MOSHE REFUTES THE ANGELS AT KABALAS HA'TORAH (cont.)
Moshe: It says "Zachor Es Yom ha'Shabbos Lekadsho" - do you do Melachah from which you must cease?!
It says "Lo Sisa [Es Shem Hash-m Elokecha la'Shav]" - do you do business [and have need for oaths]?!
It says "Kaved Es Avicha v'Es Imkecha" - do you have parents?!
It says "Lo Sirtzach Lo Sin'af Lo Signov" - do you have envy and a Yetzer ha'Ra [which brings one to do these]?!
The angels admitted to Hash-m [that the [entire] Torah should be given to man] - "Hash-m Adoneinu Mah Adir Shimcha b'Chol ha'Aretz" - this latter verse does not say 'Tenah Hocha Al ha'Shomayim'!
Immediately, every angel loved Moshe, and gave him [a secret of Torah] - "Alisa la'Marom Shavisa Shevi Lakachas Matanos ba'Adam", to compensate for having contemptuously called you 'Adam'.
Even the Satan (angel of death) gave a secret - (in the plague following Korach's rebellion, Moshe told Aharon) "Va'Yiten Es ha'Ketores va'Ychaper Al ha'Am; Va'Ya'amod Bein ha'Mesim u'Vein ha'Chayim" - had the Satan not told Moshe, how would he know that Ketores stops a plague?!
WHERE THE SATAN DID AT KABALAS HA'TORAH
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): When Moshe descended from Shomayim, the Satan asked Hash-m where is [the secret part of] Torah; He said that He gave Torah to the land.
The Satan asked [the angel appointed over] the land - [it claimed ignorance,] "Elokim Hevin Darkah..."
He asked the sea and the depth - they denied having it, "Tehom Omer Lo Vi v'Yam Amar Ein Imadi; Avadon v'Maves Amru b'Azneinu Shomanu Shim'ah (destruction and death said that they heard that Torah was given, but they did not know where)".
He told Hash-m that he did not find it anywhere in the land; Hash-m told him to go to Moshe.
Satan (to Moshe): Where is the Torah that Hash-m gave to you?
Moshe: Who am I that Hash-m should give to me His Torah?!
Hash-m: Moshe, do you lie?!
Moshe: Your hidden treasure, which You delight in every day, can I say that I have it?! (I was not worthy of its secrets, just You spread Your Shechinah over me!)
Hash-m: Since you lowered yourself, it will be called by your name - "Zichru Toras Moshe Avdi".
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): When Moshe ascended, he found Hash-m tying crowns to the letters.
Hash-m: You don't give Shalom (greetings)?!
Moshe: Does a slave give Shalom to his master?!
Hash-m: You should 'help' me (give me a Berachah)!
Moshe: "V'Ata Yigdal Na Ko'ach Hash-m ka'Asher Dibarta" (this verse is written after the Meraglim - R. Yehoshua ben Levi must have had a tradition that Moshe said it when he ascended).
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): "Va'Yar ha'Am Ki Boshesh Moshe" - we read this Ba Shesh (the sixth hour came);
Before Moshe ascended, he told Yisrael that he will return after 40 days in the sixth hour. [Rashi - he meant 40 full days, not including the day he ascended.] On the 40th day [counting the day of ascent] the Satan confused the world.
Satan: Where is Moshe?
Yisrael: He ascended to Shomayim.
The Satan told them that the sixth hour came; they ignored him. He told them that Moshe died; they ignored him. He showed them an image of Moshe [dead] on a bed - Yisrael said to Aharon "Ki Zeh Moshe ha'Ish...(we don't know what happened to him)".
Question (a Chacham): Why is it called Har Sinai?
Answer #1 (Rav Kahana): It is the mount on which Nisim (miracles) were done for Yisrael.
Objection (the Chacham): If so, it should be called Nisai!
Answer #2 (Rav Kahana): Rather, it is the mount on which good Simanim (omens) were done for Yisrael.
Objection (the Chacham): If so, it should be called Simnai!
The Chacham: You should learn from Rav Papa and Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua, who delve into the Agadic (non-Halachic) teachings of Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna!
Answer #3 (Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna): It is the mount from which caused [Hash-m to have] Sin'ah (hatred) for Nochrim [for refusing Torah].
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Sinai has five names (Tosfos - there are five names for the large wilderness surrounding it, Maharsha - they are different places where Mitzvos were given to Yisrael, e.g. the Ohel Mo'ed and Arvos Mo'av - R. Yosi teaches that all these Mitzvos were already given on Sinai):
It is called Midbar Tzin, because Yisrael were Nitztavu (commanded) there;
It is called Midbar Kadesh, because Yisrael were Niskadshu (sanctified) there;
It (Maharsha - Arvos Mo'av) is called Midbar Kedmus, because Kedumah (the Torah, which was already given at Sinai) was given [again] there. (Tosfos could not explain this, for Midbar Kedmus is east of Eretz Yisrael, and Midbar Sinai is to the south. Rashi (Devarim 2:26) - "mi'Midbar Kedmus" means that Moshe learned from the Torah to open for Shalom (and avoid war, if possible));
It is called Midbar Paran, because Yisrael reproduced there (every wife became pregnant with a boy after Matan Torah).
It is called Midbar Sinai, for Sin'ah came to Nochrim on account of it.
The name [of the mountain of Matan Torah] is Chorev.
This is unlike R. Avahu:
(R. Avahu): It real name is Sinai - it is called Chorev because Churvah (destruction) came to Nochrim on account of it.
THE MERCY OF THE AVOS ON THEIR CHILDREN
(Mishnah) Question: What is the source to tie a red thread... ["Im Yihyu Chata'eichem ka'Shanim..."]
Question: It should say 'ka'Shani' (singular, just like "ka'Sheleg Yalbinu" is singular)!
Answer (R. Yitzchak): Hash-m tells Yisrael - [even] if your sins will be [numerous] like the years from creation until now, they will become white like snow.
Questions (Rava): Why does it say "Lechu Na (go)" - it should say Bo'u Na (come)! Why does it say "Yomar Hash-m" (in the future) - it should say Amar (past)!
Answer: In the future, Hash-m will tell Yisrael 'Go to the Avos, they will rebuke you';
Yisrael: To whom should we go to? Should we go to Avraham, who was told "Yado'a Teda" (your descendants will be enslaved because you said "Ba'Mah Eda") and did not request mercy for us?! (Maharsha - Hash-m's Midah is to overlook the first transgression - Avraham did not request this, for he preferred that his sin be atoned for in this world.)
Should we go to Yitzchak, who blessed Esav "V'Hayah ka'Asher Tarid (when Yakov declines, Esav will be master over him)"?!
Should we go to Yakov, who was told "Anochi Ered Imcha Mitzraymah [v'Anochi A'alcha Gam Alo]" (alluding to four exiles), and did not request mercy for us?!
At this point Hash-m will say 'Since you desire My mercy, "Im Yihyu Chata'eichem ka'Shanim ka'Sheleg Yalbinu".'
Question (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Why does it say "Ki Ata Avinu Ki Avraham Lo Yodanu v'Yisrael Lo Yakirenu Ata Hash-m Avinu Go'alenu me'Olam Shemecha"?
Answer: In the future Hash-m will tell Avraham 'Your children sinned' -he will say, 'They should be wiped out for the sake of Kidush Hashem'; (Maharsha - he meant that their sins should be wiped out [pardoned] for the sake of Kidush Hash-m - however, he was unclear, 'They should be wiped out' could refer to Yisrael, therefore Hash-m sought another reply).
Hash-m: I will ask Yakov, who had great pain raising children - perhaps he will pray for them!
Yakov responded like Avraham.
Hash-m: The elder [Av] lacks reasoning, the younger lacks [good] counsel - I will ask Yitzchak.
Yitzchak: Did my children sin - aren't they also Your children?! When Yisrael put Na'aseh before Nishma, didn't You call them "Beni Vechori" - why do you call them my sons now?! (Hash-m already called Yisrael "Beni Vechori" when he sent Moshe to Paro because they would later say Na'aseh v'Nishma; they received crowns of Kehunah and Malchus, which are appropriate for the firstborn.)
Further, how much did they sin? Most people live only 70 years - deduct the first 20, for which You (Beis Din of Shomayim) do not punish; half of the remaining 50 are night (even people who are awake then do not sin much), only 25 years remain;
Half the daytime is occupied with prayer, eating, and the Beis ha'Kisei - only 12 and a half years remain;
If You will bear their sin alone, good; if You prefer, each of us will bear half; if You do not agree to this, I will bear all of it - I offered my soul for You [at the Akedah]!
Yisrael will then say "Ata Avinu"; Yitzchak will tell them to direct their praise to Hash-m, and point to Hash-m;
Yisrael will look up to Shomayim and say "Ata Hash-m Avinu Go'alenu me'Olam Shemecha".
(R. Chiya bar Aba): It was fitting that Yakov descend to Mitzrayim in iron chains [to fulfill the decree of exile] - his merit caused that he descended honorably - "B'Chavlei Adam Emshachem b'Avosos Ahavah (in chains of love, not of iron) va'Ehyeh Lahem k'Merimei Ol (I will lift the yoke to reduce their burden) v'At Elav Ochil (I will give them strength to endure the harsh labor)".
WHICH SPICES COMBINE FOR A SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for Hotza'ah of wood is to cook a light egg (this always refers to k'Grogeres of a hen's egg);
The Shi'ur for spices is to season a light egg - all different spices join with each other;
The Shi'ur for nutshells, pomegranate peels, Istis and Pu'ah (plants used to make dye) is enough to dye a small garment in the middle of the headdress.
The Shi'ur for urine, niter, Boris, Kemulia and Ashleg (these will be explained) is enough to launder a small garment in the middle of the headdress;
R. Yehudah says, it is to pass over a Kesem (a bloodstain, to determine whether or not it is Dam Nidah or to remove it).
(Gemara) Question: We already learned [the Shi'ur for wood] in another Mishnah!
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for a reed is to make a quill; if it was thick or cracked [and not fit for a quill], the Shi'ur is to cook a light egg, mixed in a frying pan.
Answer: One might have thought that that applies to a reed, which has no other use - but wood can be used for a tooth of a key, one is liable even for a tiny amount - the Mishnah teaches, this is not so.
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for spices is to season a light egg.
Contradiction (Mishnah): A mixture of spices of two or three names (Tosfos - prohibitions) from the same species, or from three different species, join to forbid the food (b'Nosen Ta'am).
Version #2 (Tosfos) Contradiction (Mishnah): If spices of two or three different prohibitions that are all from the same species, or from three different species, were mixed together, they forbid the food (b'Nosen Ta'am); if they were mixed with a dry food, they join to comprise the quantity which does not become Batul (e.g. for Terumah, one in 100). (End of Version #2)
(Chizkiyah): The case is, all the spices sweeten.
Inference: If they did not all sweeten, they would not join (but our Mishnah did not distinguish whether or not all sweeten)!
Resolution: Also in our Mishnah, all of the spices sweeten.