SUKAH 24 (22 Av 5781) - Dedicated in memory of Frumet bas Meier (born Ehrman) of Kiel, Germany and New York, by her nephew, Ze'ev Rosenbaum.

[24a - 32 lines; 24b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]איפוךEIPUCH- switch around [the opinions and their authors as set forth by Abaye on 23b]

2)[line 6]בקיעת הנודBEKI'AS HA'NOD- the breaking of a leather skin (that contains the wine in the case discussed in the Beraisa, which would make the final designation of the Terumah and Ma'asros impossible)

3)[line 12]טבליםTEVELIM- produce from which Terumah and/or Ma'aser has not been separated

4)[line 13]לכשיבקעLECHESHE'YIBAKA- [we will worry about such a possibility] when it breaks; i.e., it is possible to be careful enough that we need not be concerned that such a thing will happen

5a)[line 18]מתקינין לוMASKININ LO- they designate for [the Kohen Gadol who is to perform the Yom Kipur service]

b)[line 19]שמא תמות אשתוSHEMA TAMUS ISHTO- lest his wife die [on Yom ha'Kipurim]. The Kohen Gadol who performs the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash on Yom ha'Kipurim must be married at that time. This is understood from the verse (Vayikra 16:6) which states "... and he shall atone for himself and his household."

6)[line 20]מעלה עשו בכפרהMAILAH ASU B'CHAPARAH- they were especially stringent in matters pertaining to atonement

7)[line 27]עומדת ברוחOMEDES B'RU'ACH- it is able to stand due only to air [such as an animal, which would keel over if not for that which it breathes]

8)[line 29]כל מחיצה שאינה עשויה בידי אדםKOL MECHITZAH SHE'EINAH ASUYAH B'YEDEI ADAM- any partition that a person cannot manufacture (see Insights)

9)[line 31]דאוקמה בנוד תפוחD'UKMAH B'NOD TAFU'ACH- [a case in which] one supported [a partition] with an inflated leather skin


10)[line 3]"[כִּי יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה, וּבְעָלָהּ; וְהָיָה, אִם לֹא תִמְצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָיו... וְכָתַב לָהּ] סֵפֶר [כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ, וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ]""... [V'CHASAV LAH] SEFER [KERISUS V'NASAN B'YADAH, V'SHILCHAH MI'BEISO]"- "[When a man shall take a woman and live with her; and it will be, if she does not find favor in his eyes... he shall write to her] a bill [of divorce and place it in her hand, and send her from his home]" (Devarim 24:1).

11a)[line 4]ספרSEFER- parchment

b)[line 4]כל דברKOL DAVAR- any other material (e.g. a wooden tablet, pottery, etc.)

12)[line 7]אינו אוכלEINO OCHEL- and is not a food item

13)[line 9]ספירת דברים בעלמאSEFIRAS DEVARIM B'ALMA- a recounting of the divorce

14)[line 12]איתקש יציאה להויהISKASH YETZI'AH L'HAVAYAH- Numerous Halachos are derived from a Hekesh that compares divorce (Yetzi'ah) to betrothal (Kidushin; Havayah). The Hekesh is found in the wording of the verse, "v'Yatz'ah mi'Beiso, v'Halchah v'Hayesah l'Ish Acher ..." - "And she will leave his house, and go and marry another ..." (Devarim 24:2).

15)[line 13]מה הויה בכסףMAH HAVAYAH B'CHESEF - just as becoming [married] can be [accomplished] through money (KIDUSHIN)

(a)The first stage of Halachic marriage is called Kidushin (betrothal). Kidushin can be accomplished in one of three ways:

1.Kesef - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her money or anything equal in value to a Perutah (a very small coin). Upon doing so, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'(-----) Zu" -- "Behold you are betrothed to me through this (-----)".

2.Shtar - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through giving her a marriage document. This may be written upon any surface, and need not be of any specific value. The words "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Shtar Zeh" must be written upon the Shtar.

3.Bi'ah - A man can be Mekadesh a woman through having relations with her. At that time, he must proclaim, "Harei At Mekudeshes Li b'Bi'ah Zu". Because Kidushin requires witnesses, the Chachamim strongly condemned anyone who uses this method of Kidushin.

(b)The Torah refers to this stage of marriage as "Eirusin" (Devarim 22:23). The term "Kidushin" is used by the Rabanan in order to connote that just as everyone is prohibited to benefit from Hekdesh (an object sanctified to the service of Hash-m), through Kidushin a woman becomes prohibited to everyone in the world save her husband (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu).

(c)At the time that Kidushin takes place a Berachah known as Birkas Eirusin is recited (Kesuvos 7b).

16)[line 20]הרי זה כריתותHAREI ZEH KERISUS- this is a valid severance (and is effective immediately)

17)[line 20]מ"כרת" "כריתות" נפקאMI"KARES" "KERISUS" NAFKA- derives it from that which the Torah could have written the word "Kares" and instead chose to write the word "Kerisus"

18)[line 27]קאזיל ואתיKA'AZIL V'ASI- it (the wall of trees) sways back and forth [in the wind]

19)[line 28]קשיןKASHIN- hardened [trees]

20)[line 28]נופוNOFO- its branches

21)[line 28]דעביד ליה בהוצא ודפנאD'AVID LEI B'HUTZA V'DAFNA- that he fixed them in place [by weaving] palm fronds (Hutza) and laurel branches (Dafna; O.F. lorier - laurel) [into them]

22)[line 30]לאשתמושי באילןL'ISHTAMUSHEI B'ILAN- to utilize the tree. This is a concern on Shabbos or Yom Tov, as it is prohibited mid'Rabanan to touch a tree then for fear that one may break part of it off.

23a)[line 31]גדרGADER- a stone fence [that is at least one Amah wide and one Amah long]

b)[line 32]מחיצת הקניםMECHITZAS HA'KANIM- a fence comprised of growing reeds [planted in the L-shape of a Deyomad]

24)[line 32]דיומדDEYOMAD- see Background to 23:7

25)[line 34]אילן המיסך על הארץILAN HA'MEISEICH AL HA'ARETZ- a tree [whose branches droop and] hang over the ground (e.g., a weeping willow)

26)[line 35]מטלטלין תחתיוMETALTELIN TACHTAV - we may carry underneath it (HOTZA'AH)

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:

1.The transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain);

2.Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;

3.Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, which refers to carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;

4.Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a). All of these are biblical prohibitions.

(b)The Beraisa quoted by our Gemara states that the drooping ends of the branches of a tree that reach to within three Tefachim of the ground form Mechitzos, transforming the area within into a Reshus ha'Yachid. Therefore one may carry throughout the area, and one is not limited to four Amos in every direction.

27)[line 37]אלמה...?A'LAMAH...?- why...?