SUKAH 18 - Dedicated by Nathan Fishman in memory of his father, Mordechai ben Aharon Fishman z'l.

[18a - 49 lines; 18b - 11 lines]

1)[line 2]מניח פסל ביניהםMENI'ACH PESEL BEINEIHEM U'CHESHEIRAH- that he may place kosher Sechach ("Pesel" refers to the "Pesoles" - that which is left over from the grapes and grain after they have been processed) between them

2)[line 7]שמנה [אמות] מצומצמותSHEMONEH [AMOS] METZUMTZAMOS- exactly eight Amos wide (see Insights)

3)[line 8]נסר ופסלNESER U'PESEL- a [four-Tefach-wide] board and [a four-Tefach-wide length of] kosher Sechach [lying next to it]

4)[line 1]מהאי גיסאME'HAI GISA- [counting from] this side [of the Sukah]

5)[line 11]הכשר סוכהHECHSHER SUKAH- the minimum requirements of a Sukah (in this case, that it must be at least seven by seven Tefachim)

6)[line 13]סוכה קטנהSUKAH KETANAH- a Sukah that is the minimum size of seven-by-seven Tefachim

7)[line 14]בשפודין לא הוי מיעוטB'SHEPUDIN LO HAVEI MI'UT- Although there is not enough of either open space or invalid Sechach to invalidate the Sukah, whenever there is a stretch of three Tefachim of anything other than kosher Sechach it is significant and must be taken into account. Therefore, in a Sukah of only seven by seven Tefachim, not enough Sechach remains (see Gemara on the top of 17b).

8)[line 17] אין לבוד באמצע This opinion maintains that the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Lavud (see Background to Sukah 16:15) does not apply when an unbroken stretch of open space divides the Sechach of a Sukah down the middle (TOSFOS).

9)[line 18]קורהKORAH (LECHI V'KORAH)

(a)A Mavoy is an alleyway that is enclosed on three sides. Many courtyards are accessible through this alleyway, and the residents of these courtyards pass through the Mavoy on their way to the Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain). The term "Mavoy" is taken from the verse which describes the "Mevo ha'Ir" - "entrance to the city" (Shoftim 1:24).) Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), in which case one may carry within it, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Mavoy for a distance of more than four Amos. This decree was enacted due to that which many families make use of a single Mavoy. One may therefore come to confuse a Mavoy with a Reshus ha'Rabim.

(b)Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi may be a pole, a plank, or any other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall), or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins. (Eruvin 5a, 15a).

(c)Another method of permitting carrying in a Mavoy is through a Korah (a one-Tefach-wide beam). The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy, and serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).

(d)A Lechi or Korah must be used in conjunction with a Shituf Mevo'os (see Background to 3:7) for one to be permitted to carry from one Chatzer to another through the Mavoy.

10)[line 25]ארובהARUBAH- a skylight; an open window in the ceiling

11)[line 26]פותח טפחPOSE'ACH TEFACH- with an opening of one square Tefach

12)[line 26]טומאה בבית כולו טמאTUM'AH B'BAYIS KULO TAMEI (TUM'AS OHEL)

(a)When at least a k'Zayis of a dead body or the bones of a Mes are in a covered area which is at least one Tefach in length, width and height (such as in a room of a house), the Ohel (lit. tent) causes all (Jewish) people, vessels, and food which has been Huchshar l'Kabel Tum'ah (see Background to Eruvin 83:1) below it to become Tamei, while at the same time preventing anything above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is Mevi Es ha'Tum'ah (spreads the Tum'ah underneath it) and is Chotzetz bi'Fnei ha'Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel).

(b)In order for bones of a dead body to be Metamei b'Ohel, they must meet at least one of the following three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (this condition is fulfilled whether they are the majority of the build [Rov Binyano] of a body or whether they are the majority of the number [Rov Minyano] of the 248 bones of a body); 3. The bone is either a complete skull or a complete spinal column. This is in contrast to the minimum requirement for a bone to be Metamei through Maga (touching) or Masa (carrying); for these Tum'os it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).

(c)In an Ohel ha'Mes, people, vessels, or food in the Ohel become Tamei even if the Mes only passes through without stopping. One who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only part of his body enters the Ohel, and even if he enters backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)

13)[line 27]מה שכנגד ארובה טהורMAH SHE'KENEGED HA'ARUBAH TAHOR- that which lies under the skylight is Tahor [since it is not Halachically considered to be in the Ohel)

14)[line 28]אין בארובה פותח טפח ...EIN B'ARUBAH POSE'ACH TEFACH ...- Although the Halachic parameters defined here are identical to those defined for a skylight with an opening of at least one square Tefach, the Mishnah (Ohalos 10:1) goes on to list differences between the two cases.

15)[line 31]הכי גמירי להוHACHI GEMIRI LEHU- this is the way in which the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai was taught

16)[line 34]פריש!PARISH!- explain (that is, qualify your statement)!

17a)[line 36]אברומאAVRUMA- a certain small fish that has fins and scales

b)[line 36]שריאSHARYA- is permitted [to eat, and one need not worry that it contains non-kosher parasites nearly too small to see]

18a)[line 40]צחנתאTZACHANTA- a type of small fish preserved in brine

b)[line 40]דבב נהראD'BAV NAHARA- found in the River Bav, a tributary or a canal branching off of the Euphrates

19)[line 41]רדיפי מיאREDIFEI MAYA- the water flows swiftly

20)[line 41]דג טמאDAG TAMEI- non-kosher fish; in this context, parasites

21)[line 42]חוט השדרהCHUT HA'SHEDRAH- a spine

22)[line 42]לא מצי קאיםLO MATZI KA'IM- are unable to survive [in the current]

23)[line 43]מליחי מיאMILCHI MAYA- the water is salty

24)[line 44]קילפיKILFEI- scales

25)[line 46]לא מרבה טינייהוLO MARBEH TINAIHU- their silt (mud at the bottom of the river) does not produce

26)[line 47]שפכיSHAFCHI- empty (flow)

27)[line 48]אכסדרה שיש לה פצימין כשרהACHSADRAH SHE'YESH LAH PETZIMIN KESHEIRAH- This refers to an Achsadrah in a courtyard as described in our Mishnah (see Background to 17:3), with the addition of pillars set within three Tefachim of each other along its outer edge. The Sukah is kosher due to the application of Lavud to the posts (RASHI; see Insights for other explanations of this Gemara).

18b----------------------------------------18b

28)[line 1]פי תקרה יורד וסותםPI TIKRAH YORED V'SOSEM

(a)The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. defining a Reshus ha'Yachid for the purposes of carrying on Shabbos and creating a Kosher Sukah). A Mechitzah must be at least ten Tefachim high. (See Insights Eruvin 86a.)

(b)When an area is covered by a roof, a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai states that the edge of the beams of the roof "descends and encloses" (Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem), even though that side is completely open and has no physical partition. We may consider the area enclosed for Halachic purposes (see Insights to Eruvin 25:2). Amora'im argue as to whether Pi Tikrah can be used to enclose all four sides or only to enclose three sides when one Mechitzah already exists (according to RASHI; see Insights here and ibid.).

(c)In certain instances, Pi Tikrah cannot be applied. (1)Pi Tikrah is not applied to a roof that is sloped. (2) According to TOSFOS (Eruvin 86b DH Gezuztera), citing RASHI (Sukah 18b), it is not applied unless the roof beam is at least one Tefach thick. (3) According to TOSFOS (Eruvin 86b ibid.), it does not apply when the height of the roof beam is corrugated rather than smooth.

29)[line 4]הפחית דופן אמצעיHIFCHIS DOFEN EMTZA'I- if the middle wall of a three-walled Sukah fell in [the edge of the board in use as Sechach should supply the missing wall through Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem]

30)[line 5]כמבוי המפולשK'MAVOY HA'MEFULASH- like an alleyway open on both ends [that is used as a shortcut. Since people can easily walk through it, it cannot function as a wall of the Sukah even though it would otherwise be a Halachically valid Mechitzah]

31)[line 7]אכסדרה בבקעהACHSADRAH B'BIK'AH- a) a covered area in an open plain open on all four sides (RASHI); b) a covered area in an open plain open on one or two of its sides (TOSFOS Eruvin 94a DH bi'Shtei Ruchos and Eruvin 25b DH Achsadrah b'Vik'ah). Rav and Shmuel disagree as to how many of the sides of an Achsadrah may be considered enclosed through Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem (see Insights here, as well as those to Eruvin 25:2).

32)[line 8]מותר לטלטלMUTAR L'TALTEL B'KULO (HOTZA'AH)

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either (a) the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain), (b) Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, (c) Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, (d) Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a). These are all biblical prohibitions.

(b)Rav maintains that the area underneath the Achsadrah is a Reshus ha'Yachid, since it is walled in due to Pi Tikrah Yored v'Sosem. Therefore one may carry throughout the entire area. Shmuel, however, maintains that the area is not walled in. therefore it is a Reshus ha'Rabim and one may not carry any more than four Amos although he is within it.

33)[last line]אליבא דשמואל כ"ע לא פליגיALIBA D'SHMUEL KULEI ALMA LO PELIGEI- even Abaye must agree that his ruling does not agree with Shmuel's opinion

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