1) HANDLING A SHOFAR ON SHABBOS
QUESTION: The Gemara cites the opinions of Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon with regard to the Muktzah-status of a Shofar and Chatzotzros. They argue whether one may handle Chatzotzros on Shabbos (for the sake of using it for a permissible purpose, or moving it in order to use the place where it is resting -- l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo). They agree that one may handle a Shofar (l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo).
A Shofar is included in the category of "Kli she'Melachto l'Isur" -- an instrument normally used for an activity that is forbidden on Shabbos. Although such an object is Muktzah, one may handle it l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo.
If one may handle a Shofar on Shabbos l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo, then why does Rebbi Yehudah prohibit one from handling the Chatzotzros? They, too, are included in the category of Kli she'Melachto l'Isur!
ANSWER: TOSFOS (DH Ha) explains that a Kli she'Melachto l'Isur that has no normal, permissible use may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah, even l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo. The reason is because a person puts the object totally out of his mind since it has no permissible use. Conceptually, this type of object is comparable to logs of wood that are stored in a barn, which are Muktzah on Yom Tov even though they may be used for firewood, because a person completely puts the wood out of his mind (Beitzah 30a).
A Shofar, on the other hand, has a permissible use (one may drink with it). Therefore, a person does not put it out of his mind for Shabbos, and it may be handled l'Tzorech Gufo u'Mekomo even according to Rebbi Yehudah.
2) WORDS THAT WERE CHANGED AFTER THE "CHURBAN"
AGADAH: The Gemara mentions several pairs of words whose meanings were exchanged after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash (such as "Shofar" and "Chatzotzros," "Aravah" and "Tzaftzafah," "Pesora" and "Pesorasa"). The CHASAM SOFER explains homiletically why the meanings of these words changed after the Churban.
(a) "Shofar" and "Chatzotzros" - The Chatzotzros were blown on fast days, during times of trouble (Rosh Hashanah 26b). Chatzotzros, then, are a sign of troubles befalling the Jewish people. The Shofar, on the other hand, is blown on Rosh Hashanah, a festival. After the Churban, the troubles that befall us are for our good, because they spur us to do Teshuvah (as mentioned in Megilah 14a). Times of tranquility are not necessarily constructive in the sense that the Jews tend to neglect doing Teshuvah during good times. Consequently, the Chatzotzros -- which used to be a sign of bad -- are now a positive sign.
(b) "Aravah" and "Tzaftzafah" - "Tzaftzafah" refers to those who speak (from the word "l'Tzaftzef") words of Torah -- the Sages who lead the Jewish people. "Aravah" is a reference to the simple, unlearned people (because the willow has neither smell nor taste, as the Midrash explains). When the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, the mantle of leadership was taken from the Torah Sages and given to the unlearned. As the prophet says, "Yirhavu Na'ar ba'Zaken" -- "The young one will lord over the elder" (Yeshayah 3:5; Sotah 49b).
(c) "Pesora" and "Pesorasa" - "Pesora" originally referred to the "greater table," that is, the lot of the Talmidei Chachamim. As the Mishnah in Avos (6:5) teaches, "[Students of the Torah,] you should have no desire for the table of kings, for your table is greater than theirs." When the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, the Talmid Chacham lost his importance in the eyes of the people, and the "big table" became small in their eyes, while the smaller table, that of the wealthy, became important to them. May Hash-m return us to the way it once was, speedily in our days!
3) THE PROHIBITION OF "SHEHIYAH"
OPINIONS: RASHI and TOSFOS argue about the nature of the prohibition of Shehiyah (placing a pot of food on the stove before Shabbos and leaving it there during Shabbos).
(a) RASHI explains that the prohibition of Shehiyah is an integral part of the prohibition of Hatmanah b'Davar ha'Mosif Hevel. Since the wood or coals of the Kirah is a material that heats whatever is placed on it, one may not leave food in (or on) a Kirah over Shabbos. Hatmanah prohibits one from not only completely wrapping food in a material that adds heat, but even putting food on top of a material that adds heat (the stove). Once the coals are cleared away or covered, the Kirah cools down so much that it is no longer considered Hatmanah with a material that adds heat.
Chazarah refers to the act of returning a pot of food to the stove on Shabbos when it was removed on Shabbos. Why is the law of Chazarah more stringent than the law of Shehiyah? (That is, according to Chananyah, Shehiyah is permissible even when the coals on the stove are not cleared away or covered, while Chazarah is permissible only when the coals were taken away before Shabbos or covered. Also, Beis Shamai permits Shehiyah but forbids Chazarah. Why is Chazarah more stringent?)
Rashi (38b, DH Machzirin) explains that doing Chazarah is similar to doing Hatmanah for the first time on Shabbos. (Rashi there explains why one may not return a pot to the stove if he did not have in mind to return it at the moment he removed it. The reason is that since he took his mind off of it, it is considered as though he is doing a new Hatmanah on Shabbos.) Rashi is consistent with his reasoning, for he maintains that the acts of Shehiyah and Chazarah are forms of Hatmanah.
Rashi apparently agrees that according to Chananyah, leaving food on top of a burner is not considered Hatmanah, and is therefore permitted (if it is cooked k'Ma'achal ben Derusa'i). The reason Chananyah prohibits Chazarah on an uncovered Kirah is because it appears as though the person is cooking on Shabbos (although the food was cooked before Shabbos). When the coals are covered, however, it does not look like real cooking and is therefore permitted.)
(b) TOSFOS (DH Lo Yiten) argues with Rashi. If a pot of food is on top of a burner, it cannot be called Hatmanah. Hatmanah applies only when the food is completely surrounded by the heat-insulating material. The reason why Shehiyah and Chazarah are prohibited is because of a new Gezeirah -- the Rabanan were concerned that someone might stoke the coals below in order to increase the heat (as mentioned on 18b). According to the Rabanan who argue with Chananyah, one may not place food on the stove before Shabbos and leave it there over Shabbos, even if it is already cooked k'Ma'achal Ben Derusa'i, lest one stoke the coals.
According to Tosfos, why is Chazarah more stringent (according to Chananyah, or according to Beis Shamai)? Tosfos understands that Chazarah is more stringent because it more closely resembles an act of Melachah of Shabbos, as the person places the food on the stove on Shabbos.