[34a - 40 lines; 34b - 30 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 34b DH uv'Be'alim ד"ה ובבעלים:

The words "Ho'il v'Eino ka'Basar Atzmo" הואיל ואינו כבשר עצמו

should be "Ho'il v'Eino ba'Basar Atzmo" הואיל ואינו בבשר עצמו

[2] Rashi 34b DH Iy Amrat Bishlema ד"ה אי אמרת בשלמא:

The words "Chashvinan Lei Pesul Chesron Mechitzos" חשבינן ליה פסול חסרון מחיצות

should be "d'Chashvinan Lei k'Pesul Chesron Mechitzos" דחשבינן ליה כפסול חסרון מחיצות (see Tosfos Rabeinu Peretz)


1)[line 1]בשליקתא ומאיסתאSHELIKASA U'ME'ISASA- when [the kernels of wheat] were boiled and then became loathsome (after being thrown amongst the firewood). Rav Huna still does not allow one to use kernels in such a case, for he may come to eat the kernels before or during the cooking process.

2)[line 4]גבלGABAL- one who kneads dough

3)[line 5]בחיטין של תרומה טמאהB'CHITIN SHEL TERUMAH TEME'AH- they were using wheat kernels of Terumah Teme'ah as fuel to heat water when preparing food for Kohanim (Tosfos DH Mechamin)

4a)[line 8]תנו תרומותTANU TERUMOS- learned Maseches Terumos

b)[line 8]תנו תרומות בי רבהTANU TERUMOS BEI RABAH- The Gemara records this discussion here because it is eventually pertinent to the topic of squeezing juice from grapes, less than one k'Beitzah at a time.

5)[line 11]שתילי תרומותSHESILEI TERUMOS- plants of Terumah (i.e. cabbage and leeks of Terumah which were planted)

6)[line 12](טהורין) [טהרו] מלטמא(TEHORIN) [TAHARU] MIL'TAMEI- are Tahor in that they cannot be Metamei other things (since they are not considered food as they are attached to the ground)

7a)[line 16]גידולי תרומהGIDULEI TERUMAH- lit. that which grows from Terumah; i.e. the increase in growth of leaves and shoots which were Terumah before they were planted

b)[line 17]גידולי גידוליןGIDULEI GIDULIN- entirely new shoots and leaves that grow from planted Terumah

8)[line 18]בדבר שאין זרעו כלהDAVAR SHE'EIN ZAR'O KALAH- a plant containing a regenerative root or bulb (such as scallions; O.F. civot)

9)[line 24]בהיסח הדעתHESECH HA'DA'AS- removal of attention. The verse states in reference to Terumah: "Es Mishmeres Terumosai" — "the guarding of my Terumah" (Bamidbar 18:8). A positive commandment to actively guard Terumah — and not leave it unattended to — is derived from these words.

10a)[line 25]פסול הגוףPESUL HA'GUF- (a) a disqualification in its own right, which has nothing to do with the possibility that the food became Tamei (RASHI); (b) an intrinsic Pesul similar to the Pesul of a non-kosher piece of meat (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

b)[line 26]פסול טומאהPESUL TUM'AH- (a) a disqualification due to the possibility that the food came into contact with Tum'ah (RASHI); (b) an extrinsic Pesul (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

11)[line 26]מאי איכא למימרMAI IKA L'MEIMAR?- what is there to say? (a) Even if one knew with certainty that this Terumah was Tamei, from the time that it was planted the Tum'ah has disappeared! (RASHI); (b) The replanting of Terumah should set its status to Tahor when it has only an extrinsic Pesul, as it does with Terumah that has become Tamei. (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

12)[line 34]לול קטןLUL KATAN- (a) a small pit (RASHI); (b) a small shaft (RABEINU CHANANEL)

13)[line 34]בין כבש למזבח במערבו של כבשBEIN KEVESH LA'MIZBE'ACH, B'MA'ARAVO SHEL KEVESH- (a) in the floor next to the ramp of the Mizbe'ach near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (since this is where the Chat'as ha'Of is sacrificed — see next entry), at the point where the ramp meets the Mizbe'ach (RASHI); (b) in the western wall of the ramp, near the upper edge of the ramp, at the point where the ramp meets the Mizbe'ach (TIFERES YISRAEL, who understands "Lul" to mean a shaft like RABEINU CHANANEL)

14a)[line 36]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF

(a)The offering of a Chatas ha'Of consists of three procedures:

1.MELIKAH - Standing on the floor near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen holds the bird in his right hand and pierces its neck from the back with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut through one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus).

2.HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles the blood of the bird on the Mizbe'ach (directly from its neck) below the Chut ha'Sikra (a red line which ran from halfway up one end of the Mizbe'ach to the other, dividing it in half).

3.MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach, squeezing its blood onto the Mizbe'ach.

(b)After this process is complete, the Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim.


This literally means, "let their appearance become disfigured (through decay)." What this means practically is that the Chatas ha'Of in question must lie in the Lul overnight. The next day, it will have the status of "Nosar" and will require burning.

15)[line 37]אי אמרת בשלמא...IY AMRAT B'SHELAMA...- It is clear to the Gemara that the circumstances which require the Chatas ha'Of to remain in the Lul overnight are not those of a common Pesul such as that it became Tamei, Pigul, etc. In such cases, it may be burned immediately, for it is Pasul — and a Korban which is Pasul must be burned. It must be that it was left unattended, and the Pesul is one of Hesech ha'Da'as.


16)[line 4]פיגולPIGUL

(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Bsar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(b)If a person eats Pigul intentionally, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144).

17)[line 5]שיצא חוץ לקלעיםSHE'YATZA CHUTZ LA'KELA'IM- it (a slaughtered Korban of Kodshei Kodashim) left the area within the curtains (this is a reference to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, which corresponds to the area within the curtains of the Mishkan)

18)[line 8]הורצהHURTZAH (TZITZ MERATZEH)

(a)If a Korban or any part of a Korban becomes Tamei, it is unfit to be offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), the Zerikah may not be performed. Rebbi Yehoshua rules that even if the Dam is Tahor, if all of the meat and Chelev of a Korban become Tamei or otherwise unfit before Zerikas ha'Dam, it is prohibited to perform Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). Another application of this law is that if the Emurim (innards) or other parts of a Korban that are offered on the Mizbe'ach become Teme'im, the Kohanim may no longer offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)These laws, however, apply only l'Chatchilah. B'Di'eved, if the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz (see next entry) at the time during which a Kohen sprinkled Dam which was Tamei, then the presence of the Tzitz causes that Avodah to be accepted. This means that the owner has fulfilled his obligation of bringing that Korban, and he may therefore eat from his offering. This Halachah is derived from the verse, "... l'Ratzon Lahem Lifnei HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). If it was the meat that became Tamei, then the presence of the Tzitz does not allow it to be eaten, although it does render the Korban acceptable.

(c)Those who maintain that Tum'ah Hutrah b'Tzibur (see Background to Menachos 95:22) understand that Korbenos Tzibur (public sacrifices) do not require the Tzitz in order for them to be accepted as valid offerings. These offerings may be offered l'Chatchilah even while in a state of Tum'ah. Another related difference between Korbenos Tzibur and Korbenos Yachid according to this opinion is that even if all of the Kohanim are Teme'im, they may still offer Korbanos Tzibur l'Chatchilah. These Korbanos, when offered b'Tum'ah, may not be eaten (with the exception of the Korban Pesach, which has the status of a Korban Tzibur and may be eaten even b'Tum'ah).

19)[line 10]ציץTZITZ- the thin gold plate upon which was inscribed the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m", worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:36-38)

20)[line 11]בטבול יוםTEVUL YOM

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that has immersed in a Mikvah, but requires night to fall before becoming completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei at all.

(b)The answer of our Gemara is that when the Beraisa refers to a Korban that has become Pasul, it refers to one which has come into contact with a Tevul Yom.

21a)[line 12]כי סליק רביןKI SALIK RAVIN- when Ravin went up [to Eretz Yisrael from Bavel]

b)[line 13]אמרה לשמעתיהAMRAH L'SHEMA'ATEI- he relayed his teaching (in which Rav Sheshes explained that the reason why Terumah Teme'ah which was planted may not be eaten by Kohanim is due to Hesech ha'Da'as)

22)[line 14]בבלאי טפשאיBAVLA'EI TIPSHA'EI- foolish Babylonians

23)[line 14]בארעא דחשוכאB'AR'A D'CHASHOCHA- in a dark land (i.e., Bavel, referred to as such due to the fact that it is sits in a valley)

24)[line 16]מי החגMEI HE'CHAG (NISUCH HA'MAYIM)

A Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai teaches us that on Sukos in the Beis ha'Mikdash there is a Mitzvah of Nisuch ha'Mayim (lit. pouring of the water). Three Lugim (approx. 1.5 liter) of water are drawn from the Shilo'ach spring, which is located to the south of the Temple Mount. This water is then brought to the Azarah amidst a joyous procession, in fulfillment of the verse, "u'She'avtem Mayim b'Sason..." - "and you shall draw water with rejoicing..." (Yeshayah 12:3). The Kohen who is chosen to pour the water ascends the Mizbe'ach and pours the water from a golden flask into one of the Sefalim (silver libation pipes located in the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The Nisuch ha'Mayim takes place each day of Sukos at the time of the morning Tamid sacrifice amidst much rejoicing.

25)[line 17]השיקןHISHIKAN (HASHAKAH)

When water (or snow) that has become Tamei comes into contact with the surface of a Mikvah, it is Halachically considered to be connected to the water of the Mikvah and is therefore Mechubar (attached to the ground). This changes its status to Tahor, since anything attached to the ground is Tahor. This is called Hashakah, which literally means "kissing."

26)[line 17]זריעה נינהוZERI'AH NINHU!- it is planting! (That is, connecting Tamei water to that which is in to the ground is akin to "planting" it, as it causes the water to become Tahor.)

27a)[line 20]הקדישן בכליHEKDESHAN B'KLI- placing the Mei he'Chag in a Klei Shares

b)[line 20]בפהB'PEH- verbally designating the drawn water to be used for the Nisuch ha'Mayim

28)[line 21]מעלהMA'ALAH- [a] higher [standard[

29)[line 22]הקדישןHIKDISHAN- Rav Dimi took this to mean that after pressing the grapes, the wine was designated to be used for Nesachim (libations in the Beis ha'Mikdash)

30)[line 26]דרכן ואפילו טובא?!DARCHAN, VA'AFILU TUVA?!- [in the ruling quoted earlier in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, the implication of] "Darchan" [is that] even large amounts [of Tamei grapes at a time may be pressed and then sanctified, after which they are Tahor]

31)[line 29]דהוו להו שלישיD'HAVU L'HU SHELISHI (TUM'AS OCHLIN U'MASHKIN)

(a)All objects belong to one of three categories:

1.Sources of Tum'ah

2.Objects that can become Tamei

3.Objects that cannot become Tamei

(b)A source of Tum'ah is called an Av ha'Tum'ah. The exception to this is a corpse, which is referred to as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah," due to the fact that it can generate more Tum'ah than any other object. When an object becomes Tamei from coming into contact with an object which is Tamei, that object does not receive the same Tum'ah as that of the first object, but rather a level of Tum'ah one degree weaker than the first. If an object came into contact with an Av ha'Tum'ah, it is called a Rishon l'Tum'ah, or Vlad ha'Tum'ah. Tum'ah received from a Rishon creates a Sheni l'Tum'ah, and that from a Sheni creates a Shelishi (in certain cases), etc.

(c)Liquids are an exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids always remain a Rishon, even after having come into contact with a Sheni. There are differing opinions among the Tana'im as to which of the seven Halachic liquids are included in this decree. The seven Halachic liquids are water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey.

(d)A Sheni l'Tum'ah cannot transfer Tum'ah to Chulin; only Terumah and Kodesh can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (Although, if someone guards his Chulin from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi l'Tum'ah mid'Rabanan.) Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei," and it may not be eaten.

(e)Terumah which is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can only transfer Tum'ah to Kodesh (objects sanctified to be offered on the Mizbe'ach), which then becomes a Revi'i. Kodesh which is a Revi'i is also called "Pasul."

(f)The second answer offered by our Gemara is that when the grapes are a Sheni, they cause the juice touching them as it leaves the grapes to become a Rishon and one must therefore be careful to squeeze less than a k'Beitzah at a time. Before they are designated as Terumah or Kodesh, however, when the grapes are a Shelishi (mid'Rabanan due to the fact that they are Chulin she'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah), they cannot affect the liquid leaving the grapes at all.

32)[line 29]אף אנן נמי תנינאAF ANAN NAMI TENINA- we learned as well in a Beraisa [that even a verbal designation is enough for a higher standard to apply to Kodesh]

33)[last line]שתהא חיותן בכליSHE'TEHEI CHIYUSAN BA'KLI- (a) one must mix the Mei Chatas (see Background to Pesachim 17:20) in the same utensil with which one drew the fresh spring water, and not pour it into another vessel in the interim (RASHI); (b) the fresh spring water should be drawn in a utensil (not necessarily the one in which it will be made into Mei Chatas; RASH to Parah 9:3 — see Insights)