[56a - 42 lines; 56b - 33 lines]
1)[line 5]"חלק כחלק יאכלו, לבד ממכריו על האבות.""CHELEK K'CHELEK YOCHELU, LEVAD MIMKARAV AL HA'AVOS."- "Portion for portion shall they eat, except for what was transacted by the forefathers" (Devarim 18:8).
2)[line 10]חיובא דיומא עדיףCHIYUVA D'YOMA ADIF- that is to say, the Berachah said upon the Mitzvah of sitting in a Sukah, which is an obligation of the Chag, precedes the Berachah of Shehecheyanu, which is not a Berachah on a seasonal obligation, but rather simply a blessing of thanks to HaSh-m.
3)[line 33]קייץ המזבחKAYITZ HA'MIZBE'ACH (NIDVAS TZIBUR)
)a) In many places the Gemara states that when certain items are sold (e.g. Kodshim that become unfit to offer on the Mizbe'ach) their value is designated as a Nedavah ("v'Yiplu Demeihem l'Nedavah"), a contribution towards a Korban. This money was used to purchase Korbenos Tzibur (offerings brought by the entire people) and not Korbenos Yachid (personal Korbanos). A person may also volunteer money as a Nidvas Tzibur. In both cases, the money was placed in one of the six Shofaros (boxes) that were kept in the Mikdash and was used to buy Korbenos "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" to be sacrificed when the Mizbe'ach was not otherwise in use (Shekalim 6b).
(b)Rashi DH Kayitz explains that these offerings were also called "Kayitz," because they were like a "dessert" to the Mizbe'ach. ("Kayitz" means "cut figs," a common dessert food.)
4)[line 26]המתעכבHA'MIS'AKEV- (a) any Mishmar that would come early (on Friday) and stay until a festival (that falls on Monday), and in other years, any Mishmar that would stay behind after a festival (that ends on Thursday) until Shabbos (RASHI); (b) the Mishmar whose week comes out the same week as a festival in which the first day is Monday or the last day is Thursday. Since they only do the Avodah independently for one day, (the intervening Sunday or Friday), those Mishmaros would often arrive late or not come in their full numbers. Under these circumstances, the lazy Mishmar takes only two loaves (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
5)[line 38]בילגהBILGAH - The 24 Mishmaros, as listed in Divrei ha'Yamim I 24:7-18, are:
6)[line 39]טבעתה קבועהTABATAH KEVU'AH- its ring was fixed and unmovable. (a) There were 24 rings set into the floor of the Azarah to the north of the Mizbe'ach (Midos 3:5). The 24 Mishmaros used them during Shechitah of Korbanos; the animal's neck was held firmly by the ring that opened and closed on a hinge. The ring of Bilgah could not be used and they were forced to use the ring of a different Mishmar (RASHI); (b) The Mishnah is referring to rings that were on the short poles to the north of the Mizbe'ach and on the walls of the Azarah that were used to hang up an animal for skinning (Pesachim 5:9, Tamid 3:5). All the rings were closed except for the ring of the officiating Mishmar. The ring of Bilgah was always left closed, and they had to use the ring of another Mishmar. (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
7)[line 39]חלונה סתומהCHALONAH SESUMAH- (a) At the far ends of the Ulam were two rooms, the Beis ha'Chalifos, where the Shechitah knives of each Mishmar were kept. Bilgah's compartment was sealed. (RASHI); (b) These were 24 windows (compartments) in which each Mishmar kept their Bigdei Kehunah. Normally, all were closed except for the window of the officiating Mishmar. The window of Bilgah was always left closed, even when they officiated, and they kept their Bigdei Kehunah in another Mishmar's window. (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos)
8)[line 2]בשכר הגפת דלתותB'SECHAR HAGAFAS DELASOS- as payment for closing the doors of the Beis ha'Mikdash (that were opened by the previous Mishmar)
9)[line 2]דל בדלDAL B'DAL- remove this law [of taking seven loaves] so that it will be removed [in the future to your advantage: when your Mishmar will leave at the end of the week, you will receive six loaves and not five] (RASHI)
10)[line 3]בוצינא טבא מקראBOTZINA TAVA MI'KARA- (a) a young pumpkin (today) is preferable to a large pumpkin (in the future) (RASHI); (b) a small cucumber (that ripens quickly) is preferable to a large pumpkin (that takes much longer to ripen) (RABEINU CHANANEL, RABEINU TAM)
11)[line 7]בזיכיןBAZICHIN (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
(a)The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah) which are arranged in two stacks (Sedarim), six loaves to each stack, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed. (Vayikra 24:5).
(b)A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). Only the Levonah is offered on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
12)[line 21]המירה דתהHEMIRAH DASAH- who became an apostate
13)[line 22]סרדיוטSERADYOT- a Greek officer
14)[line 23]לוקוסLUKOS- wolf (in Greek)
15)[line 24]ואי אתה עומד עליהםV'IY ATAH OMED ALEIHEM- and you do not protect them
16)[line 25]משמרתו שוהה לבאMISHMARTO SHOHEH LAVO- the Mishmar of Bilgah would arrive late
17)[line 25]ישבבYESHEV'AV- the name of the Mishmar that did the Avodah during the week before Bilgah
18)[line 30]שותא דינוקא בשוקאSHUSA D'YENUKA B'SHUKA- the chatter of a child in the street. Had she not heard her father degrade the Avodah, she would not have said these words.
19)[last line]"אמרו צדיק כי טוב, כי פרי מעלליהם יאכלו""IMRU TZADIK KI TOV, KI PRI MA'ALELEIHEM YOCHELU"- "Say to the Tzadik that he did good, because they will eat the fruit of their deeds" (Yeshayah 3:10). The Navi is actually talking about the Resha'im, who were not only ignorant, but wicked, predominantly in matters between man and his fellow man. He compares them to Sedom, inasmuch as they were not ashamed to publicize their sins.
HADRAN ALACH HE'CHALIL U'SLIKA LACH MASECHES SUKAH