QUESTIONS ON THE OPINION OF REBBI YOSI
Question (against R. Yosi - Beraisa in Seder Olam): In Nisan of Yetzi'as Miztrayim - Benei Yisrael slaughtered Korban Pesach on the 14th, they left on the 15th, that day was Erev Shabbos;
Inference: Since Nisan began on Friday, Iyar began on Sunday, and Sivan began on Monday!
Answer: That Beraisa is like Chachamim. (Rashash - R. Yosi merely compiled Seder Olam, he does not agree with everything in it.)
Question (Beraisa - R. Yosi): On the second Moshe went up [on Har Sinai] and descended, and also on the third, on the fourth he descended and did not ascend again.
Interjection: If he did not ascend on the fourth, how did he descend?!
Correction: On the fourth he ascended and descended [and did not ascend again];
Continuation of Beraisa: On the fifth he built a Mizbe'ach and offered a Korban on it; on the sixth he did not have time [to ascend].
Suggestion: He did not have time because the Torah was given! (But R. Yosi said (85B) that Matan Torah was on Shabbos!)
Answer: No, he did not have time on account of preparations for Shabbos.
(A Chacham of Galil): Blessed is Hash-m, who gave a three-fold Torah (Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim (the Writings) - all were given on Sinai) to a three-fold nation (Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim) through a third born (Moshe was born after Miryam and Aharon) on the third day (of abstention) in the third month! (Maharsha - in each case, the second has an attribute not found in the first, and the third is greater than the first two.)
This is like Chachamim (but R. Yosi says that it was on the fourth day of abstention).
(Rav Avdimi bar Chama): "Va'Yisyatzvu b'Sachtis ha'Har" - this teaches that Hash-m bent Har Sinai over Yisrael like a bowl; (Aruch - like a wicker basket with holes - if we say that Hash-m let Yisrael see outside, i.e. [the emptiness of] life without Torah, this explains the continuation '...If not, you will be buried there - PF)
He told them, if you accept the Torah, good - if not, you will be buried there. (Maharal, Netzach Yisrael 11 - even though Benei Yisrael previously said 'Na'aseh v'Nishma', Hash-m wanted Kabalas ha'Torah through coercion, lest Yisrael think that transgression of Torah nullifies the acceptance. Medrash - Hash-m acted like a rapist, who must marry the girl and may never divorce her.)
(Rav Acha bar Yakov): This is a great Moda'ah for Kabalas ha'Torah! (Someone forced to do something against his will tells witnesses that he is coerced and does not intend for his deed to take effect - we can say that we never intended to accept Torah! Maharal - the Moda'ah shows that Yisrael were not worthy of Torah.)
(Rava): That is true - however, at the time of the miracle of Purim, "Kiymu v'Kiblu ha'Yehudim", Yisrael [willingly] affirmed what they already accepted [through coercion]. (Tosfos - the covenants and oaths Moshe imposed on Yisrael were also through coercion; Yisrael willingly made a Bris with Yehoshua, but it was limited to the Isur of idolatry.)
Question (Chizkiyah): "Mi'Shomayim Hishmata Din Eretz Yor'ah v'Shokotah" - if the land was afraid, why was it quiet?!
Answer: At first it was afraid; after Yisrael accepted the Torah, it was quiet.
Question: Why was it afraid at first?
Answer: Reish Lakish taught, "Yom ha'Shishi" - Hash-m created the world on condition that Yisrael will accept His Torah on the sixth of Sivan; if they will not, the world will revert to emptiness. (Tosfos Avodah Zarah 3A - R. Yosi can explain, this refers to the sixth day from the second of Sivan, when Hash-m began discussing Matan Torah with Yisrael; alternatively, Moshe added a day to enable receiving the Torah in greater Taharah, this is like acceptance.)
(R. Simai): When Yisrael said 'Na'aseh' before 'Nishma' (agreeing to observe before hearing the Mitzvos), 600,000 angels came, they tied two crowns [of radiance of the Shechinah] on every Yisrael, one for Na'aseh and one for Nishma;
When Yisrael sinned [with the golden calf], twice this number of damaging angels came, each removed one crown - "Va'Yisnatzlu Venei Yisrael Es Edyam me'Har Chorev".
(Rav Chama bar Chanina): They put on the crowns at Chorev (Sinai), they removed them at Sinai;
They put them on at Sinai, like R. Simlai taught; they removed them at Sinai - "Va'Yisnatzlu...".
(R. Yochanan): Moshe merited to receive all of them - right after this it says "U'Moshe Yikach Es ha'Ohel" (he took the crowns; alternatively, Ohel is like "B'Hilo Nero Alei Roshi", the radiance went to Moshe's head. Maharsha - Na'aseh represents Mitzvos Ase, the crown of Kehunah (from Midas ha'Chesed); Nishma represents Lavim, the crown of Malchus (from Midas ha'Din) - Hash-m made Yisrael "Mamleches Kohanim v'Goy Kadosh"; Moshe received the crowns (he was Melech, and Kohen Gadol during Chaunkas ha'Mishkan) on account of learning in the Ohel, i.e, the crown of Torah. The crowns were removed at Chorev, the two Churbanos ended the Malchus and [Avodah of] Kehunah of Yisrael.)
(Reish Lakish): In the future, Hash-m will return them to Yisrael - "U'Fduyei Hash-m Yeshuvun...v'Simchas Olam Al Rosham", the joy that used to be on their heads.
(R. Elazar): When Yisrael put 'Na'aseh' before 'Nishma', a Bas Kol (voice from Heaven) said 'Who revealed to My children this secret that the angels use' - "Borachu Hash-m Mal'achav Giburei Cho'ach Osei Devaro Lishmo'a b'Kol Devaro", first Osei (they accept to do) his word, afterwards they hear it. (Maharsha - usually, people are not so resolute to do His will, for the Yetzer ha'Ra incites - Yisrael overcame this.)
Question (Rav Chama bar Chanina): What do we learn from K'Sapu'ach ba'Atzei ha'Ya'ar..."?
Answer: Yisrael are compared to an apple tree - just like its fruit precedes its leaves, Yisrael put Na'aseh before Nishma.
A Tzeduki (heretic) saw Rava engrossed in learning; Rava's fingers were under his leg, he was pressing on them [without realizing], they were bleeding.
The Tzeduki: You are a hasty nation! You put your mouths before your ears, and you persist in your haste! You should have heard [the Mitzvos] first - then, you can accept if you see that you can keep them!
Rava: We go with a pure heart (We knew that Hash-m would not demand more than we are capable of) - it says about us "Tumas (from the root 'Tam', pure) Yesharim Tanchem";
It says about people [like you] who are full of accusations "V'Selef Bogdim Yeshadem" (Maharsha - those who seek to be straight receive Hash-m's help, those who seek to be crooked are given the opportunity).
Question (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): What do we learn from "Libavtini Achosi Chalah Libavtini b'Achas me'Einayich"?
Answer: At first [when Yisrael accepted Torah], we drew close to Hash-m with one eye; later [through keeping Torah] we drew close with both. (Maharsha - Na'aseh v'Nishma corresponds to an intellectual vision, fulfillment in practice corresponds to physical vision.)
(Ula): A bride that had Zenus (extramarital relations) at the Chupah is Aluva (audacious).
(Rav Mari, son of Shmuel's daughter): He learns from "Ad sheha'Melech bi'Msivo Nirdi [Nosan Reicho]" (Yisrael made the golden calf while still at Har Sinai);
(Rava): Yisrael retains its dearness to Hash-m - it says, "Nosan Reicho" (gave its scent), it does not say 'stank'.
(Beraisa): "V'Ohavav k'Tzeis ha'Shemesh bi'Gvuraso" - this is one who is disgraced and does not disgrace; he hears [others recounting] his shame and does not answer, he serves Hash-m from love and happily accepts afflictions. (While the moon was suggesting that it should be supreme, the sun was silent - as a result, the sun became supreme.)
HASH-M'S UTTERANCES AT KABALAS HA'TORAH
Question (R. Yochanan): What do we learn from "Hash-m Yiten Omer ha'Mevasros Tzava Rav"?
Answer: Every utterance of Hash-m splits into 70 languages [and 70 meanings - Sanhedrin 34A].
(Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): "Uch'Patish Yefotzetz Sala" - just as a hammer is broken by (R. Tam; Rashi - breaks) a rock into many pieces, one verse has many meanings.
Question (Rav Chananel bar Papa): What do we learn from "Shim'u Ki Negidim Adaber"?
Answer #1: Divrei Torah are compared to governors - just like governors can kill or keep alive, also Divrei Torah;
(Rava): For Maiminim (those who engage in Torah Lishmah) it is an elixir of life; for Masme'ilim it is poison.
Answer #2: They are called Negidim (plural) because Hash-m tied two crowns to every word He uttered (the words were tangible - "Ro'im Es ha'Kolos").
Question (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): What does it mean "Tzeror ha'Mor Dodi Li Bein Shodai Yalin"?
Answer: Keneses Yisrael says, even though my Beloved pains me and retracts (from the crowns He gave to me, on account of the Egel), He dwells in my bosom (He commanded to build the Mishkan right away).
"Eshkol ha'Kofer Dodi Li b'Charmi Ein Gedi" - the One who owns Kol (everything) is Mechaper for my sin of Gedi (this is like a calf - alternatively, it refers to idolatry, ("Ha'Orchim la'Gad Shulchan") that I Charamti (gathered [lust for many gods]).
Question: What is the source that Charamti refers to gathering?
Answer (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Nachman - Mishnah): A launderer's chair that Chormim (one gathers) clothes on it (to scent them).
Question (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): What do we learn from "Lechayav ka'Arugas ha'Bosem"?
Answer: Every utterance that left Hash-m's 'mouth' filled the entire world with fragrant spices [Maharsha - to help revive them].
Question: After the first utterance [filled the world], there was no room for others!
Answer: After each word, He took the wind out of its storehouse and cleared the spices [to Gan Eden] - "Sifsosav Shoshanim Notfos Mor Over" - we read Shoshanim like 'she'Shonim' (that repeat).
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): After every utterance of Hash-m, Yisrael's souls left them - "Nafshi Yotz'ah v'Dabro".
Question: After the first utterance, they were not alive to hear the others!
Answer: Hash-m revived them with dew that will be used for the ultimate Techiyas ha'Mesim - "Geshem Nedavos Tanif Elokim Nachalascha v'Nil'ah Ata Chonantah".
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): After every utterance of Hash-m, Yisrael retreated 12 Mil, angels nudged them back - "Mal'achei Tzevakos Yidodun Yidodun" - we read this 'Yedadun'.
MOSHE REFUTES THE ANGELS AT KABALAS HA'TORAH
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): When Moshe ascended, the angels asked 'Why is there a person among us?'
Hash-m: He came to receive the Torah.
The angels: Will You give Your treasure, which You stored away 974 generations before creation, to flesh and blood?! "Mah Enosh Ki Sizkerenu u'Ven Adam Ki Sifkedenu; Hash-m Adoneinu...Tenah Hodcha Al ha'Shomayim" (give it to us instead! Maharsha - they claimed that physical man is not fitting for the secrets of Torah, which are spiritual. Most of the explanations in this Agadata are based on Maharsha.)
Hash-m (to Moshe): Answer them!
Moshe: I fear lest the breath of their mouths burn me (they are purely spiritual, and do not sin)!
Hash-m: Hold onto my Kisei ha'Kavod and answer them! (The Neshamah is connected to the Kisei, this enables man to attain spirituality.)
(R. Nachum): "Me'Achez Penei Kisei Parshez Alav Anano" - this is an acronym for PiResh SHakai mi'Ziv [Shechinaso], Hash-m spread His radiance and cloud over him.
Moshe: Hash-m, what is written in the Torah You give to me? "Anochi Hash-m Elokecha Asher Hotzeisicha me'Eretz Miztrayim"!
Moshe (to the angels:): Did you descend to Mitzrayim?! Did Paro enslave you?! (Both parts of Torah are suitable for man - you have no connection at all to the revealed part, i.e. Mitzvos!)
It says "Lo Yihyeh Lecha Elohim Acherim Al Panai" - do you live among other nations that serve idolatry?!