OTHER HALACHOS REGARDING RESIDING IN THE SUKAH
(Rava): Cups which are not unseemly may remain in the Sukah after their use, but dishes, earthenware and wood water vessels should be removed.
Rava allowed the earthenware lamp to remain, while Yesh Omrim say that it must be removed.
They are not arguing, but teaching a Halachah which depends on the size of the Sukah (if there is ample room for the lamp to remain).
EXEMPTION DUE TO RAINFALL
He is exempt if the porridge would spoil, a dish which is readily spoiled by even a small amount of rain.
Abaye asked R. Yosef why he was exempting himself due to wind which was dropping bits of Sechach onto his food.
R. Yosef taught him that since he is very particular, this constitutes the state of 'spoiled porridge' for him.
THE REQUIREMENT TO RETURN AFTER THE RAIN STOPS
One who is forced out of the Sukah due to rain need not go back up to the Sukah until he is done with his meal.
Similarly, he may sleep until 'Yaor.'
Question: Does Yaor mean (with an Ayin) until he wakes up (and he would then have to go back up, even during the night) or does it mean (with an Aleph) that he needs to go back up only once the sun rises?
Answer: The Beraisa teaches that he may remain until light, and the Amud ha'Shachar arrives.
Question: But those are contradictory times!?
Answer: It should read until (both) he wakes up and Amud ha'Shachar arrives.
RAIN IS ANALOGOUS TO THE SERVANT...
Question: Who spilled the water in the analogy (the servant, indicative of our carelessness) or the Master (indicative of Hash-m's displeasure with our service)?
Answer (Beraisa): The Master spilled it.
OTHER NEGATIVE INDICATIONS
The sun being obscured is a bad omen for the world (analogous to a King who turned out the lights on the meal he provided for his servants).
(R. Meir): The affliction of the celestial lights is a bad sign to those who are accustomed to affliction (the Jews, who have so much potential, and, by analogy, the student who is regularly hit is more concerned with the teacher's staff).
The affliction of the sun is bad for the gentiles while that of the moon is bad for the Jews (who count their calendar by the moon).
Similarly, the position of the sun when it is afflicted indicates the bad sign for those in that direction.
The color of the afflicted sun indicates the nature of the bad omen.
The timing (at sunrise or at sunset) indicates whether the bad tidings are close or further in coming (may be understood either way).
When a People is afflicted, its god is afflicted, as we learn from the Pasuk describing the affliction of Egypt and its gods.
When the Jews do Hash-m's will, they can leave all the worrying about these matters to the Gentiles.
AVEIROS WHICH BRING AFFLICTIONS
Four Aveiros cause the sun to be afflicted (as listed).
Four Aveiros cause the property of homeowners to be turned over to the government (as listed).
Four Aveiros cause the property of homeowners to be lost (as listed).
The worst (and causal) offence is a haughty spirit.
MISHNAH: PESULIM OF A LULAV
A stolen or dried out Lulav is Pasul.
If it is destined to be burned, as in the case of an Asheirah tree or an Ir ha'Nidachas, it is Pasul.
If the head of the Lulav is cut off, or if its leaves severed from its spine, it is Pasul.
(Tana Kama): If its leaves spread away from its spine it is Kosher.
(R. Yehudah): They should be tied above.
Lulavim grown in hard rocky mountains (with short leaves) are Kosher (as long as one leaf reaches the one after it).
A Lulav which has three Tefachim, in addition to the one needed to shake it, is Kosher.