[11a - 42 lines; 11b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]דמתעכל קטרייהוD'MIS'AKEL KITRAIHU- their knot (that is, the one holding them together) comes undone

2a)[line 6]ומצא בתחתונהU'MATZA B'TACHTONAH- and he found [two birds on the shelf in front of] the bottom one

b)[line 6]ולא מצא בעליונהV'LO MATZAH B'ELYONAH- and he didn't find [any birds at all] in [or around] the top one

3a)[line 8]אשתרבובי אשתרבוב ונחותISHTARBUVEI ISHTARBUV V'NACHUS- descended and came down

b)[line 12]סרוכי סריך וסליקוSARUCHEI SARICH U'SELIKU- clambered and went up [even though they were unable to fly]

4)[line 13]מפורחיןMEFURACHIN- [pigeons] that are able to fly

5)[line 13]איכא למימר?IKA L'MEIMAR?- is it possible to say [that they are permitted]?

6)[line 14]מדדיןMEDADIN- [pigeons] that are [only] able to walk

7)[line 14]אדדויי אדדוADADUYEI ADADU- they certainly [may have] walked [from that nest, and therefore cannot be assumed to be those that were designated]

8)[line 17]דקיימא בקרן זויתD'KAIMA B'KEREN ZAVIS- that it is around a corner [of a building such that the jutting corner cuts off the line of vision from one nest to the other]

9)[line 18]והדר חזי לקניהV'HADAR CHAZI L'KINEI- and it can turn and see its nest

10)[line 19]עליELI- a thick board upon which spices are chopped with a pestle

11)[line 19]לקצבL'KATZEV- to chop

12)[line 20]עורOR- an animal hide

13)[line 20]לפני הדורסןLI'FNEI HA'DORSAN- in front of where people and animals tread [in order to soften it before beginning the tanning process]

14)[line 21]ושויןV'SHAVIN- and they agree

15)[line 21]שאם קצב עליו בשרSHE'IM KATZAV ALAV BASAR- that if he [finished] chopping meat upon it [and no longer has any need for it]

16)[line 22]תברא גרמיTAVRA GARMEI- lit. a bone breaker; a wooden chopping block intended for meat

17)[line 23]דאפי' תברא גרמי נמיD'AFILU TAVRA GARMA NAMI- that even a chopping block as well [may not be moved according to Beis Shamai, since he may change his mind after moving it, resulting in unnecessary expenditure of effort (Tircha Yeseirah) on Yom Tov]


(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated". With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention of using on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos (twilight) at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved on Shabbos.

(a)One type of Muktzah is a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur - a tool whose main use is for a purpose which is prohibited on Shabbos. A hammer, primarily used to drive nails, is an example of such a Muktzah item. Whether or not such a tool may be used l'Tzorech Gufo (for a permitted purpose on Shabbos or Yom Tov), such as using a hammer to crack nuts, is the subject the disagreement of Beis Hillel and Beis Shamai in our Mishnah. Beis Hillel rule that one may use a board upon which spices are generally ground (a prohibited action) to chop meat on Yom Tov (a permitted action). Beis Shamai maintain that a Davar she'Melachto l'Isur may not be used for even a permitted purpose.

(c)A Kli she'Melachto l'Isur may also be moved l'Tzorech Mekomo (so as to utilize the space that it had been occupying). One may not, however, move a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur in order to protect it, such as from the heat of the sun or from being stolen.

19)[line 21]איכא דאמריIKA D'AMRI- some explain [the reason for the necessity of Abaye's statement as follows]

20)[line 25]חדתיCHADTI- new

21)[line 26]ממלךMAMLECH- he will change his mind

22)[line 26]תברTAVAR- chop

23)[line 27]אין מוליכיןEIN MOLICHIN- one may not bring

24)[line 27]טבחTABACH- a butcher

25)[line 29]תבליןTAVLIN- spices

26)[line 29]מדוךMADOCH- a pestle

27)[line 29]מדוכהMEDOCHAH- a mortar

28)[line 31]נשבקNISHBAK- let us leave

29)[line 31]כחושהKECHUSHAH- scrawny

30)[line 35]שמולחין עליו בשר לצליSHE'MOLCHIN ALAV BASAR L'TZLI- that one may salt meat that one intends to roast [that is salted only a bit for added flavor] over [the hide of the animal, even though the overflow of salt helps to preserve it]

31)[line 36]קדרהKEDEIRAH- [meat cooked in] a pot [that must be salted heavily in order to be koshered]

32)[line 36]לצלי כעין קדרהL'TZELI K'EIN KEDEIRAH- [if one wishes to salt meat that one intends] to roast to the degree [that he must salt meat that he intends to cook in] a pot

33)[line 37]חלביםCHALAVIM

(a)Chelev refers to those fats of an animal offered upon the Mizbe'ach. This includes the layer of fat covering the stomachs of the animal, all other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat lining the kidneys along its flanks (Vayikra 3:4).

(b)One may not consume the Chelev of a kosher Behemah (domesticated animal), although one may derive any other benefit from it. "Shuman" is the term for all other fats of a Behemah that are permitted for consumption. Both Chelev and Shuman of a Chayah (non-domesticated animal) may be eaten.

(c)If one consumes Chelev intentionally, he is liable to receive Kares (see Background to Sukah 25:25); if he did so unintentionally, then he must offer a Korban Chatas (see Background to Yoma 61:35). If one is in doubt as to whether the fat that he ate was Chelev or Shuman, then he must offer a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background to ibid.).

(d)Since one is permitted to derive benefit from such fats, they are often preserved. This is accomplished through both salting as well as curing them by allowing them to hang in the air.

34)[line 37]מהפכין בהןMEHAPCHIN BAHEN- turn them over [so that the other side will cure from exposure to the air] (BACH Orach Chayim 499 DH Ein Molchin)

35)[line 38]שוטחןSHOTCHAN- one may spread them out

36)[line 38]יתדותYESEDOS- pegs

37)[last line]ממנעMIMNA- withhold


38)[line 1]לא מוכחא מלתאLO MUCHECHA MILSA- it is not obvious [that he has lain them on the ground in order to soften them for tanning]

39)[line 1]דחזי למזגא עליהD'CHAZI L'MIZGA ALEI- that it is fit to kneel (a common way of sitting then) upon

40)[line 3]לסרחLISRACH- spoil

41)[line 7]מעריםMA'ARIM- would act deceptively [in order to circumvent the Halachah forbidding salting related to food preservation]

42)[line 7]ומלח גרמא גרמאU'MALACH GARMA GARMA- and salt one piece at a time. Rav Ada bar Ahavah would first salt the least desirable piece to the degree that it was koshered, as if he wished to eat it. He would then "change his mind" and salt a different piece of lesser quality, and repeat the process.

43)[line 9]מסלקין את התריסיןMESALKIN ES HA'TRISIN- remove the shutters [of booth windows]. These shutters serve as display tables for the merchandise stored within these market booths when they are not sealing the windows. If one requires merchandise on Yom Tov (such as spices, for example) he may request it of a merchant who trusts him, as long as they leave all discussion of price and business until after Yom Tov.

44)[line 10]חנויותCHANUYOS- store [booth]s

45)[line 11]התירו סופן משום תחלתןHITIRU SOFAN MISHUM TECHILASAN- were permitted [by the Chachamim] to be completed [although they would not normally allow the final action] due to [that which if not for this allowance, they feared that no one would begin them, even though] their beginning [is necessary]

46)[line 13]חזרת רטיה במקדשCHAZARAS RETIYAH B'MIKDASH- the returning of a bandage [to a wound, which entails the Rabbinic prohibition of smearing ointment upon the bandage, to a Kohen who needed to remove it in order to perform the service ion the Beis ha'Mikdash]

47a)[line 14]הפותח חביתוHA'POSE'ACH CHAVISO- one who opens a [new] barrel [of wine so as to sell it cup by cup to those who have come to Yerushalayim for one of the three festivals]

b)[line 14]מתחיל בעיסתוHA'MASCHIL B'ISASO- one who begins [selling] bread (lit. his dough) [from a large loaf to those who have come to Yerushalayim for one of the three festivals]

48)[line 15]על גב הרגלAL GAV HA'REGEL- due to the festival. An Am ha'Aretz is the term used to describe an unlearned Jew who may be lax in his Torah observance (see Berachos 47b). The Chachamim require one to assume that an Am ha'Aretz is Tamei, and therefore any food that he comes in contact with is also Tamei. An exception to this is during the festival, when one is allowed to assume that everyone in Yerushalayim is Tahor. Thus, one need not suffer a loss if the large amount of food that he is selling to passers by is touched by an Am ha'Aretz.

49)[line 16]יגמורYIGMOR- he may finish it [even following the festival, assuming it is Tahor, just as he was able to assume that it was Tahor during the festival]

50)[line 19]מערב יום טובME'EREV YOM TOV- [if the animal had been slaughtered and skinned on] the day prior to Yom Tov (RASHI and some of the Ge'onim); (b) [if the animal had been slaughtered on] the day prior to Yom Tov [and has been skinned on Yom Tov] (RAMBAM, ROSH, RASHBA)

51)[line 22]אין בנין בכלים ואין סתירה בכליםEIN BINYAN B'CHELIM V'EIN SETIRAH B'CHELIM

(a)Binyan (building) and Setirah (dismantling) are two of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos (creative acts of labor) that are prohibited on Shabbos (Mishnah to Shabbos 73a).

(b)Beis Shamai explain that these prohibitions apply not only to buildings attached to the ground, but to movable utensils as well. Beis Hillel maintain that Binyan and Setirah do not apply to utensils (Beitzah 22a). The booths to which the Trisin discussed in the Mishnah quoted in our Gemara are not attached to the ground; therefore, Beis Hillel maintain that one cannot transgress Shabbos by adding to or subtracting from them.

52)[line 23]דבתיםD'BATIM- those [booths found] in houses

53)[line 25]אין שבות במקדשEIN SHVUS B'MIKDASH

(a)A Shvus is an action prohibited on Shabbos mid'Rabanan. The Torah states "... uva'Yom ha'Shevi'i Tishbos" - "... and you shall rest on the seventh day." (Shemos 23:12). The Rabanan understood this to apply even to actions that are not Melachos, and as a result they prohibited certain actions that are permitted mid'Oraisa (see Shabbos 114b). The term "Shvus" is derived from the word "Tishbos" in the Pasuk.

(b)The Chachamim did not intend for their Shvus decrees to apply in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is because Kohanim, who do most of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, are Zerizim (meticulous and able to be relied upon in their work; RABEINU YEHONASON, Eruvin 102a). Although this is the reason for Ein Shvus b'Mikdash, a Shvus does not apply even to non-Kohanim who are in the Beis ha'Mikdash (ME'IRI, Pesachim 65a; TOSFOS, Shabbos 123b).

(c)Rebbi Nasan maintains that Shvus decrees are not applied in the Beis ha'Mikdash only when necessary for the Avodah. The Chachamim are of the opinion that "Ein Shvus b'Mikdash" is a blanket rule applicable even to that which is not directly related to the Avodah (Pesachim 65a).

(d)TOSFOS in Shabbos (95a, DH Shara) points out that there are many exceptions to this rule. See also TOSFOS YOM TOV (end of DH Gavohah) and TUREI EVEN (Rosh Hashanah 29b, DH v'Rabanan), who write that concerning things that are not necessary for the Beis ha'Mikdash itself, the prohibitions of the Rabanan do apply. Carrying inside the Beis ha'Mikdash on Shabbos for one's personal needs, for example, is still prohibited.

54)[line 26]דלאו בר עבודה הואD'LAV BAR AVODAH HU- who is not performing the service [in the Beis ha'Mikdash]

55)[line 31]בפלוגתא לא קא מייריB'FELUGTA LO KA MAIRI- he did not include any matters subject to debate

56)[line 32]בית שמאי במקום בית הלל אינה משנהBEIS SHAMAI B'MAKOB BEIS HILLEL EINO MISHNAH- whenever Beis Hillel advances an opinion, that of Beis Shamai is considered so insignificant that it is as if it has not been quoted in the Mishnah

57)[line 36]צירTZIR- a peg [that fits into a hole in the booth, holding the shutter in place]

58)[line 37]ציר מן הצדTZIR MIN HA'TZAD- [two] peg[s, one on each side (alt. one on top and one on the bottom)]

59)[last line]ציר באמצעTZIR B'EMTZA- a) one peg in the middle [of one side] (RASHI, RAMBAN); b) one peg [jutting out from the door of the booth, upon which the display board hangs] (ROSH YOSEF) (See Insights)