(a)By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, after nightfall, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b)Although a Nidah is permitted to her husband on the night of the eighth day, she may not eat Terumah and Kodshim, or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until nightfall of the eighth day.
(a)In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: (1) During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. (2) During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b)At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash after she brings a Korban Yoledes. The Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar. See Insights to Nidah 25a.)
3)[line 4]בעל קריBA'AL KERI
A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah during the day he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa; the Rabanan, however, prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.
(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).
(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah.
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks, making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen confirms the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.
(b)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are: 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg
(c)For a description of the purification process of a Metzora, see Background to Yoma 63:5. His immersion in a Mikvah also takes place during the day.
7)[line 6]ובועל נדהBO'EL NIDAH
A person who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent. The objects he touches, as well as Tachtono, the objects underneath him, have the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah, as it states in Vayikra 15:24 (see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the day to complete his purification process.
8)[line 13]טבילה בזמנהTEVILAH BI'ZEMANAH MITZVAH
(a)According to Torah law, most people who become Tamei must immerse themselves in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor.
(b)Each Tamei has a set time after which he may immerse himself and become Tahor. (For example, 1. Nidah - at night, after seven complete days have passed since the onset of the bleeding; 2. Zavah Ketanah - on the day after she stops bleeding; 3. Zavah Gedolah - on the seventh day after she stops bleeding; 4. Ba'al Keri - on the day that he sees Keri.)
(c)According to one opinion, Tevilah bi'Zemanah Lav Mitzvah, i.e. immersing oneself at the first opportunity is not a Torah commandment, but rather a recommended practice. (Other Tana'im disagree and maintain that it is a commandment derived from Devarim 23:12.)
9)[line 17]כורך עליו גמיKORECH ALAV GEMI- he wraps over it a reed-grass, bulrush
10)[line 18]שלא ישפשףSHE'LO YESHAFSHEF- he should not rub it
11)[line 21]דיה לטבילה שתהא באחרונהDAYAH LI'TEVILAH SHE'TEHEI BA'ACHARONAH- the Gemara (Nidah 29b-30a) discusses the case of a pregnant woman who left for a journey and returned after having miscarried. If she did not know when she miscarried, Beis Hillel requires her to immerse thirty-five times, since there are many doubts as to when her days of Tum'ah end (since she may have miscarried a male or female fetus, and she may have been a Zavah at the time, etc.). Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah rules that Tevilah bi'Zemanah Lav Mitzvah. She need not immerse at the first opportunity for each possible sequence of Tum'ah, and as such must immerse only once after all of the possible sequences have passed (which is at the end of three weeks, had she been a Zavah when she miscarried a female fetus).
12)[line 23]ישפשףYESHAFSHEF- he should rub it off
13)[line 27]סדורין לימחלSEDURIN LIMACHEL- are arranged to be forgiven
14)[line 33]מפיש חייMAFEISH CHAYEI- he will live a long time
15)[line 33]סגי ומסגיSAGEI U'MASGEI- he will grow (have children) and multiply (with grandchildren)
TAM V'NISHLAM, SHEVACH LA'KEL BOREI OLAM