REWARD AND PUNISHMENT FOR TEACHING TORAH
(Rav Yehudah): Anyone who refrains from teaching a Halachah to a Talmid robs him of his father's inheritance - "Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe Morashah Kehilas Yakov", it is an inheritance to all of Yisrael from the six days of creation.
(Rav Chana bar Bizna): Even fetuses curse one who refrains from teaching a Halachah to a Talmid - "Mone'a Bar Yikvuhu l'Om."
(Ula bar Yishmael): "Yikvuhu" teaches that he will be punctured like a sieve - "va'Yikov Chor b'Dalto."
Question: If he taught him the Halachah, what is his reward?
Answer (Rava): He merits blessings like Yosef - "u'Vrachah l'Rosh Mashbir."
(Rav Sheshes): Anyone who teaches Torah in this world merits to teach it in the world to come - "u'Marveh (one who satiates his Talmid with Torah) Gam Hu Yoreh."
(Rava): A source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim is "Yechi Reuven (Shevet Reuven, in this world, in the war to conquer Eretz Yisrael) v'Al Yamos (Reuven himself, in the world to come)."
(Ravina): A source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim is "v'Rabim mi'Yshenei Admas Afar Yakitzu Eleh l'Chayei Olam..."
(Rav Ashi): A source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim is "v'Atah Lech l'Ketz v'Sanu'ach v'Sa'amod l'Goralcha l'Ketz ha'Yamin."
TEACHINGS OF R. ELAZAR
(R. Elazar): Any leader who leads the congregation gently merits to lead them in the world to come - "Ki Merachamam Yenahagem v'Al Mabu'ei Mayim Yenahalem."
(R. Elazar): Great is understanding, for a verse puts it between two names of Hash-m - "Ki Kel De'os Hash-m";
(R. Elazar): The Mikdash is great, for it is between two names of Hash-m - "Po'alta Hash-m Mikdash Hash-m Konenu Yadecha."
Question (Rav Ada Karchina'ah): If so, you should say that vengeance is great, for it is between two names of Hash-m - "Kel Nekamos Hash-m Kel Nekamos Hofi'a"!
Answer (R. Elazar): Indeed, it is great when used properly, as Ula taught;
(Ula): The verse alludes to two vengeances, for good (He took Shechinah from the Nochrim and put it on Yisrael) and for punishment.
(R. Elazar): Any person who has understanding, it is as if the Beis ha'Mikdash was built in his day, since both of these are put between two names of Hash-m.
(R. Elazar): Any person who has understanding will eventually grow wealthy - "uv'Da'as Chadarim Yimal'u Kol Hon Yakar v'Na'im."
(R. Elazar): If one has no understanding (i.e. does not use his understanding), others may not have mercy on him - "Ki Lo Am Binos Hu Al Ken Lo Yerachamenu."
(R. Elazar): One who gives bread to someone without understanding, afflictions will come on him - "Lachmecha Yasimu Mazor Tachtecha Ein Tevunah Bo."
(R. Elazar): Any person without understanding will eventually be exiled - "Lachen Galah Ami mi'Bli Da'as."
(R. Elazar): If Torah is not heard in a house at night, it will be burned - "...Te'achlehu Esh Lo Nupach Yera Sarid b'Ohalo";
"Sarid" refers to a Chacham - "uva'Seridim Asher Hash-m Korei."
(R. Elazar): Anyone who does not benefit Chachamim from his property will never see Brachah - "Ein Sarid l'Achlo Al Ken Lo Yachil Tuvo."
(R. Elazar): Anyone who does not leave bread on the table will never see a Siman of Brachah - "Ein Sarid l'Achlo..."
Question: R. Elazar taught that leaving crumbs on the table is like serving idolatry - "ha'Orchim la'Gad Shulchan"!
Answer: It depends on whether or not there is a full loaf with the crumbs. (If there are crumbs and he brings a full loaf, it looks like he does so for idolatry. If there is not a full loaf with the crumbs, it is proper, for they are for poor people.)
(R. Elazar): Speaking deceptively is like serving idolatry - "v'Hayisi v'Einav ki'Msate'a."
(R. Elazar): If a man looks at Ervah, he loses the ability to have an erection that can lead to children - "Eryah Se'or Kashtecha."
(R. Elazar): One should be humble, and then he will live a long life.
Support (R. Zeira - Mishnah): We do not open windows in a dark house to enable a Kohen to inspect its Tzara'as.
(R. Tavi) Question: "She'ol v'Otzer Racham..."- what is the connection between She'ol (the grave) and the womb?
Answer: Just like a womb is a place of entry (semen) and exit (babies), also the grave (the dead will be revived).
This is not just a comparison, it is a Kal va'Chomer! Entry in the womb is covert, but exit is amidst a big tumult. Entry to the grave is among loud (crying) voices, and all the more so exit from it will be among loud voices!
(Tana d'Vei Eliyahu): When Hash-m revives Tzadikim in the future, they will never die again - "v'Hayah ha'Nish'ar... Kadosh Ye'amar Lo";
Just like Kadosh (Hash-m) is eternal, also revived Tzadikim.
Question: What will happen to them when Hash-m (destroys and) remakes the world - "v'Nisgav Levado ba'Yom ha'Hu"?
Answer: Hash-m will make wings for them, and they will fly over the water - "Al Ken Lo Nira... b'Lev Yamim."
Suggestion: Perhaps this will be painful!
Rejection: "V'Koye Hash-m Yachalifu Ko'ach... Yarutzu v'Lo Yiga'u Yelchu v'Lo Yi'afu" (they will not weary).
Question: We should learn from the dead that Yechezkeil revived (they died again)!
Answer: He holds like the opinion that says that it was only a parable that Yisrael will return from exile.
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): The dead that Yechezkeil revived stood up, sang Shirah and died.
Question: What Shirah did they sing?
Answer #1: "Hash-m Memis b'Tzedek u'Mechayeh b'Rachamim."
Answer #2 (R. Yehoshua): "Hash-m Memis u'Mechayeh Morid She'ol va'Ya'al."
R. Yehudah says, it was true. It was only a parable.
Objection (R. Nechemyah): If it was true, it was not only a parable.
Answer: He means, in truth, it was only a parable.
R. Eliezer, son of R. Yosi ha'Galili says, the dead that Yechezkeil revived went to Eretz Yisrael, married women and fathered children.
R. Yehudah ben Beseira: I descend from them. I have Tefilin from them!
Question: Who were the dead that Yechezkeil revived?
Answer #1 (Rav): They are descendants of Efrayim who miscalculated the Ketz (deadline for redemption) from Mitzrayim - "u'Vnei Efrayim... va'Haragum Anshei Gas";
Answer #2 (Shmuel): They are the people who denied Techiyas ha'Mesim - "...Yovshu Atzmoseinu v'Ovdah Sikvaseinu...";
Answer #3 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): They are people who lack any moisture (tinge) of a Mitzvah - "ha'Atzamos ha'Yveshos...";
Answer #4 (R. Yitzchak Nafcha): They are people who covered the Heichal with pictures of Shekatzim u'Rmashim (insects) - "Chol Tavnis Remes u'Vhemah Sheketz v'Chol Gilulei Beis Yisrael Mechukeh Al ha'Kir" (Maharsha - they wanted to show that just like insects are short-lived, because they have no bones, also our dry bones will never be revived).
Answer #5 (R. Yochanan): They are those whom Nebuchadnetzar killed in the valley of Dura.
(R. Yochanan): The valley of Dura is from the river Eshel until Ravas. Some of the young Yisre'elim that Nebuchadnetzar exiled disgraced the sun with their beauty. The Bavli women spurted with blood (due to lust for them). They told their husbands, who told Nebuchadnetzar. He killed the youths, but the women still spurted (the youths still radiated). He commanded to trample on the bodies.
THE MIRACLE DONE FOR CHANANYAH, MISHA'EL AND AZARYAH
(Nebuchadnetzar made an image, and decreed that anyone who does not bow to it be thrown into a giant furnace. Most explain like R. Tam (Kesuvos 33b), that it was not an idol, but nevertheless it was proper to be Mekadesh Hash-m and refuse to bow to it. She'altos (42) says that it was an idol. Only Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah refused to bow.)
(Beraisa): When Nebuchadnetzar threw Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah in the furnace, Hash-m told Yechezkeil to revive the dead in the valley of Dura. The bones hit Nebuchadnetzar on his face. He asked about this. They told him that the colleague of Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah was reviving the dead in the valley of Dura.
Nebuchadnetzar: "Asohi Kemah Ravrevin...Malchusei Malchus Alam... (how great are Hash-m's signs... His kingdom is eternal)!"
(R. Yitzchak): Molten gold should be poured into his mouth! Had an angel not slapped him, he would have disgraced David's Tehilim by singing better praises.
(Beraisa): Six miracles occurred that day:
The furnace (that was sunk in the ground) floated (so all would see the miracle);
Some of the walls fell, allowing others to see in;
The plaster (some say - foundation) melted (allowing the heat to burn those who threw Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah in; Some say, its grandeur (the image) melted);
The image fell on its face;
The four kings (and their retinues) who helped throw him in were burned;
Yechezkeil revived the dead in the valley of Dura.
We have a tradition for all of these, except for the four kings (which we learn from a verse) - "u'Nvuchadnetzar Malka Shelach...Adargazraya Gedavraya Desavraya Tiftayei..." (and they are omitted from the list of those who saw Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah come out).
(Beraisa - d'Vei R. Eliezer ben Yakov): A Chacham should not change his dress, even at a time of danger (lest he appear panicky) - "Beidayin Guvraya...b'Sarbaleihun...(Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah entered the furnace in their normal clothes)."