DECREES ON ACCOUNT OF TYING
(Mishnah): One may tie a belt on a bucket [to hang it over a pit, for one will not Mevatel it], one may not tie it with a rope;
R. Yehudah permits.
R. Yehudah says, the general rule is, one is not liable for any knot that is not permanent.
(Gemara) Question: What kind of rope is it?
Suggestion: It is a regular rope.
Rejection: R. Yehudah would not permit this, it is permanent [he will Mevatel it]!
Answer: It is a weaver's rope [he needs it, he will not Mevatel it].
Suggestion: Chachamim decree to forbid a weaver's rope on account of a regular rope, R. Yehudah does not decree.
Contradiction (Beraisa): If the rope of a bucket broke, one may not tie it, he may make a bow;
R. Yehudah permits to tie a belt, but not to make a bow (he decrees on account of a knot)!
R. Yehudah and Chachamim both contradict themselves!
Answer - part 1 (for Chachamim): Chachamim forbid a weaver's rope on account of a regular rope, for these can be confused - they do not forbid a bow on account of a knot, people do not confuse them.
Answer - part 2 (for R. Yehudah): R. Yehudah does not forbid a bow on account of a knot - rather, he holds that a bow is considered a knot!
(R. Aba): One may bring a rope from his house and tie a cow to a feeding trough.
Question (R. Acha bar Papa): If a rope is tied on a feeding trough, one may tie the other end to a cow, and vice-versa;
One may not bring a rope from his house and tie a cow to a feeding trough.
Answer (R. Aba): The Beraisa forbids a regular rope, I permit weaving ropes.
MOVING KELIM USED FOR WEAVING
(Rav Yehudah citing Shmuel): On Shabbos, one may move Kelim used for weaving.
Question: May one move the upper and lower warp beams?
Rav Yehudah could not give a clear answer.
(Rav Nachman citing Shmuel): On Shabbos, one may move Kelim used for weaving, even the upper and lower warp beams, but not Amudim (beams of a vertical (women's) loom.
Question (Rava): Why are Amudim forbidden?
Suggestion: This is because one makes a little hole in the ground when moving them.
Objection: The holes come by themselves!
(Mishnah): If one stores (Ramban - a bunch of) turnips or radishes under a vine, leaving some of the leaves (Rav Hai Gaon - some of them) exposed, we are not concerned for Kil'ai ha'Kerem, Shemitah, or Ma'aser;
One may remove it on Shabbos (we are not concerned for making a hole)!
Answer: In the field one will not even out the holes, in the house one might.
Question (R. Yochanan): On Shabbos, may one move Kelim used for weaving, such as the upper and lower warp beams?
Answer (R. Yehudah bar Livai): One may not.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: This is because they are not normally moved during the week [because they are so heavy, they are exclusively for weaving].
GARMENTS OF SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may fold garments, even four or five times;
One may spread bed linens on Shabbos night for the sake of Shabbos day, but not on Shabbos for the sake of Motzei Shabbos;
R. Yishmael says, one may fold garments or prepare a bed on Yom Kipur for the sake of Shabbos; Chelev of [Korbanos of] Shabbos may be offered on [the following night, even if it is] Yom Kipur, but Chelev of Yom Kipur may not be offered on [Motzei Yom Kipur if it is] Shabbos;
R. Akiva says, Chelev of Shabbos may not be offered on Yom Kipur, nor may Chelev of Yom Kipur be offered on Shabbos.
(Gemara - D'vei R. Yanai): One person may fold garments, but two may not [fold together, for it evens out creases, this is like fixing garments];
Even one person is permitted only new garments, not old ones;
Even new garments are permitted only if they are white, not if they are colored;
Even white garments are permitted only if he has nothing else to wear on Shabbos - if not, they are forbidden.
(Beraisa): The household of R. Gamliel would not fold white garments because they had others to wear.
(Rav Huna): If one an wear different garments on Shabbos than he wore during the week, he should do so;
If not, he should open the folds of his garments so that they reach lower down [to show that he does not need to do Melachah].
Objection (Rav Safra): This looks like haughtiness!
Answer: Since he does so only on Shabbos, it does not look like haughtiness.
"V'Chibadto" - your clothing on Shabbos should not be like your clothing on a weekday;
R. Yochanan called his garments 'What honors me'.
DISTINGUISHING SHABBOS FROM A WEEKDAY
"Me'Asos Derachecha" - your should not walk on Shabbos the same way you walk on a weekday;
"Mi'Mtzo Cheftzecha" - your [business] desires are forbidden, those of Shomayim (e.g. Tzedakah) are permitted;
"V'Daber Davar" - your speech on Shabbos should not be like your speech on a weekday (one should not talk idly or discuss business);
"Davar" - speech is forbidden, thoughts are permitted. (Shulchan Aruch - to fulfill Oneg, one should consider that all of his work is finished.)
Question: We understand all of these, except for 'you should not walk on Shabbos the same way you walk on a weekday' - how should it be different?
Answer #1: Rav Huna taught, if one encounters a stream, if he can leave one foot on the ground and step across, it is permitted [even to jump]; if not, he may not [jump across].
Objection (Rava): Should he rather go around? This causes him extra walking! If he will walk through the water, his garments may get soaked and he will come to squeeze out water!
Rather, since there is no alternative, he may jump across.
Answer #2 - Question (Rebbi): May one take a big step (more than one Amah, which is normal) on Shabbos?
Answer (R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): One may not even during the week, for it diminishes one part in 500 of his sight; it is restored at Kidush of Shabbos night (by drinking from the wine. Big steps are forbidden on a weekday, just like on Shabbos (except for running to a Mitzvah) - the Gemara does not explicitly say how they are different! Ritva - sight lost for big steps on Shabbos is not returned at Kidush. Maharsha - the difference is, there is also an Isur on Shabbos ("Me'Asos Derachecha"), whereas on a weekday it is forbidden only because it harms sight. Ben Yehoyada - Rebbi only asked [and accepted the answer] regarding Shabbos - Rebbi permits during the week and forbids on Shabbos.)
Question (Rebbi): May one eat dirt on Shabbos (is it forbidden on account of healing)?
Answer (R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): It is forbidden even during the week, for it makes one sick.
(R. Ami): Eating dirt of Bavel is like eating one's ancestors [that died in the flood].
Some say, it is like eating Shekatzim u'Rmashim (vermin that died in the flood) - "Va'Yimach Es Kol ha'Yekum..."
(Reish Lakish): Bavel is called "Shin'ar" because all who died in the flood Nin'aru (were shaken) to there;
(R. Yochanan): Bavel is called 'Metzulah' (Yeshayah 44:27) because all who died in the flood Nitztalelu (sunk) to there.
Some say, it is like eating Shekatzim u'Rmashim.
Question: Surely, they dissolved!
Answer: Indeed, they did - however, since it is forbidden to eat because it is unhealthy, Chachamim forbade also on account of Shekatzim u'Rmashim.
A certain man ate clean dirt and cress; it sprouted in his stomach, reached his heart and killed him.
BO'AZ AND RUS
(R. Elazar): "V'Rochatzt va'Sacht v'Samt Simlosayich" - this refers to Shabbos clothing.
(R. Elazar): "Ten l'Chacham v'Yechkam Od" - this refers to Rus and Shmuel;
No'omi told Rus to bathe, anoint, put on her Shabbos clothing and go to the granary - Rus went to the granary first (lest people see her adorned and suspect that she is a harlot);
Eli told Shmuel "... Im Yikra Elecha v'Amarta Daber Hash-m Ki Shome'a Avdecha", but Shmuel omitted "Hash-m" (lest it was not Hash-m, and he would say His name in vain).
(R. Elazar): "Va'Telach va'Savo va'Telaket" - Rus kept coming and going until she found proper people to go with;
Question: "Va'Yomer Bo'az...l'Mi ha'Na'arah ha'Zos" - did Bo'az normally ask about girls?!
Answer #1 (R. Elazar): He saw Chachmah in her - she would take two sheaves (of Leket, i.e. what falls during harvesting), but not three (for three are not considered Leket).
Answer #2 (Beraisa): He saw Tzeni'us in her - she would gather attached [Shichchah] while standing, she would sit to pick up from the ground [to avoid bending over].
Question: "V'Cho Tidbakun Im Na'arosoi" - did Bo'az normally cling to girls?! (Maharsha - he told her to cling to his girls - nevertheless, since 'Divuk' is usually between man and wife, we expound the word. Bach's text - did Bo'az normally speak with girls?!)
Answer (R. Elazar): Because "Va'Tishak Orpah la'Chamosah v'Rus Dovkah Bah", he realized that it is permitted to cling to her (Iyun Yakov - if Rus would be forbidden to Benei Yisrael, No'omi would not have agreed to convert her);
(R. Elazar): "Va'Yomer Lah...Goshi Halom" - he hinted to her that Malchus Beis David will descend from her, like it says "...Havi'osani Ad Halom".
(R. Elazar): "V'Tovalt Pitech ba'Chometz" - this teaches that vinegar is good in hot weather.
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): He hinted to her that someone will descend from her whose deeds are as bitter as vinegar, i.e. Menasheh.
(R. Elazar): "Va'Teshev mi'Tzad ha'Kotzrim" - to the side, but not amidst the harvesters - he hinted to her that Malchus Beis David will split (10 tribes will be given to Yarov'om).
(R. Elazar): "Va'Yitzbat Lah Kali va'Tochal" - "va'Tochal" in the days of David, "Va'Tisba" - in the days of Shlomo; "Va'Tosar" - in the days of Chizkiyah. (Rashi - this refers to the Malchus that will come from her; Maharsha - it refers to herself.)
Some say, "va'Tochal" in the days of David and Shlomo, "Va'Tisba" in the days of Chizkiyah, "Va'Tosar" - in the days of Rebbi;
It was taught that the one appointed over Rebbi's horses and mules was richer than Shevor Malka (the Persian king).
(Beraisa): "Va'Tochal" in this world, "Va'Tisba" - in Yemos ha'Moshi'ach; "Va'Tosar" - in the world to come.