[51a - 46 lines; 51b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]כלאיםKIL'AYIM

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. The term "Kil'ayim" can refer to many different types of forbidden mixtures. Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im, and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.")

(b)KIL'EI HA'KEREMrefers to the prohibition of sowing vegetables or grains in a vineyard, as the Torah states, "Lo Sizra Karmecha Kil'ayim, Pen Tikdash ha'Melei'ah ha'Zera Asher Tizra u'Sevu'as ha'Karem" - "You shall not sow your vineyard with other species, lest the fruit of the seed which you have sown, and the fruit of the vineyard, be forfeited" (Devarim 22:9). According to some Tana'im, even if one finds other crops growing in his vineyard and does not remove them, he transgresses this prohibition (Makos 21b). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.

1.Many Tana'im maintain that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem forbids planting any vegetable or grain in a preexisting vineyard, as well as sowing grape seeds together with any vegetable or grain. However, Rebbi Yoshiyah rules that the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem applies only tosowinggrape seeds along with wheatandbarley kernels in the same throw of a hand (Berachos 22a). According to this view, one who plants grapes, wheat and barley in such a manner transgresses both the prohibition of Kil'ei ha'Kerem and the prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im (see below; Tosfos Kidushin 39a DH Lo).

2.It is prohibited to plant vegetables or grains even outside of a vineyard in close proximity to it. Such plants must be planted at least six Tefachim away from a single grapevine, and at least four Amos away from a vineyard. ("Vineyard," in this respect, refers to at least five grapevines, planted in a formation of two parallel rows of two with a fifth vine between (and behind) the two rows — see Background to Sotah 43:29.) The grapevines and the vegetables or grains that grow in a vineyard that has been planted with Kil'ei ha'Kerem are prohibited to be eaten. They must be burned, as the Torah says, "PenTikdashha'Melei'ah...," which the Gemara translates as, "lest the produce (of that vineyard) have to be burned ('Tukad Esh')" (Kidushin 56b,RAMBAMHilchos Kil'ayim 5:7).

3.Although the Torah prohibits Kil'ei ha'Kerem only in Eretz Yisrael, as with any other Mitzvos ha'Teluyos ba'Aretz, the Rabanan prohibited it in Chutz la'Aretz as well (Kidushin 38b).

4.Burying turnips and radishes under a grapevine does not fall under the prohibition of Kil'ayim, since this is not called planting.

(c)KIL'EI ZERA'IMrefers to the prohibition of sowing any two different types of crops within close proximity to each other, as the Torah states, "Sadecha Lo Sizra Kil'ayim" - "Do not sow different species (together) in your field" (Vayikra 19:19). One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.

1.The Mishnayos in Maseches Kil'ayim specify the distance that one must leave in between different crops.

2.Crops that grow in a field that has been planted with Kil'ei Zera'im are not prohibited to be eaten.

3.The prohibition of Kil'ei Zera'im applies only in Eretz Yisrael.

2)[line 1]שביעיתSHEVI'IS

(a)The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that: 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.

(b)One may not do any work that makes improvements to the land or to the trees growing from the land.

(c)When one sells fruit of Shevi'is, the Kedushah of the fruit is transferred to the money paid in exchange for it (the fruit itself remains Kadosh as well).

(d)The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

3)[line 5]הקיתוןHA'KITON- a flask [of cold water]

4)[line 5]ונותן לתחת הכרV'NOSEN L'SACHAS HA'KAR- That is, this is done in order to keep it cool (Rashi)

5)[line 6]הכסתHA'KESES- a cushion

6)[line 18]כבר הורה זקןKVAR HORAH ZAKEN- since the Torah-scholar (Rebbi Yosi) already ruled in this matter, [I rescind my ruling]

7)[line 22]ממלא מקום אבותיו הוהMEMALEI MEKOM AVOSAV HAVAH- he (Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi) filled his father's place, i.e. he achieved the same greatness in Torah-learning

8)[line 22]וכפוף ויושבCHAFUF V'YOSHEV- he was subordinate to Rebbi since Rebbi was the Nasi, even though he was a greater Torah-scholar than Rebbi

9)[line 24]דרו עבדיהDARU AVDEI- to Daru, his slave

10)[line 25]אחים קפילא ארמאהACHIM KEFEILA ARAMA'AH- it was heated by a non-Jewish baker

11)[line 27]כרבוותיה עבידK'RABVASEI AVID- he acted in accordance with the rulings of his teachers

12)[line 31]בשולי נכריםBISHULEI NOCHRIM

(a)Chazal enacted a decree that foods that were cooked by Nochrim even in a Jew's house or in a Jew's pots are prohibited to eat. The decree was instituted to prevent intermarriage and to prevent the possibility that the Nochri might feed non-Kosher food to Jews.

(b)Only foods that must be cooked were included in the decree. If they are edible raw, the Nochri has not added to those foods a significant change to prohibit them. Furthermore, only foods that are important enough to be served to kings are prohibited if a Nochri cooked them. It is not customary to invite others to a banquet where less important foods are served. Therefore the sages did not worry that these foods would bring about a mingling of Jews and Nochrim.

13)[line 35]נוטל את הסדיניןNOTEL ES HA'SADININ...- That is, he replaces the insulating covering of Sedinim with Gelufkarim or vice versa

14)[line 36]הגלופקריןHA'GELUFKARIN- (O.F. cot) coats

15)[line 38]מיחםMEICHAM- kettle

16)[line 39]פינה ממיחם למיחםPINAH MI'MEICHAM L'MEICHAM- if he emptied the water from one kettle into another one, i.e. from the one in which the water was heated to a kettle that was not hot

17a)[line 40]אקורי קא מקיר להAKUREI KA MEKIR LAH- he is cooling it off

b)[line 40]ארתוחי קא מירתח לה?!ARTUCHEI KA MIRTACH LAH?!- do we have to worry that he will heat it up?!


18)[line 5]טח את פיה בבצקTACH ES PIHA B'VATZEK- it is permitted to paste the lid to the pot with dough that was prepared on Friday

19)[line 8]מרזקיןMERAZKIN- crush

20)[line 9]יזובו מימיוYAZUVU MEIMAV- it should melt and yield water (lit. that its water should flow from it)


21)[line 14]אפסרAFSAR- (O.F. chevestre) halter, a rope with a noose or head stall for leading horses or cattle

22)[line 14]נאקהNE'AKAH- (O.F. dromel) a dromedary (one-humped camel)

23)[line 14]חטםCHATAM- an iron muzzle

24)[line 15]לובדקיםLUVDAKIM- a Libyan donkey

25)[line 15]בפרומביאPERUMBI'A- a bit

26)[line 15]בשירSHEIR- a collar

27)[line 19]חיורתיCHIVARTI- white

28)[line 19]זממא דפרזלאZEMAMA D'FARZELA- an iron muzzle

29)[line 20]חמרא לובאCHAMRA LUBA- a Libyan donkey

30)[line 21]פגי דפרזלאPAGEI D'FARZELA- an iron bit

31)[line 22]צרו שדרו ליה שעריTZARU SHADRU LEI SA'AREI- they tied up barley with his money and sent it back to him. Money used to be tied into a sash, as evident from Devarim 14:25.

32)[line 23]ניגרי דחמרא שעריNIGREI D'CHAMRA SA'AREI- the steps of a donkey depend upon the barley that it eats

33)[line 24]מחליפין לפני רביMACHLIFIN LIFNEI REBBI- they asked Rebbi the opposite case

34)[line 26]לא מינטרא ביהLO MINTERA BEI- it is not guarded by it

35)[line 28]נטירותא יתירתאNETIRUSA YESEIRTA- unnecessary precautions used to guard an animal

36)[line 31]הפרדHA'PERED- a mule

37)[line 35]סוגרSUGAR- a collar

38)[line 40]מיתנא בעלמאMISNA B'ALMA- merely a thin rope