(a)Rebbi Yosi explains Rebbi Eliezer of our Mishnah (who holds, in the case when someone declared all his property Hekdesh, that the birds are only Hekdesh Bedek ha'Bayis and are not brought directly on the Mizbe'ach) according to Shmuel quoting Rebbi Zeira's principle. Which principle?
(b)Why can one not bring the bird directly as Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach?
(c)And why can it not be redeemed?
(a)According to Shmuel quoting Rebbi Zeira, any animal that can neither be brought on the Mizbe'ach nor redeemed, is considered Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis (and not Kodshei Mizbe'ach).
(b)A bird cannot be brought directly as Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach - because we just precluded birds from being brought as Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach from "ba'Bakar" (see the previous Amud).
(c)Nor can it be redeemed - because no Hekdesh bird can ever be redeemed (from Kedushas Mizbe'ach), even a blemished one.
(a)How do we attempt to prove Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah (who said earlier in the name of Rebbi Shimon that even if someone declared a female animal as an Olah, it cannot make a Temurah) from the Pasuk in Bechukosai "v'Im Kol Behemah Temei'ah Asher Lo Yakrivu Mimenah Korban la'Hashem"?
(b)The Gemara however, refutes this proof from the words "v'He'emid v'He'erich". How?
(c)Rebbi Zeira quoting Rebbi Elazar Darshens the Pasuk quoted in a. like Rebbi Shimon. How does he do this?
(d)In light of this Derashah, how do we account for the Tosefta, which rules that an animal that raped a human or that was raped by a human, can make a Temurah, despite the fact that it is never fit to be brought as a Korban)? (Note: it is unclear why we cannot answer that the author of the Tosefta is the Tana Kama of Rebbi Shimon, who hold that Kedushas ha'Guf takes effect even on blemished animals).
(a)We try to prove Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah (who said earlier in the name of Rebbi Shimon that even if someone declared a female animal as an Olah, it cannot make a Temurah) from the Pasuk in Bechukosai "v'Im Kol Behemah Temei'ah Asher Lo Yakrivu Mimenah Korban la'Hashem" - because the Behemah Temei'ah mentioned there must be referring to an animal that is 'Tamei' (i.e. invalid) from what he declared it to be (i.e. a female animal for an Olah, an Asham or a Pesach - because the Din of a Tamei animal, we know from a Pasuk later in the Parshah), and the Torah then writes "v'He'emid v'He'erich", indicating that only Kedushas Damim takes effect, and not Kedushas ha'Guf.
(b)The Gemara refutes this however, from the very words that just served as the proof - "v'He'emid v'He'erich", since this expression is only applicable to a blemished animal. A complete animal is either Hekdesh to go on the Mizbe'ach, or not Hekdesh at all (in which case it does not require Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah).
(c)Rebbi Zeira quoting Rebbi Elazar, Darshens the Pasuk "v'Im Kol Behemah Temei'ah Asher Lo Yakrivu Mimenah Korban la'Hashem" like the Tana Kama in Rebbi Shimon (who says 'le'Olaso, Osah Temurah': Whatever is not fit to be brought as a Korban either here or anywhere else, he explains (e.g. a blemished animal) does not become Kedushas ha'Guf; but if it is fit to be brought elsewhere (i.e. a female animal), then It becomes Kadosh Kedushas ha'Guf (In fact, this is similar to Rebbi Yochanan's explanation of Rebbi Shimon - on the previous Amud. But whereas he learnt it from a Sevara, Rebbi Zeira is learning it from a Pasuk).
(d)Rebbi Zeira explains his original statement 'Kol she'Einah Re'uyah Likarev Lo Kan v'Lo Be'Makom Acher Eino Oseh Temurah' (which gives rise to the Kashya from the Tosefta) - to refer literally to a Behemah Temei'ah (a non-Kasher animal), whose entire species is not fit to go on the Mizbe'ach, and which certainly requires Ha'amadah and Ha'arachah (but not to a female animal which is fit for some Korbanos, or an animal which was raped, which is of a species which is fit for a Korban - both of these therefore, are subject to Kedushas ha'Guf).
(a)Once every thirty days they would fix the price for wine, flour and oil. Would the store-keeper who supplied these commodities to the Beis Hamikdash (and who had already received his money in advance) be affected if, in the middle, the market value ...
1. ... rose from four Sa'ah per Sela to three?
2. ... dropped from three Sa'ah to four?
(b)How do we explain this discrepancy? We ought to say either that Hekdesh acquires with money (unlike Hedyot), or (like Hedyot) it does not? But how can we say both?
(c)Seeing as the storekeeper has already received his money, how do we explain the fact that he remains responsible to re-place the flour or the wine should they go bad? At which point is he released from this responsibility?
(a)Once every thirty days they would fix the price for wine, flour and oil. If, in the middle, the market value ...
1. ... rose from four Sa'ah per Sela to three - the store-keeper would still need to give Hekdesh four - because Hekdesh acquires with money.
2. ... dropped from three Sa'ah to four - then he would now be obligated to give four - because Hekdesh does not acquire with money.
(b)Min ha'Torah, Hekdesh certainly acquires with money. However, Chazal decreed that, whenever it is to its detriment, it will only acquire with Meshichah (moving the article) and not with money (just like a Hedyot, in order that Hekdesh should not lose).
(c)Even though the storekeeper has already received his money, Chazal decreed that it should not be considered his, until the Korban has been placed on the Mizbe'ach - because they wanted Hekdesh to always have the upper hand. That explains why the store-keeper remained responsible to re-place the flour or the wine, should they go bad.
HADRAN ALACH PEREK HA'TERUMAH
PEREK EILU HEIN HA'MEMUNIN
(a)The Tana lists the names of the fifteen officers who were in charge of the running of the Beis Hamikdash. Pesachyah (alias Mordechai) was responsible for the Kinim. Why was Mordechai known as Pesachyah and Balshan?
(b)In the context of our Mishnah, what did it mean to be in charge of ...
1. ... the Payasos?
2. ... the Kinim?
(a)Mordechai was known as Pesachyah - because he was an expert in interpreting expressions ('Pose'ach Devarim v'Dorshan'). And he was also called Mordechai Balshan - because he was also a supreme linguist, who was able to 'mix' all the languages ('Bolel Leshonos').
1. Masyah ben Shmuel was in charge of the Payasos means that it was his responsibility to organize the Payasos - a form of lots to determine which Kohen would perform which Avodah (they will be described fully in Yoma).
2. Pesachyah was in charge of the Kinim means that he had to distribute the birds to the Zavin, the Zavos and the Yoldos when they came to purchase their birds. They would place their money in the relevant box, which the officers in charge would empty, and then take the money to Pesachyah, who would give them the amount of birds that tallied with the money. They would then immediately bring them on the Mizbe'ach. This particular office, more than any of the others, required an outstanding Chacham - of the caliber of Pesachyah - due to the complexity of the problems that were likely to arise if a bird flew from one group to another (as we learn in Kinim). (Note: All of the officers listed here were paid wages from the Terumas ha'Lishkah - see Korban ha'Eidah Amud 2 DH 'Al Yedei'.)
(a)What was Nechunyah Chofer Sichin responsible for?
(b)Ben Gever was responsible for 'Ne'ilas She'arim'. What did that entail?
(c)Ben Arza was responsible for the Tzelatzal, and Hugras ben Levi for the Shir. What was ...
1. ... the Tzelatzal?
2. ... the Shir?
(a)Nechunyah Chofer Sichin was responsible for digging water-wells, so that the people who traveled to Yerushalayim for Yom-Tov should have water to drink.
(b)Ben Gever was responsible for 'Ne'ilas She'arim' - which entailed closing the gates of the Beis Hamikdash each night and re-opening them each morning.
1. Ben Arza was responsible for the Tzelatzal - the cymbals. The clashing of the cymbals was a symbol for the choir to begin singing.
2. Hugras ben Levi was the choirmaster. He indicated when the Leviyim should start singing and when they should finish.
(a)Since it is hardly feasible that the people listed in our Mishnah served for the four hundred and twenty years that the Beis Hamikdash stood, some explain that these incumbents were the best, each one in his generation. How do others explain this choice?
(b)Beis Garmu refused to teach the art of baking the Lechem ha'Panim, Beis Avtinas the Ketores, Hugras ben Levi a certain nuance in the singing and Ben Kamtzar how to write the Name of Hash-m in a special way. To whom (out of the all the above) does the Pasuk "v'Sheim Resha'im Yirkav" (Mishlei) apply ...
1. ... according to the first of the two above explanations?
2. ... according to the second?
(a)Some explain that the incumbents listed in our Mishnah were the best, each one in his generation. According to others, they were the names of the incumbents in the first generation who arrived in Eretz Yisrael from Bavel.
(b)According to those who say that those listed in our Mishnah were ...
1. ... the best (i.e. they were all Tzadikim), we will have to say that "Zecher Tzadik li'Verachah" was said about all of them, even Beis Garmu and Beis Avtinas (who refused to teach the art of their respective trades), and it is only about Ben Kamtzar (who knew how to write the Name of Hash-m in a special way - but who is not included in the list) that "Shem Resha'im Yirkav" was said.
2. ... the ones who returned from Bavel (whether they were good or not) - then "Shem Resha'im Yirkav" will apply to all of them, and it is to Ben Katin and the other Tzadikim listed there (in the Mishnah in Yoma 37a - all of whom made some Tikun or other in the Beis Hamikdash) about whom they said 'Zecher Tzadik li'Verachah'.
(a)Some say that Rebbi Akiva instituted the learning of Medrash, Halachos and Agados (or of the subdivision of Torah into these sections). Others say that this was already achieved by the Anshei Kenesses ha'Gedolah. In that case, what did Rebbi Akiva institute?
(b)What is the Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim referring to, when it praises a family with the word "Mishpachas Sofrim Yoshvei Ya'avetz"?
(c)And why is Ezra referred to as Ezra ha'Sofer?
(d)What did Rebbi Chagai mean when he complained that, in spite of the fact that the earlier generations plowed, sowed, weeded ... kneaded the dough, arranged it and baked it, yet we have no mouth with which to eat?
(a)According to those who maintain that the Anshei Knesses ha'Gedolah were the ones to institute the learning of Medrash, Halachos and Agados (or of the subdivision of Torah into these sections) Rebbi Akiva instituted - the Kelalos and Peratos.
(b)When the Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim praises a family with the word "Mishpachas Sofrim Yoshvei Ya'avetz" - it is referring to their presentation of groups in numbers (e.g. 'Fifteen women exempt their Tzaros' ... 'There are thirty-six Kerisus' 'There are five categories of people who may not take Terumah') - because this method of presentation helps to memorize the lists.
(c)Ezra is referred to as Ezra ha'Sofer - because he counted the letters in the Torah, and because he made the Mesorah (lists of all the same words that appear throughout Tanach.)
(d)When Rebbi Chagai complained that, in spite of the fact that the earlier generations plowed, sowed, weeded ... kneaded the dough, arranged it and baked it, we have no mouth with which to eat - he meant that in spite of the earlier generations having broken down the Torah into numbered lists, to make it easier for us to understand, we still fail to understand Torah.
(a)According to Rebbi Zeira, if the earlier generations were angels, then the people of his generation were people. What were they, if the earlier generation were people?
(b)But not like the donkey of Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir. How did the robbers react when the stolen animal refused to eat for three days?
(c)What did Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir say when he heard it braying outside his front door?
(d)Why did it refuse to eat the well-prepared barley that his disciples set before it?
(a)According to Rebbi Zeira, if (the sages of) the earlier generations were angels, then those of his generation were humans, and, if those of the earlier generation were humans, then they, said Rebbi Zeira, were like donkeys.
(b)When the stolen donkey of Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir refused to eat for three days, the thieves decided that they had better return it before it died on them and the fact that it was stolen was discovered. So they let it go, and it walked back home by itself.
(c)When Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir heard donkey braying outside his front door, he told his disciples to open the door for the unfortunate creature that had not eaten for three days.
(d)The donkey then refused to eat the well-prepared barley that the disciples set in front of it - because it was Tevel of Demai (which strictly speaking, one is permitted to feed one's animals, but this donkey, took a strict line - presumably, because its master did refuse to eat when his Talmidim gave it well-prepared barley.
(a)All the seventy members of the Sanhedrin had to understand all seventy languages. How many at least, had to be able to speak them?
(b)What is the difference between a Sanhedrin out of which three were able to speak all the languages and one of which four could?
(c)What did Ben Azai, Ben Zoma, Ben Chachinai and Rebbi Elazar ben Masya have in common?
(d)How did Pesachyah discover in a year when the crops were stricken, and there was a terrible shortage, that there was barley available for the Omer ...
1. ... in Gagos Tzerifin?
2. ... in Ein Sochar?
(a)All the seventy members of the Sanhedrin had to understand all seventy languages - and at least two had to be able to speak them.
(b)If three were able to speak all the languages - it was considered an average Beis-Din, and if there were four, it was considered a wise one.
(c)The Sanhedrin of Yavneh was a wise Beis-Din, inasmuch as it included four members who could speak all seventy languages -Ben Azai, Ben Zoma, Ben Chachinai and Rebbi Elazar ben Masya.
(d)In a year when the crops were stricken, and there was a terrible shortage - Pesachyah discovered that there was barley available for the Omer ...
1. ... in Gagos Tzerifin - when a certain dumb man pointed up at the roofs ('Gagos') and at the wigwam-style huts ('Tzerifim').
2. ... in Ein Sochar - when, in another year, a blind man (possibly even the same one) pointed at his eye ('Ein') and at the threshold of the front-door, at the hole where they push the bolt to lock the door ('Sochar').
(a)Three women came to the Beis Hamikdash with bird-offerings; the first one said 'le'Einasi', the second, 'le'Yamasi' and the third 'le'Zivasi'. What did the Kohanim think they meant?
(b)How did Pesachyah interpret their words?
(a)When three women came to the Beis Hamikdash with bird-offerings; the first one said 'le'Einasi', the second, 'le'Yamasi' and the third 'le'Zivasi' - the Kohanim thought that they were all referring to their Korban Zivus: 'le'Einasi' of the first woman, they took to mean that she had been pouring blood like a fountain - 'ke'Ma'yan'; 'le'Yamasi' of the second one, that she had been pouring blood like the sea, and 'le'Zivasi' of the third, meant literally, for her Zivus.
(b)Pesachyah, who, as we have already explained, was an expert in expressions (colloquialisms) and languages, interpreted the first one's words to mean that her eye had been endangered and had been saved, the second one's, that she had been in danger at sea and had been saved, and the third one's, that her son had been saved from a wolf. In fact, all of them had brought money for a voluntary bird thanks-offering (an Olah), not for a Kan Chovah for Zivus at all.
(a)Ben Achya was responsible for stomach-aches. Why were the Kohanim more prone to stomach-aches than anyone else?
(b)What was Ben Achya's expertise that helped to alleviate their suffering?
(c)Why is he listed among the officers of the Beis Hamikdash?
(d)In what did Nechunya Chofer Sichin specialize?
(a)The Kohanim were more prone to stomach-aches than anyone else - because they would eat the meat of the Korbanos and drink water (since wine was forbidden in the Azarah - or during the Avodah) after doing the Avodah all day on the cold marble floor.
(b)Ben Achya's expertise that helped to alleviate their suffering - was the knowledge of which wine would stimulate the stomach of someone who was constipated, and which was good for someone with diarrhea.
(c)He is listed among the officers of the Beis Hamikdash - because due to his services, the Kohanim were quickly restored to good health, and they were able to perform the Mitzvah of eating the Kodshim, as a result of which Kodshim were prevented from becoming Nosar.
(d)Nechunya Chofer Sichin knew which rock contained cold water and which one, hot.