The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[45a - 38 lines; 45b - 53 lines]

1)[line 3] STAV KAFUL- a double colonnade of [covered] benches

2)[line 6]MURBIYOS- long branches

3)[line 6]ZOKFIN- stand

4)[line 7]KEFUFIN- bent over

5a)[line 8]TAK'U- they blew a Teki'ah (a long blast) [on a Shofar]

b)[line 8]HARI'U- they blew a Teru'ah (a series of short blasts) [on a Shofar]

6)[line 11] ANI VAHO HOSHI'AH NA- There are three explanations given for this seemingly strange expression: a) The Gematriya of "Ani Vaho" (78) is equal to that of "Ana HaSh-m" (RASHI); b) "Ani" and "Vaho" are the thirty-seventh and first, respectively, of the seventy-two names of HaSh-m derived from three seventy-two letter verses (Shemos 14:19-21); c) The Midrash (Pesichta d'Eichah Rabah #34) extrapolates from two verses that HaSh-m Himself, as it were, is in exile with His people, and also requires salvation (see Mishnah, Sanhedrin 46a). These two verses are "va'Ani b'Soch ha'Golah..." (Yechezkel 1:1) and "... v'Hu Asur ba'Zikim..." (Yirmeyahu 40:1). According to this explanation, the second word of the phrase is presumably "v'Hu." The implication of "Ani Vaho Hoshi'ah Na" is that we beg HaSh-m to save Himself, so to speak (TOSFOS DH Ani; see also TOSFOS YOM TOV).

7)[line 11] OSO HA'YOM- that day [of Hoshana Rabah]

8)[line 12] B'SHA'AS PETIRASAN- when they took leave [of the Mizbe'ach following the seven circuits of Hoshana Rabah]. RASHI offers his explanatory notes on this part of the Mishnah, until "k'Ma'aseihu b'Chol...", on the Gemara (45b). This implies that it is not part of the Mishnah, but rather quoted in the Gemara (Bach).

9)[line 13] YOFI LECHA MIZBE'ACH- [we are performing this] beautiful [ceremony] for you, Mizbe'ach [since we achieve atonement through you]

10)[line 14]- L'KAH U'LECHA MIZBE'ACH- to HaSh-m and to you, Mizbe'ach [we give thanks]

11)[line 17]GIGIYOS- (O.F. cuves) vats

12)[line 17]YICHMOSHU- wither

13)[line 18] CHIRIYOS SHEL DEKEL- large palm branches

14)[line 19]CHOVTIN- beat

15)[line 20] MIYAD TINOKOS SHOMTIN ES LULVEIHEIN- a) [adults] remove children's Lulavim from their hands (RASHI); b) immediately [upon leaving the Mizbe'ach on Hoshana Rabah], [adults] remove children's Lulavim from their hands (TIFERES YISRAEL); c) immediately [a) upon the completion of the Mitzvah of Arba Minim on Hoshana Rabah] (BARTENURA); b) upon leaving the Mizbe'ach on Hoshana Rabah (TIFERES YISRAEL)], children throw their Lulavim down; d) immediately, children remove their Lulavim [from their bundle with Hadasim and Aravos, in order to play with them] (TOSFOS DH mi'Yad, MEIRI)

16)[line 22] MAKOM KALANYA- a) a Roman colony [whose inhabitants were exempt from royal taxes]; b) a village by the name of Kalanya (YERUSHALMI Sukah 4:3)

17a)[line 23] AIDI D'MEIPAK MI'KARGA D'MALKA- since it is exempt from royal taxes

b)[line 14] KARI LEI MOTZA- he called it "Motza" (which means "removed")

18)[line 26] SHE'YEHU GOCHOS AL HA'MIZBE'ACH AMAH- that they should droop for one Amah over the Mizbe'ach


(a)The outer Mizbe'ach in the Beis ha'Mikdash, also known as the Mizbach ha'Olah (TY #47), consists of three square concrete and stone platforms placed one atop the other. The base (Yesod) measures thirty-two Amos square by one Amah high. (The Yesod did not full extend around the entire Mizbe'ach; see (b) below.) The middle platform measures thirty Amos square by five Amos high. The upper platform upon which the sacrifices were burned (termed the "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah" by the Rambam), was twenty-eight Amos square by three Amos high. A Keren (lit. horn) - a block measuring one cubic Amah - was placed upon each corner of the upper platform (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8). The Amos with which the Mizbe'ach is measured consist of five Tefachim (Menachos 97a).

(b)The Yesod protruded one Amah along the entire northern and western sides. It protruded for the length of only one Amah to the south of the southwest corner and one Amah to the east of the northeast corner, however. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner. The blood of many Korbanos was dashed upon the flank of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, from which point it ran down the side to the Yesod (Midos 36a, Mishnah 2; Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). What remained of this blood was poured directly onto the Yesod (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.).

(c)The one-Amah width where middle platform jutted out beyond the upper platform is called the "Sovev," since it encircles the Mizbe'ach. Kohanim used the Sovev as a walkway from which to perform various parts of the service.

(d)The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)

(e)A Kevesh (ramp) leads up to the top of the Mizbe'ach on its southern side. The Kevesh is thirty-two Amos long and sixteen Amos wide, and is separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It is indented on its underside where it meets the Mizbe'ach such that it fits over the Sovev and the Yesod. The question of Rav Papa is whether to reckon the last four Amos of the Kevesh from the bottom edge - not including the two Amos that cover the Yesod and the Amah - or from the top edge that meets the Mizbe'ach.

20)[line 30] V'KANAS AMAH- and [then] drew inward [for the length of] one Amah (this refers to the Yesod)

21)[line 32] ?HEICHI MISHKACHAS LAH?- how is it possible [for the eleven-Amah-long Aravos to droop for an Amah over the Mizbe'ach]? The Mizbe'ach is nine Amos tall, and the Aravah must rise an Amah for it to then droop an Amah over - as opposed to drag upon - the Mizbe'ach. This already takes up eleven Amos, without accounting for the extra height necessary to compensate for the angle at which it must lean!

22)[line 35]"... , ""... ISRU CHAG BA'AVOSIM, AD KARNOS HA'MIZBE'ACH"- "Bind the festival [offering] with thick [cords], to the corners of the Mizbe'ach" (Tehilim 118:27). Rebbi Avahu interprets this verse to mean, "Surround the festival offering with boughs that reach to the corners of the Mizbe'ach."

23)[line 37]B'AVOSO- in its braid; i.e., one that is "Meshulash," with leaves sprouting from its branch in batches of three


24)[line 1]"... , ""... ISRU CHAG BA'AVOSIM, AD KARNOS HA'MIZBE'ACH"- Rebbi Avahu in the name of Rebbi Eliezer interprets this verse to mean, "One who binds (the Lulav bundle) of the festival with braided branches is considered to have offered Korbanos and sprinkled their blood upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach."

25)[line 4] KOL HA'OSEH ISUR LA'CHAG- anyone who attaches to the festival. This refers to a) one who honors the festival with fine food and drink; or b) one who honors the day following the festival with fine food and drink. This explanation is the source of the term "Isru Chag," referring to the day following a festival, currently in use today.

26)[line 6]"... , ""... ISRU CHAG BA'AVOSIM, AD KARNOS HA'MIZBE'ACH"- This interpretation reads, "One who attaches thick, juicy meats [by eating them in honor of] the festival is considered to have offered Korbanos and sprinkled their blood upon the corners of the Mizbe'ach."

27)[line 8] KOL HA'MITZVOS- every Mitzvah [that requires an object which grew from the ground]

28)[line 9] DERECH GEDEILASAN- if they are used in] the direction in which they grew

29)[line 9]"[ ,] ""V'ASISA ES HA'KERASHIM LA'MISHKAN,] ATZEI SHITIM OMEDIM"- "[And you shall make the boards for the Mishkan from] standing cedar wood" (Shemos 26:15).

30)[line 11] SHE'MA'AMIDIN ES TZIPUYAN- they uphold their gold plating [since a) it was shorter than the boards, but fastened to them with golden nails (RASHI); b) they will never rot (RASHI to Yoma 72a)]

31a)[line 12] AVAD SIVRAM- [now that the Mishkan has been hidden] their hope (i.e., the possibility of their return) is lost

b)[line 12] U'VATEL SIKUYAM- and their chances [of being seen by us] are null

32)[line 16] LI'FTOR ES KOL HA'OLAM KULO MIN HA'DIN- a) to bear the sins of the entire world, and absolve them from judgement (RASHI); b) to bear the sins of the entire world to the degree that there will be no mass destruction [such as the Great Flood in the times of Noach or the overturning of Sedom and Amorah] (RABEINU CHANANEL)

33)[line 19] YOSAM BEN UZIYAHU

(a)Yosam ben Uziyahu, king of Yehudah, was a righteous individual and a man of extreme humility. His father Uziyahu was punished with Tzara'as over the last twenty-seven years of his life, and was forced to live in seclusion outside of Yerushalayim (Melachim II 15:5). Yosam therefore took over the day-to-day running of the kingdom when he came of age. He did not usurp his father's authority, however; he attributed all of his verdicts and edicts to his father. The Navi Mal'achi's description of a "son who honored his father" (Mal'achi 1:6) is ascribed to him. Furthermore, RASHI (Divrei ha'Yamim II 27:2) writes that Yosam was the only king of Yehudah who was totally free of sin.

(b)Rabeinu Chananel explains that the exceptional merit shared by Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai, his son Rebbi Elazar, and Yosam ben Uziyahu was that they received no reward whatsoever in this world. All other Tzadikim, however, received a sampling of the reward they were to receive in the World to Come while still in this world.

34)[line 21] BNEI ALIYAH- those constantly rising [in levels of spirituality, who are thereby worthy of welcoming the Divine Presence]

35)[line 23] U'MI ZUTREI KULEI HAI?- are they indeed so few in number?

36)[line 24] TAMNEI SREI ALFEI DARA- eighteen thousand rows

37)[line 25]", ; [ , ' ]""SAVIV, SHEMONAH ASAR ALEF; [V'SHEM HA'IR MI'YOM, 'HASH-M SHAMAH']" - "The circumference [of Yerushalayim] will be eighteen thousand, and the name of the city from that day shall be 'HaSh-m Shamah'" (Yechezkel 48:35) (THE FUTURE DIMENSIONS OF YERUSHALAYIM)

(a)Yechezkel ha'Navi details the apportioning of Eretz Yisrael in the era of the third Beis ha'Mikdash. An area in the south of Yehudah measuring twenty-five thousand by twenty-five thousand six-Amah-long reeds will be subdivided into three.

(b)Forty percent of this area, measuring twenty-five thousand by ten thousand reeds, will be given to the Kohanim. This area will include the Beis ha'Mikdash. An area of like size will go to the Leviyim. The remaining twenty percent, measuring twenty-five thousand by five thousand reeds, will contain the city of Yerushalayim, the Migrash (open area) surrounding the city, and fields and vineyards. It will adjoin the portion belonging to the Leviyim.

(c)The city of Yerushalayim will take the form of a square measuring four and a half thousand reeds to a side. (This is equal to approximately thirteen kilometers or eight miles.)

(d)Rava homiletically interprets this verse (the very last verse in Yechezkel) to mean that eighteen thousand rows of righteous individuals surround HaSh-m, basking in the Divine Presence.

38)[line 27] D'MISTAKLEI B'ASPAKLARYA HA'ME'IRAH- that are able to perceive the Divine Presence clearly through the barrier dividing them from it

39)[line 30] LO PACHOS ALMA- there are [at any given time] no less in the world

40)[line 30] TELASIN V'SHISA- thirty-six

41)[line 31] D'MEKABLEI APEI SHECHINAH- who are worthy of welcoming the Divine Presence

42)[line 32]"... ""... ASHREI KOL CHOCHEI LO"- "... praiseworthy are all who place their hope in him" (Yeshayah 30:18).

43)[line 33] HA D'AILEI B'BAR- a) [those to whom Abaye was referring are] those who enter [only] with permission (RASHI, ARUCH); b) [those to whom Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai was referring are] those who enter [together] with [their] son (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

44)[line 40]MEKALSIN- extol

45)[line 41]"[ ,] [, , ...]""U'LKACHTEM LACHEM BA'YOM HA'RISHON PRI ETZ HADAR,] KAPOS [TEMARIM, VA'ANAF ETZ AVOS, V'ARVEI NACHAL...]"- "[And you shall take for yourselves on the first day (of Sukos) the fruit of a citron tree,] branches [of date palms, a twig of a braided tree, and brook willows]" (Vayikra 23:40).

46a)[line 42] ACHAS L'LULAV V'ACHAS L'MIZBE'ACH- [the two palm branches alluded to in the verse refer to] one for the Lulav and one for the Mizbe'ach. According to this explanation of Rav Huna, the ceremony of Aravah described by the Tana Kama as being performed on each of the seven days of Sukos was replaced by one involving the beating of palm branches on the floor, in the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah (TOSFOS DH Achas).

b)[line 43]K'TAMAR- [the ceremony involving palm branches was a custom prompted by that which Klal Yisrael] compares [favorably] to a palm tree. According to Rebbi Levi, this custom augmented that of Aravah, and may have occurred only on Hoshana Rabah (TOSFOS DH Achas; see RASHI to the Mishnah who states that according to Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah the ceremony involving these palm branches was performed for all seven days of Sukos, including Shabbos).

47)[line 44] EIN LO ELA LEV ECHAD- has only one heart (this refers to the palm heart, the soft inner core that grows in the middle of the trunk of a palm tree, but does not extend to the branches)

48a)[line 46] LULAV SHIV'AH- the Berachah of "Al Netilas Lulav" is recited on all] seven days of Sukos

b)[line 46] SUKAH YOM ECHAD- [the Berachah of "Leishev ba'Sukah" is recited on only] the first day of Sukos

49a)[line 52] NEKOT D'RABAH BAR BAR CHANAH B'YADECHA- seize that which Rabah bar bar Chanah [said regarding the recitation of the Berachah of "Leishev ba'Sukah" on all seven days of Sukos] in your hand

b)[last line] D'KULHU AMORA'EI KAIMEI KAVASEI B'SUKAH- for, regarding [the Berachah on a] Sukah, all Amora'im agree with him [that this is the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, and the Halachah follows Rebbi Yochanan when he disagrees with Shmuel]