[7a - 52 lines; 7b - 49 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 7a [line 16]:
"Minayin she'Ein Meratzin l'Adam b'She'as Ka'aso..." מנין שאין מרצים לאדם בשעת כעסו
The Dikdukei Sofrim #30 cites a number of Kisvei Yad in which these words do not appear at this point. He supports this with the fact that these are not the words of Rebbi Yosi but of Rebbi Shimon (ben Yochai) at the beginning of Daf 7b, as the Tzelach and Acharonim point out there. In Maseches Avos (4:18) a similar quote is cited in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar. There, too, it should be corrected to read just "Rebbi Shimon," like the Girsa of the Machzor Vitri (Avos, ibid.).
 Gemara [line 19]:
"v'Chamah Rega? Echad me'*58,888* b'Sha'ah" וכמה רגע אחד מחמשת רבוא ושמונת אלפים ושמנה מאות ושמונים בשעה
There is a broad range of variant readings for the number mentioned in this Agadah (see also Avodah Zarah, end of 3a). However, according to the marginal notes of Rebbi Yeshayah Berlin, this number should read 8,888, which is the number of verses in the Torah according to the Gemara in Kidushin 30a. It should be noted, though, that according to the Girsa in our editions of Kidushin, there are 5,888 verses in the Torah (which is close to the number of verses (5845) that we actually find in today's Sifrei Torah, as Rebbi Yeshayah Berlin points out there). Accordingly, the Girsa in our Gemara should also be 5,888. The Girsa in Agadas ha'Talmud (first print of the Ein Yakov), as cited by the Dikdukei Sofrim #60, is 5,880 (which perhaps should read 5,888), and the Girsa of Rabeinu Chananel to Avodah Zarah 4a is 56,888.
 Gemara [line 47]:
Masores ha'Shas 7a, near the bottom of the right margin:
The references "Sham 34" and "Sham 3" are out of order and should be reversed.
 Gemara 7b [line 1]:
"Amar Rebbi Yochanan Mishum Rebbi Shimon Ben Yochai" אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי
It seems obvious that the next statement in which Rebbi Yochanan cites Rebbi Shimon, "Minayin she'Ein Meratzin l'Adam..." מנין שאין מרצים לאדם ..., belongs at the top of this page and precedes the other statements in which Rebbi Yochanan cites Rebbi Shimon, since it deals with the issues discussed in the previous Sugya. Clearly, this is the Gemara's excuse for quoting here the list of sayings in which Rebbi Yochanan cites Rebbi Shimon (which otherwise are entirely unrelated to our Gemara). See above, Girsa #1. However, I have found no record of such a Girsa in any of the printed or manuscript editions of the Gemara (M. KORNFELD).
 Gemara [line 45]:
"u'Chesiv l'Chaloso... uliv'Sof l'Chaloso" לכלתו וכתיב לכלתו... ולבסוף
This also appears to be the Girsa of Rashi. However, in our texts of Divrei ha'Yamim (I 17:9) the verse reads l'Valoso לבלותו.
1)[line 14]לפנים משורת הדיןLI'FNIM MI'SHURAS HA'DIN
(a)There are times when a judge rules that one of the litigants should act "Lifnim mi'Shuras ha'Din," literally, "further inside from the line of the law." That is, he is expected to go beyond what the law requires.
(b)Rebbi Yishmael ben Elisha asked HaSh-m to act Lifnim mi'Shuras ha'Din towards the Jewish people, so as to insure their survival.
2)[line 18]"... וקל זועם בכל יום""… V'KEL ZO'EM B'CHOL YOM"- "[HaSh-m is a righteous judge, and] a G-d Who rages every day" (Tehilim 7:12) - Even though HaSh-m vents his fury every day, there are survivors.
3)[line 19]?וכמה זעמוV'KAMAH ZA'AMO?- And how long does his fury last?
4)[line 19]אחד מחמשת רבוא ושמונת אלפים ושמנה מאות ושמנים ושמנה בשעהECHAD ME'CHAMESHES RIBO U'SHEMONAS ALAFIM U'SHEMONAH ME'OS U'SHEMONIM U'SHEMONAH B'SHA'AH- one part out of 58,888 of an hour (see Girsa Section #2)
5)[line 20]אין כל בריה יכולה לכוין אותה שעהEIN KOL BERIYAH YECHOLAH L'CHAVEIN OSAH SHA'AH- and no creature can pinpoint that moment
6)[line 22]"עמי זכר נא מה יעץ בלק מלך מואב [ומה ענה אתו בלעם בן בעור מן השטים עד הגלגל] למען דעת צדקות ה'""AMI ZECHOR NA MAH YA'ATZ BALAK MELECH MO'AV, [U'MEH ANAH OSO BIL'AM BEN BE'OR, MIN HA'SHITIM AD HA'GILGAL,] L'MA'AN DA'AS TZIDKOS HASH-M"- "O My people, remember now what Balak king of Moav planned, [and what Bil'am the son of Be'or answered him, from the [Plains of] Shitim to the Gilgal;] that you may know the righteousness of HaSh-m" (Michah 6:5).
7)[line 24]שונאיהם של ישראלSON'EIHEM SHEL YISRAEL- (lit. the enemies of Yisrael) Yisrael (this phrase is a euphemism)
8a)[line 24]שרידSARID- a remnant
b)[line 24]פליטPALIT- a refugee
9)[line 25]"מה אקב לא קבה ק-ל? ומה אזעם לא זעם ה'?""MAH EKOV LO KABO KEL? U'MAH EZ'OM LO ZA'AM HASH-M?"- "How can I curse the one whom HaSh-m has not cursed? How can I vent my fury on the one against whom HaSh-m has not vent His fury?" (Bamidbar 23:8).
10)[line 25]רגעREGA- And how long does his fury last? An instant.
11)[line 26]כמימריהK'MEIMREI- lit. as it is pronounced; i.e., as long as the time that it takes to say the word "Rega"
12)[line 26]"כי רגע באפו חיים ברצונו""KI REGA V'APO; CHAYIM BI'RETZONO"- "For His anger lasts but an instant; in His favor is life; [weeping may endure for a night, but joy comes in the morning]" (Tehilim 30:6).
13)[line 27]"חבי כמעט רגע עד יעבור זעם""CHAVI CHIM'AT REGA, AD YA'AVOR ZA'AM"- "wait not even an instant, until the wrath passes" (Yeshayah 26:20).
14)[line 27]כי חיורא כרבלתא דתרנגולאKI CHIVRA KARBALTA D'TARNEGOLA- when the comb of the rooster turns white
15)[line 27]קאי אחד כרעאKA'I A'CHAD KAR'A- it stands on one foot
16)[line 28]שורייקי סומרקיSHURAIKEI SUMKEI- (O.F. tajes) red speckles. It seems that at a certain point in the morning these red speckles on the comb turn white.
17)[line 29]צדוקיTZEDUKI (TZEDUKIM)
(a)The Tzedukim (and Baitusim) were students of Tzadok (and Baitus) who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).
(b)The Girsa in the manuscripts and early printings is "Mina," "heretic"; the word "Tzeduki" is an emendation of the censors (see DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #400).
18)[line 29]הוה בשבבותיה דר' יהושע בן לויHAVAH B'SHIVEVUSEI D'REBBI YEHOSHUA BEN LEVI- who lived in the neighborhood of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi
19)[line 29]בקראיB'KRA'EI- by asking him questions on verses in the Torah
20)[line 29]שקל תרנגולאSHAKAL TARNEGOLA- he took a rooster
21)[line 30]ואוקמיה בין כרעי' דערסאV'UKMEI BEIN KAR'EI D'ARSA- and he stood it at the foot of his (Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's) bed
22)[line 30]אלטייהALATYEI- I will curse him
23)[line 30]נייםNAYIM- he dozed
24)[line 31]"גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב""GAM ANOSH LA'TZADIK LO TOV"- "Also a person who is not good will punish the righteous" (Mishlei 17:26) - The Gemara reads this phrase as, "Also it is not good for a righteous person to mete out punishment."
25)[line 33]מרדותMARDUS- a blow, i.e. self-directed criticism that causes one to be submissive
26)[line 35]"תחת גערה במבין מהכות כסיל מאה""TECHAS GE'ARAH B'MEVIN, ME'HAKOS KESIL ME'AH"- "A reproof enters more into an wise man than hitting a fool one hundred times" (Mishlei 17:10).
27)[line 37]"ונפלינו אני ועמך""V'NIFLINU ANI V'AMCHA"- "I and Your people shall be made distinct" (Shemos 33:16).
28)[line 48]קשר של תפיליןKESHER SHEL TEFILIN- the knot shaped like a letter "Dales" of the Tefilah Shel Rosh (RASHI)
29)[line 50]בעא משה רחמיBA'A MOSHE RACHAMEI- Moshe begged for mercy
30)[line 51]אוקמה בזרעיהUKMAH B'ZAR'EI- HaSh-m made it happen to his (Moshe's) progeny
31)[line 1]אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחיAMAR REBBI YOCHANAN MISHUM REBBI SHIMON BEN YOCHAI- The Gemara switches at this point from Rebbi Yochanan's quotes of Rebbi Yosi, to his quotes of Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai. It is apparent that the switch was prompted by Rebbi Yochanan's next citation of Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai, which is closely connected to the previous Sugyos. It is unclear why that statement was not mentioned before this one, since it provides the connecting link. (See Girsa section #4)
32)[line 16]בן חמיBEN CHAMI- to [Esav,] the son of my father-in-law
33)[line 23]"[וישאו להם נשים מאביות שם האחת ערפה ושם השנית] רות [וישב שם כעשר שנים]""[VAYIS'U LAHEM NASHIM MO'AVIYOS, SHEM HA'ACHAS ORPAH, V'SHEM HA'SHENIS] RUS [VA'YIHEYU SHAM K'ESER SHANIM]" - "[And they married Mo'abite women; the name of one of them was Orpah, the name of the second one was] Rus, [and they remained there for about ten years]" (Rus 1:4) (RUS AND ORPAH)
(a)During the famine that occurred in the time of the Shoftim, Elimelech, a wealthy man and a descendant of Nachshon ben Aminadav, decided to leave Eretz Yisrael in order to avoid the numerous requests for help that he anticipated from the many poor people who were starving. Taking his wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Machlon and Chilyon, he made his way to the fields of Mo'av where he settled down to await the famine's end. One sin (leaving Eretz Yisrael) leads to another, and his sons married non-Jewish Moabite women, Rus and Orpah, respectively.
(b)Ten years later, the famine still had not ended, and Machlon and Chilyon died without children, leaving the two women widows.
(c)That was when news arrived that the famine in Eretz Yisrael terminated, so Naomi left Mo'av to return to Eretz Yisrael, accompanied by her two daughters-in-law.
(d)She pleaded with them to return to Mo'av, as there was no future for them in Eretz Yisrael, whereas in Mo'av they had a good chance of starting a new life. Orpah yielded to Naomi's pleas; she kissed her mother-in-law and returned to her homeland. Rus, however, did not yield. She preferred to live a life of Torah and Mitzvos, in spite of all its trials and tribulations. She clung to Naomi and returned to Eretz Yisrael with her. It was due to Rus' total devotion that she merited to become the mother of the royal family, starting with David ha'Melech, who "satiated" HaSh-m ("Rivah," from the same root as "Rus") with his songs and praises.
(e)No sooner had Orpah returned to Mo'av that she returned to her idolatrous practices and had relations with a group of a hundred men, the very night of her return. She gave birth to Golyas (Goliath) and his three brothers, all of whom eventually caused considerable trouble for Yisrael, and all of whom eventually fell into the hands of David and his men.
34)[line 24]שריוהוSHE'RIVAHU- who pleased, satisfied
35)[line 24]שמא גריםSHMA GARIM- that a person's name has an effect on his nature
36)[line 26]תרבות רעהTARBUS RA'AH- improper conduct
37)[line 26]ממלחמת גוג ומגוגMI'MILCHEMES GOG U'MAGOG
(a)Magog is first mentioned among the sons of Yefes, son of Noach, in Bereishis 10:2. The prophet Yechezkel (chapters 38-39) describes a cataclysmic war lead by Gog of the land of Magog, where many nations combine forces to wage war against the land of Yisrael. The prophecy assures Gog that HaSh-m Himself will ruin the war effort and will destroy all of his multitudes. It is traditionally assumed that this war will take place at the end of days, preceding the revelation of HaSh-m as master of His world.
(b)The suffering of all of the people involved in the war of Gog u'Magog will be unprecedented. The phrase "Milchemes Gog u'Magog" has become Chazal's archetype for unusual misery and affliction.
38)[line 31]"כה אמר ה' הנני מקים עליך רעה מביתך [ולקחתי את נשיך לעיניך ונתתי לרעיך ושכב עם נשיך לעיני השמש הזאת]""[KOH AMAR HASH-M:] HINENI MEKIM ALECHA RA'AH MI'BEISECHA [V'LAKACHTI ES NASHECHA L'EINECHA V'NASATI L'RE'ECHA, V'SHACHAV IM NASHECHA L'EINEI HA'SHEMESH HA'ZOS]" - "[So says HaSh-m:] 'Behold I will set up against you evil from your own house [and I will take your wives before your eyes and give them to your fellow man; and he will lie with your wives before this sun]" (Shmuel II 12:11) (DAVID'S SEVERE PUNISHMENT)
(a)The Navi used the expression "before your eyes" since David was aware of what Avshalom was doing, but there was nothing he could do to stop it.
(b)Even though Chazal explain that David was guilty neither of the sin of adultery with Bas Sheva nor of the sin of the murder of Uriyah ha'Chiti in the literal sense, Nasan ha'Navi specifically accuses him of having "killed Uriyah ha'Chiti and taken his wife as his own," adding that he had killed Uriyah ha'Chiti "via the swords of Bnei Amon."
(c)The Navi already warned the king earlier that many of his descendants would die by the sword on account of what he had done. Now, the Navi adds another punishment, informing him that whereas David had acted in secret, HaSh-m would punish him in public.
(d)When David reacted by confessing his sin and doing Teshuvah for it, the Navi told him that HaSh-m accepted his Teshuvah and that he would not die. However, because he had angered HaSh-m so deeply by creating a Chilul HaSh-m in the process, the baby that Bas Sheva was carrying would die. Moreover, one of his children would openly rebel against him.
39)[line 32]להתגרות ברשעיםL'HISGAROS B'RESHA'IM- to start up with the wicked
40)[line 34]אם לחשךאדםI M LACHSHECHA ADAM- if a person whispers to you
41)[line 34]מי שלבו נוקפוMI SHE'LIBO NOKFO- a person who feels insecure
42)[line 36]השעה משחקת לוHA'SHA'AH MESACHEKES LO- the occurrences of the time are in his favor
43)[line 38]"כל צורריו יפיח בהם""KOL TZORERAV, YAFI'ACH BAHEM"- "all of his adversaries, he puffs at them" (Tehilim 10:5) - the evildoer is able to repel his adversaries with little effort.
44a)[line 40]צדיק גמורTZADIK GAMUR- a person who is perfectly righteous
b)[line 40]צדיק שאינו גמורTZADIK SHE'EINO GAMUR- a person who is not perfectly righteous
45)[line 42]צדיק ממנוTZADIK MIMENU- a person more righteous that the wicked man, but not at all flawless
46)[line 47]"ויאמר יהושפט האין פה נביא לה' ונדרשה את ה' מאותו ויען אחד מעבדי מלך ישראל ויאמר פה אלישע בן שפט אשר יצק מים על ידי אליהו""[VA'YOMER YEHOSHAFAT, 'HA'EIN POH NAVI LA'HASH-M V'NIDRESHAH ES HASH-M ME'OSO?' VA'YA'AN ECHAD ME'AVDEI MELECH YISRAEL VA'YOMER,] 'POH ELISHA BEN SHAFAT ASHER YATZAK MAYIM AL YEDEI ELIYAHU!'" - "[And Yehoshafat said, 'Is there no Navi of HaSh-m here, from whom we can seek HaSh-m?' And one of the servants of the king of Yisrael spoke up and said] 'Elisha ben Shafat is here, who poured water at the command of (or who served) Eliyahu" (Melachim II 3:11) (ELISHA AND YEHORAM THE SON OF ACH'AV)
(a)King Yehoram ben Achav, who followed the ways of his wicked father Achav, joined forces with the king of Edom and with his brother-in-law, the righteous Yehoshafat, and set out to attack Meisha, the king of Mo'av. Mo'av, a vassal state of Yisrael, had been paying a heavy annual tax. However, upon the death of Achav, Meisha broke away from Yisrael and ceased paying the tax.
(b)They decided to travel the route of the desert of Edom, but on the way they ran out of water and found themselves without a drop for the soldiers or for the animals. Yehoram began to lament that HaSh-m had gathered these three kings together in order to deliver them into the hands of Mo'av, but Yehoshafat asked whether there was a Navi in the vicinity. When one of the servants of the king of Yisrael mentioned Elisha, he persuaded Yehoram to consult him for advice.
(c)The Navi was duly summoned. Initially, he asked Yehoram why he did not rather consult the prophets of his evil father Achav and of his evil mother Izevel (the prophets of Ba'al). When the king reiterated his earlier fears, Elisha replied with the above verse. After asking for a minstrel to play music to dispel his anger (because prophecy requires Simchah), Elisha promised him salvation. The valley before them would bring forth pools of water, sufficient to supply his entire army as well as the animals.
(d)Elisha was the appropriate person to perform this miracle. When Eliyahu gathered all the people on Mount Carmel to witness his confrontation with the prophets of Ba'al, he first repaired the demolished Mizbe'ach of HaSh-m. His plan was to offer upon it one of the twin bulls which he hoped would be consumed by Divine fire before the eyes of all present, a proof that HaSh-m is the One and only G-d. First, however, in order to magnify the miracle, after slaughtering the bull and placing it on the pile of wood on the Mizbe'ach, he saturated it, and the wood and the Mizbe'ach, with water until the entire surrounding ditch was filled with water. The verse mentions four jugs of water, but the Midrash explains that since there was a terrible famine in progress and no water to be found, a miracle happened and Elisha stretched out his hand and water poured forth from his extended finger like from a fountain, until the ditch was full.
(e)It is understandable, therefore, that when they were afraid of dying of thirst, the soldier referred Yehoram specifically to Elisha. He knew that if anyone would be able to perform a miracle with water, it was Elisha.
47)[line 48]לכנפי למר עשרהL'CHANFEI L'MAR ASARAH- you should gather ten people
48)[last line]ליתי ולודעיה למרLEISI V'LOD'EI L'MAR- let him come and tell you