[36a - 16 lines; 36b - 31 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 36a [line 5]:

"u'Mai Shofar Nami" ומאי שופר נמי

The word "Nami" does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim.

[2] Rashi 36a DH Beis ha'Kosos ד"ה בית הכוסות:

The words "Asuy k'Min Kos" עשוי כמין כוס

should be "Asuy k'Min Kosos" עשוי כמין כוסות


[3] Tosfos 36a DH Ha Rebbi Nechemya ד"ה הא רבי נחמיה:

The words "Lachtoch Kegon Chosalos Shel Temarim b'Sakin O..." לחתוך כגון חותלות של תמרים בסכין או

should be "Kegon Lachtoch b'Sakin Chosalos Shel Temarim O..." כגון לחתוך בסכין חותלות של תמרים או



1)[line 4]רבי יהודה ... רבי שמעוןREBBI YEHUDAH ... REBBI SHIMON (KLI SHE'MELACHTO L'ISUR)

(a)A utensil which is mostly used for activities that are prohibited on Shabbos is called a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur. Some examples are a saw, a hammer, and a pitchfork.

(b)Moving a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur in order to protect it (from the sun or from being stolen) is prohibited. However, it may be moved l'Tzorech Gufo, i.e. using the utensil to perform activities that are permissible on Shabbos, such as using a hammer to crack nuts. It is also permissible to move a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur l'Tzorech Mekomo, i.e. in order to use the space upon which it is resting (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 25:2, 3, 5, 7.) These rules apply to utensils whose main function is for activities that are prohibited on Shabbos; their use for permitted activities is subordinate. Utensils that have no permissible use on Shabbos are a subject of dispute between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon. Rebbi Yehudah rules that they are Muktzah, and it is forbidden to move them at all, like all other objects that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos (see Background to Shabbos 28:26a-b.) Rebbi Shimon rules that they have the same laws as all other Kelim she'Melachtan l'Isur, and may be moved l'Tzorech Gufan and l'Tzorech Mekoman (TOSFOS DH Ha Rebbi Yehudah and DH Ha Rebbi Shimon.)

(c)In our Sugya, a Shofar (which is curved) is a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur which may be used as a utensil from which to drink. There is no argument between Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon with regard to a Shofar. A Chatzotzerah (which is straight and cannot hold water) has almost no permissible use on Shabbos, and is considered Muktzah according to Rebbi Yehudah. Rebbi Shimon, whose categories of Muktzah are very limited, permits moving a Chatzotzerah l'Tzorech Gufo and l'Tzorech Mekomo just like any other Kli she'Melachto l'Isur. (See Insights to the Daf.)


Rebbi Nechemyah maintains that even Kelim she'Melachtan l'Heter (utensils which are mostly used for activities that are permitted on Shabbos) may be moved only for their specific, normal use. For example, a table knife may be used only to cut food and may not be used to cut rope.

3)[line 7]חצוצרתא שופראCHATZOTZRASA SHOFARA- what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Chatzotzerah (trumpet) is now called Shofar

4a)[line 9]ערבה צפצפהARAVAH TZAFTZEFAH- what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Aravah (a willow which is Kosher for the Mitzvah of Lulav) is now called Tzaftzefah

b)[line 9]צפצפה ערבהTZAFTZEFAH ARAVAH- what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Tzaftzefah (a type of willow with rounded leaves and a white stem which is not Kosher for the Mitzvah of Lulav) is now called Aravah

5)[line 10]פתורה פתורתאPESORAH PESORTA- what was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Pesorah (a large table) is now called Pesorta

6)[line 32]הובלילא בי כסיHUVLILA, BEI KASEI- The four stomachs of ruminants are called: (a) Keres (rumen); (b) Beis ha'Kosos (recticulum); (c) Hemses (omasum); (d) Kevah (abomasum). What was called at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash Huvlila (or Hemses, the third stomach of ruminants) is now called Beis ha'Kosos (the name previously used for the second stomach.) The second stomach has a very thick, double wall, while the third stomach has a thin wall.

7a)[line 34]מצד אחדMI'TZAD ECHAD- if the second stomach was punctured by a needle which did not go through the entire double wall, the animal is Kosher. The second half of the wall closes up the hole.

b)[line 35]משני צדדיםSHNEI TZEDADIM- if the second stomach was punctured by a needle which did go through the double wall, the animal is a Tereifah

8)[last line]בבל בורסיףBAVEL BORSIF- the area which used to be called Bavel is now called Borsif


9a)[line 1]גיטי נשיםGITEI NASHIM: SHINAH SHEMO U'SHEMAH (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

(a)The Torah states (Devarim 24:1) that if a man wants to divorce his wife, he must write a Sefer Kerisus (lit. a document that cuts [the bond between them]) and hand it to her in front of two witnesses. In the language of Chazal, this document of divorce is called a Get (pl. Gitin).

(b)A Get must contain the full names of the pair involved in the divorce, the places where they are to be found at the time of the writing (or where they live, or where they were born, according to some), and the date and place where the Get is written. If any of these items is missing or mistaken ("Shinah Shemo u'Shemah"), the Get is invalid.

b)[line 1]גיטי נשים:בפני נכתבGITEI NASHIM: B'FANAI NICHTAV (RASHI, 1st explanation.)

(a)The Gemara at the beginning of Maseches Gitin discusses a special decree that was made to ensure that Gitin that were written outside of Eretz Yisrael were Kosher. At the time that such a Get was given to a woman, witnesses had to testify that the Get was written and signed properly in front of them.

(b)This decree was enacted (according to Rabah, see Gitin 2b, 5b) because of the dubious level of expertise in Hilchos Gitin of the scribes of Chutz la'Aretz. One of the Halachos of Gitin requires that the Get be written for the express purpose of divorcing woman Y from man X, and that it may not be used for a different pair thereafter. This is called writing a Get "Lishmah." Some of the scribes of Chutz la'Aretz (with the exception of Bavel) did not know this Halachah and would use a pre-written Get, without writing it expressly for the pair involved in the divorce.

(c)In Bavel this decree was not enacted, and it was not necessary to provide such testimony, since the scribes there were all well-versed in the laws of Gitin.


10)[line 3]כירהKIRAH- a stove

11)[line 3]שהסיקוהSHE'HISIKUHA- which was fueled with…

12)[line 3]בקשKASH- with the part of the stalk that is cut off with the grain

13)[line 3]גבבאGEVAVAH- the part of the stalk that remains in the ground after the harvest which is later pulled out and used as fuel

14)[line 4]גפתGEFES- with sesame seed shells after the oil is extracted

15)[line 5]עד שיגרוףAD SHE'YIGROF- until he rakes out [the coals]

16)[line 6]אבל לא תבשילAVAL LO TAVSHIL- According to Rashi (Daf 18b DH u'Bashil,) the dish is fully-cooked, but further cooking enhances it. According to Tosfos (ibid. DH Bashil and here), the dish is only one-half or one-third cooked.

17)[line 11]קטוםKATUM- covered with ashes (to reduce the heat of the coals)

18)[line 12]כמאכל בן דרוסאיK'MA'ACHAL BEN DERUSAI- a food that is one-third cooked (RASHI) or one-half cooked (RAMBAM), which was the way the bandit Ben Derusai, who was always on the run, would eat his food

19)[last line]הא תו למה לי?HA SU LAMAH LI?- (lit. this again why do I [need it]?) why would the Tana state the same Halachah twice?