[19a - 52 lines; 19b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara and Rashi)
 Gemara 19b [line 22]:
"Ela Hachi ka'Amar Lehu, Alfuha b'Gezeirah Shavah" אלא הכי קאמר להו אלפוה בגזרה שוה
The word "Ela" אלא seems to be unnecessary
1)[line 5]קרן כרכוםKEREN KARKOM- luster of saffron. This means (a) like the earth in a corner of a garden in which saffron plants grow (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) like its leaves which have a brilliant color (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
2)[line 6]מימי אדמהMEIMEI ADAMAH- a suspension of a certain type of clay in water
3)[line 6]מזוגMAZUG- diluted red wine
4)[line 6]מימי תלתןMEIMEI TILTAN- water in which fenugreek (O.F. fenogre) is soaked
5)[line 7]הירוקHA'YAROK- the color yellow (see Insights to Nidah 19:1)
6)[line 11]חרתCHERES- (O.F. adrement) vitriol, black ink used by shoemakers
7a)[line 11]עמוק מכןAMOK MI'KEN- darker than this
b)[line 12]דיהה מכןDEIHEH MI'KEN- (O.F. paldes) lighter than this
8)[line 12]ברור שבוBARUR SHE'BO- the clearest (i.e., brightest) part of it
9)[line 13]בקעת בית כרםBIK'AS BEIS KEREM- a valley in the Galil in the vicinity of present day Karmiel
10)[line 13]מיצף מיםMEITZAF MAYIM- he should pour water over the earth such that it is just covered
11)[line 14]היין השרוניHA'YAYIN HA'SHARONI- the wine from Sharon, a district of Eretz Yisrael located on the coastal plain between Haifa and Tel Aviv
12)[line 17]"כי יפלא ממך דבר למשפט, בין דם לדם, [בין דין לדין,] ובין נגע לנגע, [דברי ריבות בשעריך; וקמת ועלית אל המקום אשר יבחר ה' א-לקיך בו]""KI YIPALEI MIMCHA DAVAR LA'MISHPAT, BEIN DAM L'DAM, [BEIN DIN L'DIN,] U'VEIN NEGA LA'NEGA, [DIVREI RIVOS BI'SH'ARECHA; V'KAMTA V'ALISA EL HA'MAKOM ASHER YIVCHAR HASH-M EL-KECHA BO]"- "If there arises a matter too hard for you in judgment, between blood and blood, [between judgment and judgment,] and between affliction and affliction, [being matters of controversy inside your gates; then you shall arise and go up to the place which HaSh-m your G-d will choose]" (Devarim 17:8) - "Nega," affliction, refers to Nega Tzara'as — see below, entry #15a.
13)[line 19]בין נגע לנגעBEIN NEGA L'NEGA- see previous entry
14)[line 21]כולו הפך לבן; טהור הואKULO HAFACH LAVAN; TAHOR HU (NIG'EI ADAM: PARACH B'CHULO)
A person whose mark of Tzara'as (see next entry) spreads over his entire body becomes Tahor as the verse states, "Kulo Hafach Lavan; Tahor Hu" (Vayikra 13:13).
15a)[line 22]נגעי אדםNIG'EI ADAM (NEGA'IM: NIG'EI VASAR / NIG'EI HA'ROSH)
(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors — see (b) below.) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah; see below, b:1-4) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger, or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.
(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Nig'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah, Nesek, Karachas or Gabachas.
1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white (see (c) below), sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basar are:
i.the lesion spreads ("Pisyon");
ii.two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin;
iii.a patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in the middle of the Nega.
2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refer to the Tzara'as of a boil or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. These marks are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei (Nega'im 9:2). Their signs of Tum'ah are:
i.the mark spreads (Pisyon);
ii.two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.
3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp, beard or eyebrows. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring of normal hair around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah and Taharah of a Nesek are:
i.the Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") — that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek;
ii.two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on the skin.
iii.Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.
4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refer to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process — see RASH to Negaim 10:10 and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei — Negaim 10:10.)
(c)The four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are:
1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;
2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;
3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;
4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).
(d)For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Chulin 82:5.
b)[line 23]נגעי בתיםNIG'EI BATIM
(a)The marks of Tzara'as for houses consist of intense green or intense red streaks or spots that are at least the size of two Gerisin (a Gris is a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 12:3). If Tzara'as is found on the walls of a house, it is put into quarantine by a Kohen for a week. Before the Kohen puts the house into quarantine, he commands that the house be emptied of its contents to prevent its utensils from becoming Tamei.
(b)The Torah states (Vayikra 14:39) "v'Shav ha'Kohen," to prescribe that the Kohen return six days later to check the house. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(c)On the other hand, if the Tzara'as did not change after the first week, the Kohen leaves it as is and returns again six days later. The verse states (Vayikra 14:44) "u'Va Ha'kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If the Tzara'as has either spread or remained, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week (Vayikra 14:40). If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.
(d)Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely, the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezerah Shavah. Just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week — unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine — so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.
(e)If during one of the inspections at the end of the first or second week the Kohen finds that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it can no longer be classified as a Nega, the location of the spot alone is scraped and the house is declared Tahor after the owner follows the procedure for being Metaher houses (see Background to Sukah 13:11:IV). (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2)
c)[line 23]נגעי בגדיםNIG'EI BEGADIM
(a)The marks of Tzara'as for clothes consist of intense green or intense red marks that are at least the size of one Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 11:4).
(b)If Tzara'as is found on a garment, it is put into Hesger (quarantine) by a Kohen for a week. If the marks remained the same size, the garment is washed and put into quarantine for yet another week (ibid. 11:5).
(c)If, either when the Kohen first sees them or at the end of one week, the marks are seen to have increased in size, the garment is termed "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned.
(d)If after the second week the Tzara'as has either remained the same or spread, the garment becomes "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned. If the marks of Tzara'as remain but have faded somewhat, then only the part of the garment that bears the marks of Tzara'as is cut out from the garment and burned, and the rest of the garment is Tahor. A patch is sewn in place of the part that was removed. If Tzara'as returns to either the garment or the patch after the original Tzara'as has been removed, the entire garment is burned.
(e)Garments that are Muchlat (i.e. that contain Tzara'as that must be burned) are Asur b'Hana'ah.
16)[line 26]אם בהרת קודם לשער לבןIM BAHERES KADAM L'SE'AR LAVAN
See above, entry #15a.
17)[line 29]כהה וטהורKEHEH V'TAHOR- [it is as if the mark of Tzara'as became] dull, and [this is a sign that the Metzora is] Tahor
18)[line 31]אין הבית טמאEIN HA'BAYIS TAMEI
See above, entry #15b.
19)[line 32]כשני גריסיןK'SHNEI GERISIN- [marks of Tzara'as] the size of two Cilician beans (which are approximately the size of a dime)
20)[line 32]קרן זויתKEREN ZAVIS- a corner
21a)[line 34]כתיב "קיר"KESIV "KIR"- the verse states "u'Mar'eihen Shafal Min ha'Kir" - "and their appearance seems to be set in to the wall (lit. lower than the wall)" (Vayikra 14:37)
b)[line 34]כתיב "קירות"KESIV "KIROS"- the verse states "v'Hinei ha'Nega b'Kiros ha'Bayis" - "and behold, the plague is in the walls of the house" (Vayikra 14:37)
22)[line 38]פריחת בגדיםPERICHAS BEGADIM (NIG'EI BEGADIM: PARACH KULO LAVAN)
If the marks of Tzara'as on a garment spread to the entire cloth, the cloth is Tahor. Rebbi Nasan ben Avtulmus learns this from the Tzara'as of a person, where the Torah states that if the marks of Tzara'as spread over his entire body, he becomes Tahor, as stated in the verse, "Kulo Hafach Lavan Tahor Hu" (Vayikra 13:13).
23a)[line 38]נאמר קרחת וגבחת בבגדיםNE'EMAR KARACHAS V'GABACHAS B'VEGADIM- the Torah uses the words "Karachas" and "Gabachas" with regard to the Tzara'as of clothing, in the verse, "Pecheses Hi, b'Karachto O v'Gabachto" - "It is a penetrating mark on the smooth or fluffy side [of the cloth]"; alt., "on his new or worn cloth" (Vayikra 13:55).
b)[line 39]ונאמר קרחת וגבחת באדםV'NE'EMAR KARACHAS V'GABACHAS B'ADAM- and the Torah uses the words "Karachas" and "Gabachas" with regard to the Tzara'as of a person, in the verse, "v'Chi Yiheyeh va'Karachas O va'Gabachas, Nega Lavan Adamdam; Tzara'as Porachas Hi b'Karachto O v'Gabachto" - "However, if he has a bright pink mark on his bald spot or where his hairline has receded, it may be a sign of the Tzara'as plague on his bald spot or hairless forehead" (Vayikra 13:42).
24)[line 43]"... ויראו מואב [מנגד] את המים אדומים כדם""... VA'YIR'U MO'AV [MI'NEGED] ES HA'MAYIM ADUMIM KA'DAM"- "[And they (the Mo'avim) arose in the morning and the sun shone on the water,] and the Mo'avim saw [from afar] that the water was as red as blood" (Melachim II 3:22) - Since the Mo'avim had never seen water in that dry river bed before, the sun shining on the water sent by HaSh-m gave it the appearance of a flowing river of blood.
25)[line 47]שחור אדום הוא, אלא שלקהSHACHOR ADOM HU, ELA SHE'LAKAH- black [blood] is red [blood], but it has changed [color after it came out of the body]
26)[line 48]כחולKACHOL- blue
27)[line 10]אמנאA'MANA- on a garment
28)[line 17]מתעגל ויוצאMIS'AGEL V'YOTZEI- it builds up inside the body until it eventually comes out
29)[line 20]"[ו]דם חללים [ישתה]""[V']DAM CHALALIM [YISHTEH]"- "and it drinks the blood of those it has killed" (Bamidbar 23:24) - The word "Yishteh" compares blood with the liquids that bring about Hechsher Ochalin (see Background to Kerisus 13:4).
30)[line 22]אלפוה בגזירה שוהALFUHA B'GEZEIRAH SHAVAH - learn it through a Gezeirah Shavah (GEZEIRAH SHAVAH)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is Gezeirah Shavah, which is a Halachic device by which two similar words in the Torah from different subjects teach that laws from one subject apply to the other.
(b)A sage may use the method of Gezeirah Shavah only if he received a tradition from his teachers that a Gezeirah Shavah exists between the two words. However, the comparison that he makes regarding which laws are applied from one subject to the other may be his own, in the event that he did not learn this directly from his teachers.
(c)MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah between the two topics.
(d)MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a Gezeirah Shavah ("Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin"), or if they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezeirah Shavah ("Lemedin u'Meshivin").
(e)EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah, there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezeirah Shavah if we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezeirah Shavah, or if they cannot be used at all for a Gezeirah Shavah.
(f)If there are a few possible Halachos that the Gezeirah Shavah teaches, we learn them all ("Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah"). We do not say that it teaches only one or two of the Halachos (unless we have an explicit teaching that excludes a specific Halachah).
31)[line 23]"שלחיך פרדס רמונים [עם פרי מגדים; כפרים עם נדרים]""SHELACHAYICH PARDES RIMONIM [IM PRI MEGADIM; KEFARIM IM NERADIM]"- "Your offshoots are an orchard of pomegranates [with precious fruits, henna with spikenard]" (Shir ha'Shirim 4:13) - The Gemara interprets this verse homiletically to mean, "When you send forth the blood of Nidah, you are like a locked-up orchard and thereby produce precious children...." (The previous verse reads, "Gan Na'ul Achosi Chalah; Gal Na'ul, Ma'ayan Chasum" - "As chaste as a locked garden, My sister, O bride; a spring that is locked up, a sealed fountain.")
32)[line 23]"[הנותן מטר על פני ארץ;] ושלח מים על פני חוצות""[HA'NOSEN MATAR AL PNEI ARETZ;] V'SHOLE'ACH MAYIM AL PNEI CHUTZOS"- "[Who gives rain upon the earth,] and sends water upon the fields" (Iyov 5:10).
33)[line 24]אדם דן קל וחומר מעצמו ואין אדם דן גזירה שוה מעצמוADAM DAN KAL VA'CHOMER ME'ATZMO V'EIN ADAM DAN GEZEIRAH SHAVAH ME'ATZMO - a person may develop a Kal va'Chomer argument by himself, but he may not develop a Gezeirah Shavah comparison by himself (KAL VA'CHOMER)
(a)In the Introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash to Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists thirteen methods that Chazal use for extracting the Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called a Kal va'Chomer (an argument a fortiori, also known as "Din" in the language of the Gemara), by which a Halachic inference is made from a Halachah of lesser consequence to a Halachah of greater consequence, or vice versa.
(b)Unlike a Gezeirah Shavah (see above, entry #30), Adam Dan Kal va'Chomer me'Atzmo, the Kal va'Chomer inference need not be received as a tradition from one's teacher, since it is based upon logic. And unlike a Hekesh (see Background to Kerisus 22:14), it can be refuted based on logical grounds.
(c)When a Kal va'Chomer argument can be used to teach either a leniency or a stringency, we use the Kal va'Chomer to teach a stringency (see Rashi for the use of the term "Parchinan" (lit. "we ask") in the context of the application of a Kal va'Chomer).
34a)[line 35]מאכולת של ראשMA'ACHOLES SHEL ROSH- head-lice
b)[line 36][מאכולת] דכוליה גופה[MA'ACHOLES] D'CHULEI GUFA- body-lice