[21a - 52 lines; 21b - 44 lines]
1)[line 1]הורצהHURTZAH- it is acceptable [to Hash-m] (see Background to Pesachim 34:19)
(a)A Shvus is an action prohibited by the Chachamim on Shabbos or Yom Tov. The Torah states "... uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos" - "... and you shall rest on the seventh day" (Shemos 23:12). The Rabanan understood this to apply even to actions that are not Melachos, and as a result they prohibited actions that would otherwise be permitted (see Shabbos 114b). The term "Shvus" is derived from the word "Tishbos" in the Pasuk.
3)[line 7]וכי מה בין זה לנדרים ונדבות?V'CHI MAH BEIN ZEH L'NEDARIM U'NEDAVOS?- what is the difference between this case and that of voluntary Korbanos [in which both their owner and Hash-m, as it were, have a stake, and yet which may not be slaughtered and offered on Yom Tov]?
4)[line 9]עורבא פרחORVA PARACH- a) look at the flying raven! (this was an intentional distraction; RASHI); b) [This question is worthy of young boys who] race ravens (RABEINU CHANANEL)
5)[line 9]כי נפקKI NAFAK- when he left
6)[line 10]דמשתבח ליה מר בגויהD'MISHTABE'ACH LEI MAR B'GAVEI- whom Mar ("Sir"; a respectful third-person term) praised
7)[line 12]אני היום "סַמְּכוּנִי בָּאֲשִׁישׁוֹת; רַפְּדוּנִי בַּתַּפּוּחִים"ANI HAYOM "SAMCHUNI BA'ASHISHOS; RAPDUNI BA'TAPUCHIM"- the following verse applies to me today: "Sustain me with glasses [of wine]; surround me with apples ..." (Shir ha'Shirim 2:5). This means that a) I am exhausted from delivering the Yom Tov Derashah, and therefore lack the strength to delve into deep issues until I eat something (RASHI); b) Today, I have been appointed as Rosh Yeshiva. "Samchuni" refers to Semichah (Rabbinic ordination), "Ashishos" to Halachos, and "Tapuchim" to Agados (the homiletic interpretations of the Gemara) (Maseches Sofrim 16:4). I must therefore exert my authority more forcefully than usual and must not engage in debate, in order to affirm my position (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH).
8)[line 18]משלחן גבוה קא זכוMI'SHULCHAN GAVO'AH KA ZACHU
(a)A Korban Olah is completely consumed on the Mizbe'ach. Parts of every other Korban, however, are consumed by people. The Kohanim receive the Chazeh (chest) and Shok (upper right foreleg) as one of the twenty-four gifts given to Kohanim. Additionally, the owner receives portions of many Korbanos.
(b)Kohanim and the owner of a Korban do not have these rights due to that which they own a portion of the animal offered. Rather, once the service of the offering has been completed, these portions of the Korban are given to them as a gift, so to say, by Hash-m Himself. This concept is known as "mi'Shulchan Gavo'ah Ka Zachu" --- "they receive their portions from Hash-m's table".
9)[line 22]עיסהISAH- dough
10)[line 23]למפלגה בלישהL'MIFLEGAH B'LISHAH- to knead it and divide it in two
11)[line 24]עיסת כלביםISAS KELAVIM- a) dough made from coarse flour intended as dog food (BARTENURA to Chalah 1:8, based upon the opinion of Reish Lakish in Yerushalmi Chalah 1:5); b) a regular dough made with the intention that it would be used for dog food (TUR YD 330 in the name of the RAMBAN, based upon the opinion of Rebbi Ba b'Shem Shmuel in Yerushalmi ibid.)
(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "...b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz...Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I shall bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tithe) to Hash-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).
(b)When one makes a dough from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion which must be given to the Kohen before he may eat from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah applies to a volume of dough made with at least 43.2 Beitzim of flour [about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters]. One who makes a dough that is at least approximately half of that size must separate Chalah without a Berachah.) A professional baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while one baking bread for his or her own household must separate 1/24. If one did not separate Chalah from his dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the bread may be consumed. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to receive the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).
(c)Chalah may be eaten by Kohanim and their households while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to receive Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).
13)[line 26]מערבין בה ומשתתפין בהME'ARVIN BAH U'MISHTATFIN BAH (ERUVEI CHATZEIROS, SHITUFEI MAVO'OS)
(a)According to Torah law, in a Chatzer (courtyard) containing different houses owned by different people, each homeowner may transfer objects from his own house into the common courtyard and into another's house on Shabbos. Although each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(b)King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by one party to that owned by another is forbidden, unless an "Eruv Chatzeros" (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6, or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeros for an alley or a city is called a "Shituf Mevo'os".) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread in a common container in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This demonstrates that all of the neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they each have an equal share in the bread. Through this act, their respective houses can be considered as one Reshus (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9).
14)[line 26]מברכין עליהMEVARCHIM ALEHA- one recites the Berachah of "ha'Motzi" over it
15)[line 28]אדם יוצא בה ידי חובתו בפסחYOTZ'IN BAH YEDEI CHOVASAN B'PESACH- one may [bake it into Matzah and] use it to fulfill his obligation [to eat a k'Zayis of Matzah] on [the first night of] Pesach
16)[line 28]ואמאי?VA'AMAI?- why [is it permitted to bake the entire dough on Yom Tov]?
17)[line 30]לפייסן בנבלהL'FAISAN B'NEVEILAH- to appease [the dogs] with an animal carcass
18)[line 34]מקלעי ליהMIKLA'I LEI- it may occur
19)[line 38]בני באגאBNEI BAGA- villagers
20)[line 38]דרמו עלייהו קמחא דבני חילאD'RAMU ALAIHU KIMCHA DI'VENEI CHEILA- that are responsible to bake bread for the [Nochri] army
21)[line 40]רפתאRIFTA- [some of the] bread
22)[line 40]ינוקאYENUKA- a child
23)[line 43]התימניHA'TIMNI- from Timnas (alt. Timnah). This is the village of Tibnah, located between Beit Shemesh and Yavneh. At the time it was a major city.
24)[line 43]אמשEMESH- the evening before, which was the beginning of Yom Tov
25)[line 46]בלשתBALESHES- a plundering army
26)[line 46]לחטוףLA'CHTOF- to seize
27)[line 47]פטרנוםPATARNUM- we sent them on their way
28a)[line 9]סופליSUFLEI- date pits
b)[line 9]לחיותא היכי שדינן להו?L'CHEIVASA HEICHI SHADINAN LEHU?- how can we throw them to animals [as food]? [Since they are not fit for human consumption, they should be Muktzah (see below, entry # 37)!]
29)[line 11]להסקהL'HASAKAH- as fuel for fire [that is permitted to light on Yom Tov]
30a)[line 11]יבישתאYEVEISHTA- dry [date pits]
b)[line 11]רטיבתאRETIVTA- moist [date pits]
31)[line 14]מטלטלינן להו אגב ריפתאMETALTELINAN LEHU AGAV RIFTA- they may be moved using bread [as a utensil to handle them; this is not considered disgraceful to the bread]
32)[line 15]ופליגאU'PELIGA- and [that which Rav Huna permitted the baking of bread for a Nochri army when they allowed some of it to be given to a child] is in disagreement with
33)[line 20]שיורי כוסותSHIYUREI CHOSOS- [wine] remaining in their cups. The Gemara assumes that this is a problem since the wine is disgusting and therefore Muktzah.
34)[line 22]איסורי הנאה נינהוISUREI HANA'AH NINHU (STAM YEINAM)
(a)One may not derive benefit (Hana'ah) from wine poured as a libation to an idol (Yayin Nesech). This is understood from the verse, "They will consume the fat of their offerings, they will imbibe the wine they will pour ..." (Devarim 32:38). Yayin Nesech is compared to an offering made to Avodah Zarah, which is Asur b'Hana'ah.
(b)The Chachamim forbade all wine belonging to a Nochri (Stam Yeinam) for fear that sharing wine with Nochrim will lead to intermarriage. So as to avoid confusion between Yayin Nesech and Stam Yeinam, the Chachamim extended the prohibition against Stam Yeinam to include Hana'ah. Although this prohibition is only Rabbinic in nature, it must be treated very seriously (see Chochmas Adam 75:1).
35)[line 23]מטלטלין כנונא אגב קטמיהMETALTELIN KANONA AGAV KITMA- one may move a brazier (pan in which coal is burned) [on Shabbos, when it is a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur (see Background to 11:18)] due to the ashes [it contains, which one requires to cover spit, feces, etc. on the dirt floor]
36)[line 24]שברי עציםSHIVREI ETZIM- broken pieces of wood [that were not burned, and are therefore unusable and Muktzah]
37)[line 26]גרף של רעיGRAF SHEL RE'I
(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated". With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention of using on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos (twilight) at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved on Shabbos. That which a person finds disgusting, such as garbage, is included in the category of Muktzah.
(b)If a disgusting Muktzah item is lying near where one wishes to be, the Chachamim allowed one to move it due to the honor of Shabbos. Such an item is referred to as a Graf Shel Re'i (pan of excrement), as this is a prime example of such an item.
(c)Our Gemara teaches that one must avoid a situation that will lead to such an allowance. One may not, for example, pile date pits in one place at the table, since the pile will eventually reach a point at which no one will wish to sit in front of it.
38)[line 27]אדבריהADBEREI- took him for a walk
39)[line 31]חמיןCHAMIN- hot water
40)[line 32]מדורהMADURAH- a bonfire
41)[line 33]הנאת כל גופוHANA'AS KOL GUFO- that which gives pleasure to the entire body [similar to eating food]
42)[line 36]טומניןTOMNIN- insulate from all sides
43)[line 37]זוקפין את המנורהZOKFIN ES HA'MENORAH- straighten a lamp (this implies no more than picking it up when it has fallen)
44a)[line 37]גריציןGERITZIN- a) thick loaves (RASHI); b) large loaves (TOSFOS 22b DH d'Nefisha)
b)[line 38]רקיקיןREKIKIN- thin loaves (RASHI); b) small loaves (TOSFOS 22b DH d'Nefisha)
c)[line 40]חרריןCHARARIN- flat loaves baked directly on top of coals
45)[line 40]היכי דמי?HEICHI DAMI?- what is the case [in which Beis Shamai does not allow one to insulate water on Yom Tov, which implies that Beis Hillel does]?
46)[line 43]כדי חייוKEDEI CHAYAV- lit. what is necessary for life; a minimal amount