1) THE "TASHLUMIN" OF SHAVUOS
QUESTION: The Gemara derives from verses that the Korbanos of the festivals, and the Lechem ha'Panim of every Shabbos that coincides with a festival, are distributed among the Kohanim of all of the Mishmaros. Similarly, when a festival comes either immediately before or immediately after Shabbos, the Korbanos and the Lechem ha'Panim are distributed among all of the Kohanim. The Torah gives each Mishmar a portion of everything even though Shabbos is not its turn of duty, because they came for the sake of the festival.
The Gemara in Chagigah (17a) teaches that if one was unable to bring the Korbanos of Shavuos (the Korban Chagigah and the Korban Re'iyah) on Yom Tov itself, he may bring them during any of the six days that follow the Yom Tov of Shavuos. These days are called the days of "Tashlumin." In a sense, these days are like the days of Chol ha'Mo'ed of Pesach and Sukos, during which the Korbanos of the festival (Korban Chagigah and Korban Re'iyah) may still be offered.
When the Korbanos of Shavuos are brought during the six days after the Yom Tov, do all of the Mishmaros share them? On one hand, those Korbanos are brought because of the festival. On the other hand, they are not being offered on Yom Tov (and thus there is no reason for the Mishmaros to be in the Beis ha'Mikdash at that time). Are those Korbanos distributed among the Kohanim of all of the Mishmaros? (ARUCH LA'NER, 55b)
(a) The ARUCH LA'NER infers from the wording of the RAMBAM (Hilchos Temidim u'Musafim 4:13) that the days of Tashlumin for the Korbanos of Shavuos are not like the festival itself, and thus the Korbanos offered during those days are not divided among all of the Mishmaros. The Rambam writes that if Shavuos occurs on a Thursday, then on the following Shabbos the Mishmar of that week receives the Lechem ha'Panim (ten of the twelve loaves). The Rambam clearly learns that the days of Tashlumin of Shavuos are not considered days of the festival, because if they were, then all of the Mishmaros would share the Lechem ha'Panim.
However, the Yerushalmi (Chagigah 2:4, cited by the MISHNEH L'MELECH in Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:5) cites a dispute between Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish with regard to who receives the hides of the Korbanos offered on the "Yom Tevo'ach" that follows Shavuos when Shavuos occurs on Shabbos. ("Yom Tevo'ach" refers to the Sunday that follows Shavuos when it occurs on Shabbos. Since the Korbanos of Shavuos cannot be offered on Shabbos, the Korbanos are offered instead on Sunday, the first day after Shavuos on which they can be brought.) Rebbi Yochanan maintains that the Korbanos are divided among all of the Mishmaros. Reish Lakish maintains that they are given only to the Mishmar of that week. When Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue, the Halachah usually follows Rebbi Yochanan. Why, then, does the Rambam imply that the Korbanos are not distributed to all of the Kohanim, like Reish Lakish?
The Aruch la'Ner suggests that the dispute in the Yerushalmi applies only to the "Yom Tevo'ach," and not to all of the days of Tashlumin. The Rambam agrees that on the "Yom Tevo'ach," everyone receives a share of the Korbanos. (The Aruch la'Ner's approach is slightly problematic, because the Yerushalmi seems to associate Rebbi Yochanan's opinion that all of the Mishmaros share the Korbanos on the "Yom Tevo'ach" with his opinion that Shavuos has Tashlumin for six days (and not just one day) after Yom Tov.)
(b) RASHI apparently disagrees with the Rambam and rules like the Yerushalmi. He says that the days of Tashlumin of Shavuos are considered like the festival with regard to dividing the Korbanos among all of the Mishmaros.
Rashi (DH Bein mi'Lefaneha) explains that when the Mishnah says that the Korbanos are divided among all of the Mishmaros when Shabbos immediately follows Yom Tov, it refers to the Shabbos that immediately follows Shemini Atzeres. The TOSFOS YOM TOV asks why Rashi explains that the Mishnah refers specifically to Sukos, when it seems to apply to all of the festivals (like the previous Mishnah).
Perhaps the answer is as follows. The Mishnah here would be problematic if it would refer to all of the festivals, including Shavuos. The Mishnah says that when Shabbos is the day after the festival, the Korbanos of the festival are divided equally. This implies that when Shabbos occurs two days after the festival, the Korbanos are not divided equally, but rather they are given to the Mishmar of that week. Why, though, should the Korbanos not be divided among all of the Mishmaros when Shabbos occurs two days after the festival? Since it is still within six days after Shavuos, the days are considered like Shavuos itself and the Korbanos should be divided equally, as the Yerushalmi concludes according to Rebbi Yochanan. It must be that this statement of the Mishnah refers back to the festival of Sukos (the topic of the rest of the Maseches), and it is not a continuation of the previous Mishnah which refers to all of the festivals. (M. KORNFELD)