[2a - 37 lines; 2b - 53 lines]


(a)The Talmud uses the following standards for measuring distance:

1.3 Parsa'os = 24,000 Amos = 90 Ris = 12 Mil

2.1 Parsah = 8,000 Amos = 30 Ris = 4 Mil

3.1 Mil = 2,000 Amos = 7.5 Ris

4.1 Ris (or Rus) = 266.66 Amos

5.1 Amah = 2 Zerasos = 6 Tefachim

6.1 Zeres = 3 Tefachim

7.1 Tefach = 4 Etzba'os

(b)In modern-day units, the Etzba is approximately 2 cm (.8 in.) or 2.4 cm (.94 in.), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, an Amah is approximately equal to .46, .48 or .58 meters.

2)[line 5]שחמתה מרובה מצלתהSHE'CHAMASAH MERUBAH MI'TZILASAH- [a Sukah] which allows more sunlight in then it provides shade

3)[line 6]מבויMAVOY (LECHI V'KORAH)

(a)A Mavoy is an alleyway that is enclosed on three sides. Many courtyards are accessible through this alleyway, and the residents of these courtyards pass through the Mavoy on their way to the Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain). The term "Mavoy" is taken from the verse which describes the "Mevo ha'Ir" - "entrance to the city" (Shoftim 1:24). Although mid'Oraisa a Mavoy is considered a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain), in which case one may carry within it, the Chachamim prohibited carrying in a Mavoy for a distance of more than four Amos. This decree was enacted due to that which many families make use of a single Mavoy. One may therefore come to confuse a Mavoy with a Reshus ha'Rabim.

(b)Carrying in a Mavoy is permitted if a Lechi is placed vertically against one of the walls at the entrance to the Mavoy. A Lechi is a pole, plank, or other object that is at least ten Tefachim high. It serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall), or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins. (Eruvin 5a, 15a).

(c)Another method of permitting carrying in a Mavoy is through a Korah (a one-Tefach-wide beam). The Korah is placed horizontally across the top of the entrance to the Mavoy, and serves either as a Mechitzah (a fourth wall) or as a Heker (reminder) to signal where the Reshus ha'Yachid ends and the Reshus ha'Rabim begins (see Insights to Eruvin 2a, and Graphic #1).

(d)A Lechi or Korah must be used in conjunction with a Shituf Mevo'os (see Background to 3:7) for one to be permitted to carry from one Chatzer to another through the Mavoy.

(e)The Mishnah (Eruvin 2a) quoted in our Gemara discusses a Korah placed higher than twenty Amos above the ground.

4)[line 7]ימעטYIMA'ET- it should be lowered

5)[line 9]תקנתאTAKANTA- the specific way through which to remedy the problem

6)[line 9]סוכה דאורייתאSUKAH D'ORAISA- [the Halachah that a] Sukah [must be lower than twenty Amos tall] which is mandated by the Torah [through a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai]

7)[line 12](דנפישי מילתה) [דנפישין מיליה](D'NEFISHI MILSAH) [D'NEFISHIN MILEI]- that has many cases [mentioned in our Mishnah, each of which requires a different remedy]

8)[line 15]עד עשרים אמה אדם יודע שהוא דר בסוכהAD ESRIM AMAH ADAM YODE'A SHE'HU DAR B'SUKAH- as long as a Sukah is less than twenty Amos tall, a person realizes that he is sitting in a Sukah. The root of the word "Sukah" is "Sechach," the material from which the roof of the Sukah is comprised. If one can easily see the Sechach, then he realizes that he is in a Sukah.

9)[line 18]דלא שלטא בה עינאD'LO SHALTA BAH EINA- [the Sechach] does not easily catch one's eye

10)[line 19]"וְסֻכָּה תִּהְיֶה לְצֵל יוֹמָם מֵחֹרֶב, [וּלְמַחְסֶה וּלְמִסְתּוֹר מִזֶּרֶם וּמִמָּטָר]""V'SUKAH TIHEYEH L'TZEL YOMAM ME'CHOREV..." - "And there will be a Sukah to provide shade from the heat of the day, and shelter and protection from the windstream and rain" (Yeshayah 4:6) (THE PROTECTION AFFORDED THE TZADIKIM IN THE DAYS OF MASHI'ACH)

Yeshayah ha'Navi describes the seven types of protection that HaSh-m will provide against the Nochrim for those who remain in Yerushalayim in the days of Mashi'ach: cloud, smoke, bright light, fire, flame, Chupah, and Shechinah. He then explains how the Tzadikim will be shielded against the heat of a super-hot sun, the fire of the river Yanur (taken from Gehinom), and the torrential rain with which HaSh-m shall punish the Resha'im.

11)[line 23]בעשתרות קרניםB'ASHTEROS KARNAYIM- in [the valley between] two large mountains known as Ashteros Karnayim. These mountains are part of the Golan heights, some 22 miles east of the Sea of Galilee. Twin cities existed atop these mountains in ancient times, and they are mentioned in the Torah (Bereishis 14:5). The mountains are so high and so close together that sunlight never reaches the valley at their feet.

12)[line 24]דלDAL- remove (i.e., ignore)

13)[line 35]נפיקNAFIK- he fulfills his obligation

14)[line 36]דאדם עושה דירתו דירת קבעD'ADAM OSEH DIRASO DIRAS KEVA- that one generally builds his dwelling in a permanent fashion


15)[line 7]מחלוקתMACHLOKES- the disagreement [between the Rabanan and Rebbi Yehudah regarding the validity of a Sukah whose Sechach rests above twenty Tefachim is applicable only]

16)[line 17]רויחאREVICHA- it is wide

17a)[line 19]מחזקתMACHZEKES- able to contain

b)[line 19]ראשו ורובו ושולחנוROSHO VRUBO V'SHULCHANO- his head, most of his body, and his table. During the times of the Mishnah and Gemara people ate while reclining; it was therefore appropriate to speak of a Sukah that held only the front of one's body. The Gemara later (16a-b) defines such a Sukah as seven by seven Tefachim.

18)[line 24]משכאMASHCHA- the width [of the Sukah

19)[line 26]הכשר סוכהHECHSHER SUKAH- the minimum size required for a kosher Sukah

20)[line 37]הילני המלכהHILNI HA'MALKAH- a) Queen Helene, monarch of Adiabene (SEFER YUCHASIN); alt. India (ARUCH) who converted to Judaism; b) Queen Helene, of the Chashmona'i dynasty (see Background to Yoma 16:1) (RASHI to Bava Basra 11a; TOSFOS to Kesuvos 7b)

21)[line 52]שאינו צריך לאמוSHE'EINO TZARICH L'IMO- who does not require his mother (a) to wipe him; (b) to soothe him back to sleep when he wakes up in the middle of the night (28b). The Chachamim require one to initiate a child of this age in the Mitzvah of Sukah (Mishnah 28a).