[113a - 48 lines; 113b - 52 lines]

1)[line 5]גמרא גמור; זמורתא תהא?!GEMARA GEMOR; ZEMORTA TEHEI?!- shall we learn Gemara for no reason; is it merely a song?!

2)[line 6]פסקיאPESIKYA- a wide belt worn by women

3)[line 11]חבל דגרדיCHEVEL D'GARDI- a weaver's cord

4)[line 14]עונבוONVO- he should tie it with a bow

5)[line 15]פונדאPUNDA- a money belt

6)[line 20]איבוסEIVUS- a feeding stall or trough

7)[line 23]כלי קיואיKLEI KIVA'EI- (a) utensils used in weaving (RASHI); (b) a weaver's cord (ROSH)

8)[line 24]כובד העליון וכובד התחתוןKOVED HA'ELYON V'KOVED HA'TACHTON- (Kevedim - O.F. ensobles) the two round, heavy beams of the loom, one which holds the unwoven Shesi (warp) threads and one which holds the finished cloth. There does not seem to be a standard definition as to which beam is called Elyon and which is called Tachton.

9)[line 25]אין ולאו ורפיא בידיהIN V'LAV V'RAFYA B'YADEI- he had no definite answer (lit. "yes and no and it was weak in his hands")

10)[line 27]עמודיםAMUDIM- (O.F. teliers) the upright supports of the loom which rest on the ground

11a)[line 28]הטומןHA'TOMEN- one who buries (for preservation)

b)[line 28]לפתLEFES- turnips

c)[line 28]צנונותTZENONOS- radishes

d)[line 29]עליוALAV- its leaves

12a)[line 29]כלאיםKIL'AYIM

(a)It is forbidden to plant different types of crops together as it states in the Torah, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim," - "Do not plant different species (together) in your field" (Vayikra 19:19). See Background to Shabbos 51:1.

(b)Burying turnips and radishes under a grapevine does not fall under the prohibition of Kil'ayim, since this is not called planting.

b)[line 29]שביעיתSHEVI'IS

(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that: 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.

(b)One may not do any work that makes improvements to the land or to the trees growing from the land.

(c)When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains Kadosh as well).

(d)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

13)[line 30]לא אתי לאשוויי גומותLO ASI L'ASHVUYEI GUMOS- [in the field] a person will not normally level the ground by filling up its holes, which would violate the prohibition of building (Boneh) on Shabbos (see Daf 73b)

14)[line 33]מקפליןMEKAPLIN- it is permissible to fold

15)[line 34]מציעין את המטותMATZI'IN ES HA'MITOS- it is permissible to make the beds

16)[line 36]חלבי שבתCHELVEI SHABBOS- the fats (Chelev) of the afternoon Korban Tamid that was brought on Shabbos

17)[line 41]אבל יש לו להחליף לאAVAL YESH LO L'HACHLIF, LO- but if he has another garment to wear tomorrow instead of this one, then he may not fold this one

18)[line 43]אם יש לו להחליף יחליףIM YESH LO L'HACHLIF, YACHLIF- if a person has clothes that he does not wear during the week, he should change into them for Shabbos

19)[line 43]ישלשל בבגדיוYESHALSHEL B'BEGADAV- he should let down his clothes, which were being held up off the ground by a belt

20)[line 44]רמות רוחאRAMUS RUCHA- haughtiness

21)[line 46]"[אם תשיב משבת רגלך עשות חפצך ביום קדשי וקראת לשבת ענג לקדוש ה' מכבד] וכבדתו מעשות דרכיך [ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר]""[IM TASHIV MI'SHABBOS RAGLECHA, ASOS CHEFTZECHA B'YOM KODSHI, V'KARASA LA'SHABBOS ONEG, LI'KEDOSH HASH-M MECHUBAD,] V'CHIBADTO ME'ASOS DERACHECHA, [MI'METZO CHEFTZECHA V'DABER DAVAR.]" - "[If you will restrain your foot because it is Shabbos, refrain from accomplishing your own needs on My holy day; if you will proclaim the Shabbos a pleasure, the holy day of HaSh-m an honor;] if you will honor it by not engaging in your own affairs, [by not indulging in your own affairs and discussing matters that are forbidden (on Shabbos).]" (Yeshayah 58:13) (SHABBOS, THE KEY TO TESHUVAH)

(a)The people wanted to know why their fasts were not being accepted. The Navi began his answer by pointing out to them the futility of fasting and bowing one's head in mock humility, and wearing sack-cloth and ashes while one indulges in squabbling with his fellow man.

(b)What HaSh-m wants, he explained to them, is that they rid themselves of their evil ways, stop harassing the poor, and set free their servants, and that they fulfill the requirements in the above verse. Then, as the Navi concludes this section of his prophecy, "HaSh-m will be happy to answer their prayers and heed their cries."

(c)Interestingly, most of the Navi's complaints concerned sins "Bein Adam la'Chaveiro" (between man and his fellow man). Virtually no mention is made of sins between man and G-d (many of which they were guilty, including the three cardinal sins, idolatry, adultery, and murder). Nevertheless, the Navi does conclude with a detailed description of the importance of keeping Shabbos, which is the key to Teshuvah. Interestingly, the Navi combines the same two issues (justice and charity on one hand, and Shabbos on the other) in chapter 56 (verse 2).

(d)The Gemara infers from this verse a number of decrees that the Chachamim instituted in the time of Yeshayah in order to strengthen the people's waning observance of Shabbos. They declared Shabbos a day of joy, to be celebrated by eating nice food. Then they instituted that one honor the Shabbos by wearing special Shabbos clothing, by walking in a more dignified manner that befits the Shabbos, by concerning themselves with Divine issues rather than personal matters, and by avoiding mundane speech.

(e)The Navi concludes, "Then you will rejoice with HaSh-m, and I will ride you astride in the high places of the land; I will feed you the inheritance of Yakov your father, for the mouth of HaSh-m has spoken!"

(f)The verse refers to the inheritance of "Yakov," and not of Avraham and Yitzchak, because Yakov was promised an inheritance without borders (that he would spread out in all four directions). Also, the Navi mentions Yakov to preclude Yishmael, the son of Avraham, and Esav, the son of Yitzchak, from any claim to any part of Eretz Yisrael.

22)[line 47]קרי למאניה מכבדותיKARI L'MANEI MECHABDOSAI- called his garments "the objects that honor me"


23)[line 3]לחייLECHAYEI- [all of the lessons learned from the verse in Yeshayah 58:13] are easily understandable

24)[line 10]ליקףLEIKAF- should he go around?

25)[line 10]קמפיש בהילוכאKA'MAFISH B'HILUCHA- he increases the amount he has to walk (unnecessary toil on Shabbos)

26)[line 10]ליעברLEI'AVAR- should he walk through the water?

27)[line 11]מיתווסן מאני מיאMITAVSAN MANEI MAYA- his garments will get soaked with water

28)[line 15]בקידושא דבי שמשיB'KIDUSHA D'VEI SHIMSHEI- during Kidush on Friday night. That is, (a) his eyesight returns if he drinks from the Friday night Kidush cup (RASHI Berachos 43b); (b) Alternatively, this is simply a metaphor for the restfulness of Shabbos, and it does refer specifically to the recitation of Kidush itself (ME'IRI)

29a)[line 16]אדמהADAMAH- (O.F. arzile) clay

b)[line 17]מלקהMALKEH- makes a person sick

30)[line 20]ננערוNIN'ARU- were emptied out, dumped

31a)[line 20]למה נקרא שמה "מצולה?"LAMAH NIKRA SHEMAH "METZULAH"?- why is Bavel called "Metzulah" (in Zecharya 1:8)?

b)[line 21]נצטללוNITZTALELU- sank

32)[line 21]איתמחויי איתמחוISMACHUYEI ISMACHU- disintegrated

33)[line 22]כיון דמלקי גזרו ביה רבנןKEIVAN D'MALKEI GAZRU BEI RABANAN- since it makes people sick, they decreed that it is forbidden to eat

34)[line 22]גרגישתאGARGISHTA- clod of earth

35)[line 23]תחליTACHALEI- cress

36)[line 23]וקדחו ליה תחליה בלביהKADCHU LEI TACHALEI B'LIBEI- the cress grew from the clod of earth and touched his heart

37)[line 23]"ורחצת וסכת ושמת שמלתיך [עליך וירדת הגרן אל תודעי לאיש עד כלתו לאכל ולשתות ... ותרד הגרן ותעש ככל אשר צותה חמותה]""V'RACHATZT VA'SACHT V'SAMT SIMLOSAYICH [ALAYICH, V'YARADT HA'GOREN. AL TIVAD'I LA'ISH AD KALOSO LE'ECHOL V'LISHTOS. VA'TERED HA'GOREN,VA'TA'AS K'CHOL ASHER TZIVATAH CHAMOSAH.]" - "... bathe, anoint yourself, and dress in your finery, [and then go down to the barn. Do not show yourself to the man (Bo'az) until he has finished eating and drinking. And she went down to the barn, where she fulfilled everything that her mother-in-law had commanded her.]" (Rus 3:3, 6) (RUS FINDS BO'AZ IN THE BARN)

(a)Naomi instructed her daughter-in-law, Rus, to go down to the barn that night, where Bo'az, having just finished winnowing the produce (at the end of the harvesting process) would be sleeping that night (in order to guard the produce against robbers). Only later, after Boaz finished his festive meal and was already asleep, was she to uncover his feet and await further instructions from him.

(b)Rus followed her-mother-in-law's instruction to the letter, with the sole exception of changing into her finery, which she did only after she arrived at the barn (so that people whom she met along the way would not suspect her of impropriety).

(c)When Boaz awoke in the middle of the night, he was startled to find a being lying at his feet. Initially taking her to be a demon, he was about to shout for help, but when he reached down and felt her hair (which demons do not have) he realized that she was a woman. In answer to his question, "Who are you?" she replied that she was Rus his "maidservant," and she asked him to spread the corner of his garment over her, a hint that he should perform Yibum with her, as he was a close relative of her deceased husband, Machlon. Boaz promptly blessed her for remaining loyal to her mother-in-law, and even more so for not giving herself over to any of the numerous young men (all of whom were attracted by her beauty) as one might have expected of a girl in her situation, and he praised her for her righteousness. He pointed out to her, however, that he was only a cousin of her deceased husband, and that there was an uncle (named Tov) who was a closer relative and who thus had the first right to marry her and take possession of her property. He promised her, however, that he would settle the issue the very next morning.

(d)After swearing to his Yetzer ha'Ra that he would not touch her until they were married, he bade her remain the night.

(e)See Background to Sanhedrin 93:79.

38)[line 27]"[ויאמר עלי לשמואל לך] שכב והיה אם ויקרא אליך ואמרת דבר ה' כי שומע עבדך [וילך שמואל וישכב במקומו]. ויבא ה' ויתיצב ויקרא כפעם בפעם שמואל שמואל ויאמר שמואל דבר כי שומע עבדך""[VA'YOMER ELI LI'SHMUEL: LECH] SHECHAV! V'HAYAH IM YIKRA ELECHA V'AMARTA, 'DABER HASH-M KI SHOME'A AVDECHA.' [VA'YELECH SHMUEL VA'YISHKAV B'MEKOMO.] VA'YAVO HASH-M VA'YISYATZAV VA'YIKRA K'FA'AM B'FA'AM, 'SHMUEL SHMUEL!' VA'YOMER SHMUEL, 'DABER, KI SHOME'A AVDECHA.'" - "[And Eli said to Shmuel: Go] lie down, and it shall be that if He calls to you, then you shall say, 'Speak HaSh-m for Your servant is listening.' [And Shmuel went and lied down in his place.] And HaSh-m came and He stood there, and like He did on the previous occasions, He called out, 'Shmuel, Shmuel!' And Shmuel said, 'Speak, for Your servant is listening.'" (Shmuel I 3:9, 10) (SHMUEL'S FIRST PROPHECY)

(a)Shmuel was sleeping in the Ezras Leviyim in Mishkan Shiloh when HaSh-m called to him from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim by name. Totally inexperienced in the ways of prophecy, Shmuel thought that it was the Kohen Gadol (Eli) who was calling him. He immediately ran to Eli and presented himself. Eli, who had heard nothing, told him to go and lie down. When the same scenario repeated itself, Eli realized what had happened. Once again, Eli told Shmuel to go and lie down, but that the next time he heard the Voice calling him, he should reply in the way that the verse describes.

(b)Shmuel followed Eli's instructions, only he did not mention HaSh-m by name when he responded to the Voice, as Eli had instructed him. This was because, despite Eli's assurance, Shmuel was not convinced that it was indeed HaSh-m Who was calling him.

39)[line 30]"ותלך ...""VA'TELECH ..."- "And she went, and came, and gleaned in the field..." (Ruth 2:3) - The Gemara explains to what the verse refers when it states that Rus "came" before she finished gleaning in the field. (See Background to Makos 23:18.)

40)[line 33]שבליןSHIBOLIN- stalks of grain

41)[line 36]"ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה""VA'TISHAK ORPAH LA'CHAMOSAH V'RUS DAVKAH BAH" - "[... they raised their voices and they wept,] and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Rus cleaved to her." (Rus 1:14) (RUS AND ORPAH)

See Background to Berachos 7:33.

42)[line 41]שרבSHRAV- a time of dry heat

43)[line 42]קשין כחומץKASHIN K'CHOMETZ- vexing as vinegar

44)[line 48]"ותחת כבודו יקד יקד כיקוד אש""V'SACHAS KEVODO YEIKAD YEKOD KI'YEKOD ESH" - "[Therefore will the Master HaSh-m of Hosts send a leanness among his (Sancheriv's) fat ones,] and instead of his glory, there will burn a conflagration like the burning of fire." (Yeshayah 10:16) (SANCHERIV'S HOPES ARE DASHED)

(a)Sancheriv thought that just as he had destroyed Shomron (the Ten Tribes) and its gods), he would go on to destroy Yerushalayim and its idols. That was not what HaSh-m planned. The terrible fate of Shomron and some of the cities of Yehudah frightened the inhabitants of Yerushalayim into doing Teshuvah, and thus they were not destined to fall into his hands.

(b)HaSh-m pointed at Sancheriv's incredible conceit, and how he had denied HaSh-m's Hand in his victories and insisted that he defeated all his enemies, taken their booty and sent them into exile due to his own prowess and might. Sancheriv compared himself to someone who empties eggs from an abandoned nest, where no one can stop him. So had he conquered the whole world and no one shook a wing or opened his mouth and chirped in protest.

(c)In contrast to Sancheriv's perspective, the verse describes him as a tool in the hands of HaSh-m, like an ax that the chopper wields, a saw that a person guides, and a stick that a person raises: it is not the ax that lifts the hand, the saw that guides the hand, or the stick that raises the hand!

(d)HaSh-m decided to wipe out Sancheriv's entire army and to replace their former glory with an intense conflagration. Chazal interpret "glory" with reference to clothing. The verse means that while their bodies would be destroyed, their clothes would remain intact. This was a merit based on the fact that Ashur was a descendent of Shem, who covered the nakedness of his father, Noach, with a garment. Indeed, the Assyrian army burned to death, but their clothes were untouched by the flames.

45)[line 47]אהוריריה דרביAHARUREI D'REBBI- the stable-keeper of Rebbi

46)[line 47]הוה עתיר משבור מלכאHAVAH ATIR MI'SHVOR MALKA- was wealthier than King Shapur, the king of Persia

47)[line 48]"ותחת כבודו ...""V'SACHAS KEVODO ..."- "... and under his glory shall be kindled a burning like the burning of fire." (Yeshayah 10:16) - The word "Tachas" (under) is a subject of disagreement among the Amora'im; does it mean "under" or "instead of"?