masa (touching or moving), but not in an Ohel (towering above or below it, or being under a common roof with it);
Gefen - a Nazir is liable for [eating what grows from vines] the volume of a Revi'is of wine. (This is more than a Revi'is of water, for wine is thick. When one fills a Kli above the brim with wine it does not spill out as soon as when it is filled with water. The difference depends on the dimensions of the Kli. We must gauge the Revi'is according to a standard Revi'is Kli.)
Te'enah - one who takes out [from Reshus ha'Yachid to Reshus ha'Rabim] on Shabbos food the volume of a dried fig is liable;
Rimon - (Mishnah): If a [wooden] Kli of a Ba'al ha'Bayis (i.e. not a craftsman) has a hole the size of a pomegranate, it is Tahor.
"Eretz Zeis Shemen" - (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): All the Shi'urim of Eretz Yisrael are the size of an olive.
Objection: This cannot be! Also each of the other fruits is a Shi'ur!
Correction: Most of the Shi'urim of Eretz Yisrael are a k'Zayis (e.g. liability for eating Chelev, blood...)
Devash - one who eats the volume of a large date on Yom Kipur is liable.
Counter-question: These Shi'urim are not explicit!
Answer: Rather, they are a tradition from Sinai. The verse is an Asmachta (an allusion to the laws.)
Question: Chatzitzos are not a tradition. They are explicit in the Torah!
(Beraisa): "V'Rochatz ba'Mayim Es Kol Besaro" teaches that nothing may separate between his flesh and the water;
"Ba'Mayim" - in a Mikveh;
"Kol Besaro" - the Mikveh must contain the entire body [of an average size person].
Question: How big is this?
Answer: It is [the volume of] an Amah by an Amah and three Amos tall (it need not have this shape). Chachamim calculated that this is 40 Sa'im.
Answer #1: The tradition is needed for hair:
(Rabah bar Rav Huna): If one hair is knotted [by itself], it is a Chatzitzah. Three hairs knotted together are not a Chatzitzah; I do not know about two.
Rejection: Also hair is explicit in the Torah!
(Beraisa): "V'Rochatz ba'Mayim Es Kol Besaro" - he must immerse [even] what is secondary to his skin, i.e. his hair.
Answer #2: The tradition is needed to teach about a majority or minority [of the body; Rashi - of the hair] about which the person is or is not Makpid (insistent to remove it):
(R. Yitzchak): Mi'Dioraisa, a Chatzitzah on the majority that he is Makpid about is Chotzetz (invalidates the immersion);
Chachamim decreed to disqualify [Tevilah when there was a Chatzitzah on] a majority when he is not Makpid, due to when he is Makpid, and to disqualify a minority he is Makpid about it, due to a majority he is Makpid about.
Question: Why didn't they decree about a minority when he is not Makpid, due to a minority when he is Makpid, or due to a majority when he is not Makpid?
Answer: Both of these are Chotzetz only mid'Rabanan. We do not decree due to a decree!
Question: Mechitzos are explicit in the Torah!
It was taught that the Aron was nine Tefachim tall and the Kapores (its cover) was a Tefach, altogether it was 10 tall. (The Shechinah spoke from on top of it, but it never descended lower than 10. This shows that 10 Tefachim divides Reshuyos.)
Answer: Mechitzos are a tradition according to R. Yehudah, who says that the Amos of Binyan (dimensions of the Mikdash itself) are of six Tefachim, and the Amos of Kelim are five Tefachim. (The Aron was one and a half Amos, i.e. seven and a half Tefachim tall, so he cannot learn 10 Tefachim like above.)
Question: According to R. Meir, all the Amos are intermediate (six Tefachim. The smallest Amah has five Tefachim, and the largest Amos (used by workers who supply to Hekdesh) are a finger or a half above six Tefachim). How can we answer?
Answer: He needs a tradition for Gud [Achis or Gud Asik, i.e. to consider a wall to extend downward or upward], Lavud (if a gap is less than three Tefachim, it is considered to be filled in), and Dofen Akumah.
REDUCING THE HEIGHT OF THE KORAH
Question: If a Korah is more than 20 Amos above the ground, and one wants [to build a platform underneath it] to reduce the gap, how much must he reduce it?
Objection: This is obvious! We reduce it to be less than 20!
Clarification: Rather, how far must the platform extend [along the length of the Mavoy? The length of a Mavoy is from the opening to the middle (opposite) wall. The width is the distance between the other sides.]
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): It must be a Tefach.
Answer #2 (Abaye): It must be four [Tefachim].
Suggestion: They argue about whether or not one may carry under the Korah. (Rav Yosef permits. We say Pi Tikra Yored v'Sosem, i.e. we consider its outer edge to descend to make a Mechitzah, so under the Korah is within the walls of the Mavoy. The Korah is Nikar (noticeable) to someone standing underneath (it is less than 20 Amos above the floor he stands on). Abaye forbids carrying under the Korah. We consider its inner edge to descend, so under the Korah is outside the 'wall'. The Korah must be Nikar from a place where people may carry (Me'iri - from a place that is considered to be inside the Mavoy), so the platform must extend past the [Tefach] thickness of the Korah. Since it must be more than a Tefach, we require an important Shi'ur, i.e. four Tefachim. See Perush Chai diagram, Perek 1 number 24 in the English Charts section.)