1)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the actual ceremony that accompanied the Mitzvah of Aravah. Where is Motza, and what did they used to do there?

(b)What did the Kohanim then do with the Aravah branches?

(c)What did they do simultaneously?

(d)Each day, as the Kohanim walked round the Mizbe'ach (with the Aravah or the palm branches), they would say 'Ana Hash-m Hoshi'ah Na, Ana Hash-m Hatzlichah Na'. What did they say according to Rebbi Yehudah?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the actual ceremony that accompanied the Mitzvah of Aravah. Motza is a valley close to Yerushalayim - from where they would pick the branches for the Mitzvah of Aravah.

(b)The Kohanim would then take the branches to the Azarah and place them upright at the side of Mizbe'ach.

(c)Simultaneously - they would blow a Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah on the trumpets (out of pure joy - Tosfos DH 'Tak'u').

(d)Each day, as the Kohanim walked round the Mizbe'ach (with the Aravah or the palm branches), they would say 'Ana Hash-m Hoshi'ah Na, Ana Hash-m Hatzlichah Na'. According to Rebbi Yehudah - they would say 'Ani v'Ho Hoshi'ah Na'.

2)

(a)Which words are the equivalent numerical value of 'Ani v'Ho'?

(b)What is the meaning of 'Ani v'Ho'?

(c)What is its source?

(d)In what way did the ceremony differ on the seventh day from the other six days?

2)

(a)'Ana Hashem' is the equivalent numerical value of - 'Ani v'Ho'.

(b)'Ani v'Ho' means 'I' and 'He' (i.e. Klal Yisrael and Hash-m - a request that Hash-m should save His Shechinah, kiv'Yachol, from the Galus, together with Klal Yisrael.

(c)It is also two of the seventy-two three letter Names of Hash-m which emerge from the three consecutive Pesukim in Beshalach, "va'Yisa" ... "va'Yavo ... "va'Yet". This is done by taking the first letter of the first Pasuk, the last, of the middle Pasuk and the first, of the third; then the second letter of the first Pasuk, the second last, of the middle one, and the second, of the third, and so on). In this way, 'Veho' is the first Name, and 'Ani' the thirty-seventh.

(d)The ceremony differed on the seventh day from the other six days - inasmuch as they went round the Mizbe'ach seven times instead of only once.

3)

(a)What did they say upon taking leave from the Mizbe'ach, according to ...

1. ... the Tana Kama?

2. ... Rebbi Eliezer?

(b)How did the ceremony differ on Shabbos?

(c)In which point does Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah disagree with the Tana Kama?

(d)Why did the seventh day become known as 'Yom Chibut Chariyos' (the day of the banging of the branches)?

3)

(a)Upon taking leave from the Mizbe'ach, they would say, according to ...

1. ... the Tana Kama - 'Yofi Lecha Mizbe'ach, Yofi L'cha Mizbe'ach'.

2. ... Rebbi Eliezer - 'le'Kah u'Lecha Mizbe'ach, l'Kah u'Lecha Mizbe'ach'.

(b)The only difference between the ceremony on a weekday and the ceremony on a Shabbos was that, in the latter case - they would pick the Aravos on Erev Shabbos and leave them in golden barrels somewhere in the vicinity of the Azarah, to prevent them from withering.

(c)Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah disagrees with the Tana Kama - inasmuch as, in his opinion, it was not giant Aravos that they placed at the side of the Mizbe'ach each day, but giant Lulavim.

(d)The seventh day became known as 'Yom Chibut Chariyos' (the day of the banging of the branches) - because they would bang them on the ground beside the Mizbe'ach.

4)

(a)The Mishnah teaches us that the moment the Mitzvah of Lulav terminated, the grown-ups would snatch the children's Lulavim and eat their Esrogim. Why was there no problem of theft?

(b)Motza's real name was 'Kelanya'. Then why did they call it 'Motza'?

4)

(a)The Mishnah teaches us that the moment the Mitzvah of Lulav terminated, the grown-ups would snatch the children's Lulavim and eat their Esrogim. There was no problem of theft - because that was the Minhag (which evolved from the tremendous joy that everybody felt). Note, that Tosfos (DH 'Miyad') explains the Mishnah to mean simply that the children dropped their Lulavim and ate their Esrogim, in spite of Rashi's objection to this explanation, which we will deal with later.

(b)Motza's real name was 'Kelanya'. They called it 'Motza' - because, as a result of its contribution to this Mitzvah, its inhabitants were relieved (the translation of 'Motza') from paying taxes.

5)

(a)How tall were the willow-branches that they used in the Beis Hamikdash, and how far did they drag on the Mizbe'ach?

(b)How do we ...

1. ... arrive at the spare Amah?

2. ... prove from here that the Kohanim must have placed them on the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach, and not on the ground?

(c)How do we learn the above from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Isru Chag ba'Avosim Al Karnos ha'Mizbe'ach"?

(d)What does Rebbi Avahu quoting Rebbi Elazar, learn from the same Pasuk as regards someone who takes the Lulav and the Hadas?

5)

(a)The willow-branches that they used in the Beis Hamikdash were eleven Amos tall - and they dragged on the Mizbe'ach for a distance of one Amah.

(b)We ...

1. ... arrive at the spare Amah in the following way. The Beraisa gives their height as eleven Amos - three Amos taller than the actual height of the Mizbe'ach (two Amos beyond the height of the Mizbe'ach [not counting the Keranos] i.e. one Amah up and one Amah down; and an extra Amah which dragged on the Mizbe'ach).

2. ... prove from here that the Kohanim must have placed them on the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach, and not on the ground - since the Mizbe'ach was in fact, nine Amos tall, not eight, in which case they must have placed them one Amah from the ground (i.e. on the Yesod of the Mizbe'ach, and not on the ground (in which case we would also have to make a further reduction due to the angle).

(c)We learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Isru Chag ba'Avosim Al Karnos ha'Mizbe'ach" - that the branches ("Avosim") towered even above the Keranos of the Mizbe'ach.

(d)Rebbi Avahu quoting Rebbi Elazar, learns from "Isru (Chag) ... " (meaning 'bind!', which hints to the three species that are tied together) - that someone who takes the Lulav and the Hadas ... is considered as if he had built the Mizbe'ach and brought a Korban on it (Note: The numerical value of the four species is equivalent to the area of the Mizbe'ach - 32 x 32 Amos [1024]).

45b----------------------------------------45b

6)

(a)Rebbi Yirmeyahu quoting Rebbi Shimon (and Rebbi Yochanan ... , Rebbi Yochanan ha'Makusi) says the same about someone who celebrates Isru Chag as Rebbi Elazar just said about someone who takes the Lulav and the Hadas. How does one celebrate Isru Chag?

(b)What does he also learn from the Pasuk in Terumah (regarding the boards of the Mishkan) "Atzei Shitim Omdim"?

(c)Another Beraisa, which concurs with Rebbi Shimon, also learns two other Derashos from the same Pasuk. One of them is 'she'Ma'amidim es Tzipuyan'. What does that mean?

(d)What is the third Derashah?

6)

(a)Rebbi Yirmeyahu quotes Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yochanan ... , Rebbi Yochanan ha'Makusi say the same about someone who celebrates Isru Chag as Rebbi Elazar just said about someone who takes the Lulav and the Hadas. One celebrates Isru Chag - by eating and drinking more than usual.

(b)He also learns from the Pasuk in Terumah (regarding the boards of the Mishkan) "Atzei Shitim Omdim" - that all Mitzvos (such as the four species) must be taken in the hand in the same way as they grow (from the ground or on the tree) and not upside down.

(c)Another Beraisa, which concurs with Rebbi Shimon, also learns two other Derashos from the same Pasuk. One of them is 'she'Ma'amidim es Tzipuyan', which means - that the gold had to be fixed to the boards by means of golden nails.

(d)And the third Derashah from the same Pasuk is - that they would last forever (and although they were hidden when they entered Eretz Yisrael, they will one day re-appear).

7)

(a)Chizkiyah, citing ... Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai said about himself that he was able to bear the sins of the entire world from the day he was born until then. What if he would combine his merits with those ...

1. ... of his son, Rebbi Elazar?

2. ... of his son, as well as those of Yosam ben Uziyahu, King of Yehudah?

(b)To what was Chizkiyah, citing ... Rebbi Shimon referring when he said that whether there were a thousand or a hundred, he and his son were among them?

(c)And what if there were just two in the entire world?

(d)How would Rebbi Shimon justify this statement in light of the eighteen thousand Tzadikim who, Yechezkel reports, surround Hash-m's Throne, and who are closer to it than the angels?

7)

(a)Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai said about himself that he was able to bear the sins of the entire world from the day he was born until that day. If he would combine his merits with those ...

1. ... of his son, Rebbi Elazar - we could add all the sins from the day that the world was created until his time.

2. ... of his son, as well as those of Yosam ben Uziyahu, King of Yehudah - from the creation of the world until the end of time.

(b)When Chizkiyah, citing Rebbi Shimon said that, whether there a thousand or a hundred, he and his son were among them, - he was referring to 'Bnei Ali'ah' (people who receive the Shechinah).

(c)And if there were just two in the entire world, he said - then it was he and his son.

(d)The eighteen thousand Tzadikim who, Yechezkel reports, surround Hash-m's Throne, and who are closer to it than the angels - only see Hash-m from an unclear perspective (like one sees something through a veil); whereas Rebbi Shimon was referring to those who saw it clearly.

8)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ashrei Kol Chochei Lo"?

(b)So how can Rebbi Shimon say that there are only two?

8)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ashrei Kol Chochei Lo" - that in every generation, there are thirty-six (the numerical value of "Lo") Tzadikim who receive the Shechinah every day.

(b)Those thirty-six however - may only enter with express permission, whereas the two referred to by Rebbi Shimon may enter Stam. (Note: Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai's superiority over other Tzadikim is similar to Moshe Rabeinu's over other Nevi'im, and it is perhaps note-noteworthy that, according to the Zohar, Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai had the Neshamah of Moshe Rabeinu).

9)

(a)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Bilti la'Hashem Levado"?

(b)Then how can Rebbi Yehudah say that, upon taking leave from the Mizbe'ach, the Kohanim would say 'le'Kah u'Lecha Mizbe'ach'?

9)

(a)We learn from the Pasuk in Mishpatim "Bilti la'Hashem Levado" - than when praising Hash-m, one is not permitted to combine the praise of 'anybody' else at the same time.

(b)When Rebbi Yehudah says that, upon taking leave from the Mizbe'ach, the Kohanim would say 'le'Kah u'Lecha Mizbe'ach' - he meant that we acknowledge (that) Hash-m (is our G-d), and praise the Mizbe'ach' (for being the instrument through which we are atoned).

10)

(a)How does Rav Huna attribute the ruling of Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah in our Mishnah to the words "Kapos Temarim"?

(b)On what grounds do the Rabanan disagree with him?

(c)Rebbi Levi ascribes Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah's opinion to a Sevara based on the date-palm. What does he say?

(d)How does this prove Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah's opinion?

10)

(a)Rav Huna attribute the ruling of Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah in our Mishnah to the words "Kapos Temarim" - in that "Kapos" is written in the plural, implying that there are two Mitzvos of Lulav, one together with the other three species; the other, on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)The Rabanan disagree with him - on the grounds that "Kapos" is written without a 'Vav' and is therefore singular (in which case there is only one Mitzvah of Lulav [namely, that of the Arba Miynim]).

(c)Rebbi Levi learns Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah's opinion from a Sevara - because the date-palm (i.e. which has only one heart - all the branches grow out of the center, which contains all the sap) is indicative of the one heart with which Yisrael serve Hash-m.

(d)This is a good sign for Klal Yisrael, and supports Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah's opinion that the Mitzvah in the Beis-Hamikdash was performed with Lulavim rather than with Aravos.

11)

(a)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, one needs to recite a Berachah over the Lulav each day of Sukos, but over Sukah only once. Why is that?

(b)Rabah bar bar Chanah says exactly the opposite. Why?

(c)Ravin quoting Rebbi Yochanan has a third opinion. What does he say?

(d)What did Rav Yosef mean when he ruled like Rabah bar bar Chanah, 'because all the Amora'im hold like him'?

11)

(a)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, one needs to recite a Berachah over Lulav each day of Sukos - because each night (when there is no Chiyuv Lulav) interrupts the Mitzvah, creating a new one the next day; but over Sukah only once - because it is the same Mitzvah that continues throughout the seven days of Sukos.

(b)Rabah bar bar Chanah says exactly the opposite - because sitting in the Sukah on each day of Sukos is min ha'Torah, whereas the taking Lulav outside the Beis Hamikdash is only d'Rabanan on the other days (and, in his opinion, one does not recite a Berachah over a Mitzvah d'Rabanan).

(c)Ravin quoting Rebbi Yochanan has a third opinion. According to him - one recites a Berachah on each day of Sukos both over Lulav and over Sukah.

(d)When Rav Yosef said that he rules like Rabah bar bar Chanah, 'because all the Amora'im hold like him' - he was referring to reciting a Berachah over Sukah, since Ravin agrees with him (making it two against one in that regard.