[50a - 21 lines; 50b - 38 lines]
(a)Linah — literally resting overnight — is the term used to describe part of a Korban left off of the Mizbe'ach beyond the time that the Korban may be consumed (either by people or the Mizbe'ach). Such pieces are disqualified and may no longer be placed on the Mizbe'ach.
(b)Any material sanctified for use in the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash through being placed in a Kli Shares (sanctified vessel) is disqualified the next morning due to Linah.
2)[line 6]קידוש ידים ורגליםKIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM
(a)It is a Mitzvas Aseh for a Kohen to wash his hands and feet whenever he enters the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash, as well as prior to the performance any part of the Avodah (Divine service), (Shemos 30:19).
(b)The manner of washing is as follows: The Kohen bends down and places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot. A different Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor (the large basin of water in the Azarah; TY #52) on his hands and feet. (If he is alone, he places his hands and feet under a faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing.
(c)A Kohen need not wash his hands and feet more than once a day, as long as he makes certain that they do not become Temei'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether or not a Kohen who spent the entire night performing Avodah must wash his hands and feet again in the morning.
(d)A Kohen who intentionally performs Avodah without washing his hands and feet is liable to receive Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, and his Avodah is disqualified (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).
(e)The Mishnah (Yoma 43b) states that while "during the rest of the year, the Kohen Gadol washes his hands and feet from the Kiyor, on Yom ha'Kipurim he does so from a Kiton Shel Zahav (a golden pitcher)." Rebbi Yanai says in the name of Rebbi Zeira that since there were times when a golden vessel was used to store water for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim, one may mistaken water for Nisuch ha'Mayim stored in such utensil for water drawn for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim. He would then draw the erroneous conclusion that water that has remained overnight in a sanctified vessel (a Kli Shares) may be used for Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim. It is for this reason that the water drawn for the Nisuch ha'Mayim is stored in a non-sanctified vessel.
3a)[line 7]ואמאי?VA'AMAI?- and why [is uncovered water invalid for Nisuch ha'Mayim just because a snake may have drunk from it and left venom behind]?
b)[line 7]ליעביר במסננת!LI'AVIR B'MESANENES!- let it be run through a strainer (O.F. coledoir)! (See Insights)
4)[line 9]מסננתMESANENES- a [two-tiered] strainer [in which the top compartment holds the strainer and what is poured through lands below in a separate container]
5)[line 12]ארס נחשERES NACHASH- snake venom
6)[line 13]ספוגSEFOG- a type of mold [that grows on wine]
7)[line 13]צףTZAF- it floats
8)[line 15]ולית ליה לרבי נחמיה...?V'LEIS LEI L'REBBI NECHEMYAH...?- for does Rebbi Nechemyah not agree with [the following]...?
9)[line 16]"הַקְרִיבֵהוּ נָא לְפֶחָתֶךָ; הֲיִרְצְךָ אוֹ הֲיִשָּׂא פָנֶיךָ? אָמַר ה' צְבָ-קוֹת""... HAKRIVEIHU NA L'FECHASECHA; HA'YIRTZECHA O HA'YISA FANECHA? AMAR HASH-M TZVAKOS" - "[And when you offer a blind animal as a sacrifice, is this not wrong? And when you offer a lame or sick animal as a sacrifice, is this not wrong?] Present it, if you please, to your governor; would he be pleased with you or show you favor? said HaSh-m, Master of Legions" (Mal'achi 1:8) (A LACK OF RESPECT FOR HASH-M)
(a)Through the Navi Mal'achi, HaSh-m expressed his dissatisfaction with the way in which Klal Yisrael were serving him. Although the relationship between Klal Yisrael and HaSh-m is one of sons to their Father when we fulfill His will, and one of servants to their Master when we do not, they acted as though they were neither sons nor servants. To make matters worse, they demonstrated an utter lack of understanding that their service was inadequate.
(b)To further exacerbate their sin, they offered lame excuses that were wholly inadequate to explain their behavior, as many fine, healthy animals populated their own flocks. This situation caused a desecration of HaSh-m's name, as well as distressing HaSh-m Himself, as it were.
PEREK #5 HE'CHALIL
10)[line 19]החלילHE'CHALIL- the flute [that was played at the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah]
11)[line 20]בית השואבהBEIS HA'SHO'EVAH- the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah; see Background to 47:8
12)[line 3]לא משתבשLO MISHTABESH- is not in error
13)[line 7]ובאה מששת ימי בראשיתU'VA'AH MI'SHESHES YEMEI BEREISHIS- and it originates from the six days of creation [which was when the Shisin were created for the purpose of the Nisuch ha'Mayim] (see Insights)
14)[line 10]שיר של קרבןSHIR SHEL KORBAN
(a)Shir refers to the song of the day. The Leviyim sang chapters of Tehilim as the Nesachim (wine libations; see Background to Yoma 61:26) of a Korban Tzibur were poured. These correspond to those chapters that we currently recite as the Shir Shel Yom [Tamid 6:7]). Musical instruments were played by the Leviyim to accompany their singing.
(b)On the fourteenth of Nisan, when the Korban Pesach (see Background to 42:39) was slaughtered; the fourteenth of Iyar, when the Pesach Sheni (see Background to 47:26) was slaughtered; the first day of Pesach; Shavu'os; and all eight days of Sukos (including Shemini Atzeres), flutes were included among the other instruments played along with the Shir.
(c)The Chachamim understand that the Avodah of Shirah consists of the song of the Leviyim (Ikar Shirah b'Peh). The instrumentation is an accompaniment that enhances the Mitzvah, but is not part of its actual performance. Rebbi Yosi bar Yehudah maintains that the musical accompaniment is also a part of the Avodah of Shirah (Ikar Shirah b'Kli).
15)[line 14]שמחה (יתירה) היאSIMCHAH (YESEIRAH) HI- is [an added] measure of happiness [celebrated in fulfillment of the verse, "And you will draw water with happiness..." (Yeshayah 12:3); it is not an integral part of the Mitzvah]
16)[line 16]כלי שרתKLI SHARES- [any] sanctified vessel (e.g. a Mizrak, a bowl used to collect the blood of an animal after its slaughter)
17)[line 19]אבובא דמשהABUVA D'MOSHE- a reed flute from the days of Moshe Rabeinu [that was used in the Shir (see above, entry #14)]
18)[line 23]דנין אפשר משאי אפשר... אין דנין אפשר משאי אפשרDANIN EFSHAR MISHE'IY EFSHAR... EIN DANIN EFSHAR MISHE'IY EFSHAR
(a)Tana'im disagree as to whether it is possible to derive the Halachah in a situation in which there are multiple options (Efshar) from a comparison to another instance in which the Halachah is dictated solely by the practical impossibility of any other option (Iy Efshar). (Menachos 62a)
(b)This discussion comes into play in our Gemara. Rav Yosef suggests that the reasoning of Rav Yosi bar Yehudah, who allows a Kli Shares to be made out of wood, is that he compares all other Klei Shares to the flute from the times of Moshe Rabeinu. This flute was carved from a hollow reed, which is a type of wood. However, the Gemara (Erchin 10b) explains that although an attempt was made to plate this flute with gold so as to enhance its appearance, this adversely affected its tone. Therefore, it was Iy Efshar to have this particular instrument constructed of metal. Any derivation of the Halachah regarding other utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash — which can easily be crafted from the more esthetically pleasing metal — through a comparison to this flute is an example of "Danin Efshar mishe'Iy Efshar".
19)[line 26]ואין דנין אפשר משאי אפשרV'EIN DANIN EFSHAR MISHE'IY EFSHAR- or [even if they rule that Ikar Shirah b'Kli] one may not derive that which is possible from that which is impossible
20)[line 27]מנורהMENORAH- The golden seven-branched candelabra located in the Heichal
21)[line 27]כללי ופרטי... רבויי ומיעוטיKELALEI U'PERATEI / RIBUYEI U'MI'UTEI
(a)The Torah often states a general law followed by a specific one. Sometimes an additional generalization follows, and other times the order of the two is reversed. There is a basic difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to how to interpret these verses. Some view them as Kelalim (generalizations) and Peratim (specifications). Others view them as Ribuyim (inclusions) and Mi'utim (exclusions).
(b)According to the approach that interprets the Torah following the creed of Kelalei u'Feratei, a Prat following a Klal limits the generalization to what is specified by the Prat. An additional Klal then expands the scope of the law to include anything similar to the specification. Those who see Ribuyei u'Mi'utei, however, understand that a Ribuy followed by a Mi'ut already implies that the generalization includes everything similar to the specification. An additional Ribuy then expands the law to include everything but the one thing least similar to the Mi'ut.
22)[line 31]מקשהMIKSHAH- beaten [from a single piece]
23)[line 33]מתכתMATECHES- metal