[92a - 55 lines; 92b - 54 lines]
1)[line 4]"נַשְּׁקוּ בַר פֶּן יֶאֱנַף""NASHKU VAR PEN YE'ENAF"- "Yearn for purity, lest He be angered..." (Tehilim 2:12). The Gemara interprets the word "Bar" ("purity") in the verse as a reference to Torah.
2)[line 5]מנקביןMENAKVIN- they pierce
3)[line 5]ככברהK'CHEVARAH- like a sieve. One who withholds Torah from others will forget the Torah knowledge he has amassed, like grain that runs out of a sieve leaving only the chaff (MAHARSHA).
4)[line 6]"[וַיִּקַּח יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן אֲרוֹן אֶחָד] וַיִּקֹּב חוֹר בְּדַלְתּוֹ; [וַיִּתֵּן אֹתוֹ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִיָּמִין בְּבוֹא אִישׁ בֵּית ה', וְנָתְנוּ שָׁמָּה הַכֹּהֲנִים שֹׁמְרֵי הַסַּף אֶת כָּל הַכֶּסֶף הַמּוּבָא בֵית ה']""[VA'YIKACH YEHOYADA HA'KOHEN ARON ECHAD] VA'YIKOV CHOR B'DALTO; [VA'YITEN OSO ETZEL HA'MIZBE'ACH MI'YAMIN, B'VO ISH BEIS HASH-M. V'NASNU SHAMAH HA'KOHANIM SHOMREI HA'SAF ES KOL HA'KESEF HA'MUVA VEIS HASH-M]" - "[But Yehoyada the Kohen [Gadol] took a chest,] and bored a hole in its lid; [and set it beside the Mizbe'ach, on the right side as one comes into the house of HaSh-m, and the Kohanim who guarded the door put in there all the money that was brought to the house of HaSh-m]" (Melachim II 12:10) (THE COLLECTION BOX)
(a)King Yeho'ash is described as a righteous king, at least as long as Yehoyada the Kohen Gadol was alive to guide him. Like most of his predecessors, however, he failed to remove the private altars (on which they sacrificed to HaSh-m).
(b)One of the first projects he initiated was a financial reform of the taxes given to the upkeep of the Beis ha'Mikdash. Originally, when the people would bring their annual half-Shekel, as well as other donations, to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the sake of Bedek ha'Bayis (the upkeep of the Beis ha'Mikdash), they would give the money directly to the Kohanim of the particular Mishmar that was serving that week. The Kohanim were permitted to keep the money in exchange for undertaking to keep the Beis ha'Mikdash in a good state of repair.
(c)In the twenty-third year of his forty-year reign, Yeho'ash discovered that the Kohanim were pocketing the money and were not making the necessary repairs to the House of HaSh-m. He immediately summoned Yehoyada and the other Kohanim and questioned them about the matter. When they failed to reply, he reinstated the previous custom, whereby everyone had to give their dues and their gifts for Bedek ha'Bayis to the treasury of Bedek ha'Bayis, rather than to the Kohanim. The verse relates that the Kohanim actually preferred the new arrangement; they preferred not to receive the money and not have the responsibility of keeping the Beis ha'Mikdash in a good state of repair.
(d)At that point, Yehoyada the Kohen Gadol introduced the novel idea of a collection-box into which all of the money for Bedek ha'Bayis would be placed.
5)[line 7]אוכלא דקצריUCHLA D'KATZREI- a launderer's vessel that has holes in it to sprinkle water on garments (RASHI); alt. Girsa: אובלא Uvla
6)[line 8]שכרוSECHARO- his reward
7)[line 9]"[מֹנֵעַ בָּר יִקְּבֻהוּ לְאוֹם,] וּבְרָכָה לְרֹאשׁ מַשְׁבִּיר""[MONE'A BAR YIKEVUHU LE'OM,] U'VRACHAH L'ROSH MASHBIR"- "[He who withholds food, the nation will curse him,] and a blessing on the head of the one who provides food" (Mishlei 11:26).
8)[line 11]השליטHA'SHALIT- the ruler. Yosef was the provider to all the populace of Mitzrayim.
9)[line 14]"וּמַרְוֶה גַּם הוּא [יוֹרֶה]""U'MARVEH GAM HU YOREH"- "And he who satiates others, he also will be satiated" (Mishlei 11:25). Rav Sheshes expounds the word "Yoreh" to mean "he will teach." The verse thus teaches that one who satiates others with Torah in this world will merit to teach it in the World to Come (RASHI).
10)[line 21]פרנסPARNAS- community leader
11)[line 21]שמנהיגSHE'MANHIG- who leads
12)[line 22]בנחתB'NACHAS- with gentleness
13)[line 24]דעהDE'AH- knowledge; wisdom
14)[line 24]בין שתי אותיותBEIN SHTEI OSIYOS- between two Names of HaSh-m (lit. between two letters)
15)[line 26]מקדשMIKDASH- the Beis ha'Mikdash or Mishkan
16)[line 28]מתקיף לה רב אדא קרחינאהMASKIF LAH RAV ADA KARACHINA'AH- Rav Ada from Karachin objected to it
17)[line 29]נקמהNEKAMAH- revenge
18)[line 31]למילתיה הכי נמיL'MILSEI HACHI NAMI- for its purpose, [revenge] is a great thing
19)[line 32]הופעיותHOFA'AYOS- appearances. Although the word "appear" is mentioned only once in the verse, it is preceded by a double call to the G-d of vengeance. Therefore, it is as if G-d is called upon to appear twice, once for each vengeance (See Rashi here but in Berachos 33a, the text says two vengeances instead of two appearances)
20)[line 33]פורענותPUR'ANUS- punishment
21)[line 34]כאלוK'ILU- it is as if
22)[line 35]מתעשרMIS'ASHER- he becomes wealthy
23)[line 36]לרחם עליוL'RACHEM ALAV- to have mercy on him
24)[line 37]פיתוPITO- his bread
25)[line 37]יסוריןYESURIN- troubles, afflictions
26)[line 38]מזורMAZOR- wound
27)[line 39]גולהGOLEH- he goes into exile
28)[line 40]נשמעיםNISHMA'IM- heard
29)[line 40]אש אוכלתוEISH OCHALASO- a fire consumes it. Rebbi Elazar warns of the punishment in store for one who does not learn Torah at night (see MAHARSHA)
30)[line 42]מהנהMEHANEH- provides benefit
31)[line 42]מנכסיוMI'NECHASAV- from his possessions
32)[line 42]רואהRO'EH- he sees
33)[line 42]סימן ברכהSIMAN BERACHAH- a sign of blessing
34)[line 44]משיירMESHAYER- he leaves over
35)[line 44]פתPAS- bread
36)[line 45]פתיתיםPETITIM- pieces of bread
37)[line 45]כאילו עובד עבודה זרהK 'ILU OVED AVODAH ZARAH- he is considered as though he has served idols
38)[line 46]הא דאיכא שלימה בהדיהHA D'IKA SHELEIMAH B'HADEI- that case (in which one is prohibited to leave over pieces of bread) is when there is a whole loaf together with the pieces. The reason is that after the meal, the person will bring a whole loaf of bread and place it on the table together with the pieces, which looks like a pagan ritual (RASHI), since one does not put the loaf on the table for a poor person who might happen to come by.
39)[line 47]המחליף בדבורוHA'MACHLIF B'DIBURO- (a) one who disguises his speech so that he should not be recognized (RASHI); (b) one who does not keep his word (ME'IRI)
40)[line 48]כל המסתכל בערוהKOL HA'MISTAKEL B'ERVAH- anyone who gazes upon the nakedness of a woman, or thinks about having forbidden relations with a married woman (RASHI)
41)[line 48]קשתו ננערתKASHTO NIN'ERES- his bow is emptied, i.e. he becomes impotent (RASHI, see also BEN YEHOYADA). (The "bow" is a euphemism for the male reproductive organ, because it "shoots forth" seed like a bow shoots an arrow.)
42)[line 49]קבל וקייםKAVEL V'KAYAM- be humble and live. Rashi understands that "Kavel" means to remain in the dark, to avoid drawing attention to oneself.
43)[line 50]בית אפלBAYIS AFEL- a dark house
44a)[line 50]אין פותחין לו חלונותEIN POT'CHIN LO CHALONOS- we do not open windows to it
b)[line 50]לראות נגעוLIR'OS NIG'O- to examine its [signs of possible] Tzara'as (See Background to Sanhedrin 87:7b)
45)[line 51]מה ענין שאול אצל רחםMAH INYAN SHE'OL ETZEL RECHEM?- what is the connection between the grave and the womb (that would account for their juxtaposition in this verse)?
46)[line 51]מכניס ומוציאMACHNIS U'MOTZI- it brings in and sends out. (The womb takes in the male's seed and sends out the child that is conceived.)
47)[line 52]בחשאיB'CHASHAI- quietly (discreetly). (The seed enters the womb discreetly, in silence.)
48)[line 52]בקולי קולותB'KOLEI KOLOS- with great noise. (The baby exits the womb with great noise.)
49)[line 54]חוזריןCHOZRIN- they return
50)[line 1]לחדשL'CHADESH- to renew
51)[line 4]כנפיםKENAFAYIM- wings
52)[line 4]כנשריםKA'NESHARIM- like eagles. (TOSFOS to Chulin 63a DH Netz objects to this definition; see Insights to Chulin 59:3. Therefore, some identify the Nesher as the griffon vulture.)
53)[line 4]ושטיןV'SHATIN- and they fly or glide
54)[line 7]צערTZA'AR- pain
55)[line 7]"וְקוֹיֵ ה' יחליפו כח יעלו אבר כנשרים; ירוצו ולא ייגעו ילכו ולא ייעפו""V'KOYEI HASH-M YACHALIFU CHO'ACH, YA'ALU EVER KA'NESHARIM; YARUTZU V'LO YIGA'U, YELCHU V'LO YI'AFU"- "And those who hope in HaSh-m will have renewed strength, they will sprout wings like eagles; they will run and not become weary, they will walk and not become tired" (Yeshayah 40:31). The righteous will be granted the strength to stay aloft without pain. (The RADBAZ explains that there will be two resurrections: one will occur at the early part of the era of Mashi'ach, when the truly righteous will be resurrected to experience the glory of HaSh-m. The second, general resurrection will occur at the end of the sixth millennium, when all will arise for the Day of Great Judgment. The Beraisa here means that the righteous who will be resurrected at the beginning of the era of Mashi'ach, as well as those resurrected for judgment at the end of the sixth millennium and found worthy of entering the World to Come, will not die at the beginning of the seventh millennium but will enter a more magnificent state.)
56)[line 9]מתים שהחיה יחזקאלMESIM SHE'HECHEYEH YECHEZKEL - the dead whom Yechezkel revived (Yechezkel 37:1-2) (THE VALLEY OF DRY BONES)
See below, entry #77.
57)[line 10]באמתB'EMES- (lit. in truth) it is clear (RASHI; see MAHARATZ CHAYOS to Beitzah 17a.) This expression is used to denote an assertion with which no one disagrees.
58)[line 10]משל היהMASHAL HAYAH- it was a parable. The story in Yechezkel (see above, entry #59) is a parable: just as a person will die and come back to life, so, too, the Jewish people will return from exile (RASHI)
59)[line 13]עמדוAMDU- they stood
60)[line 13]על רגליהםAL RAGLEIHEM- on their feet
61)[line 14]"ה' מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה; מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל""HASH-M MEMIS U'MECHAYEH, MORID SHE'OL VA'YA'AL"- "HaSh-m puts to death and brings to life; He brings down to the grave and raises up" (Shmuel I 2:6). These words are part of the song which Chanah sang upon the birth of her son, Shmuel. (See MAHARSHA.)
62)[line 18]עלוALU- they (the people whom Yechezkel resurrected) went up [to Eretz Yisrael]
63)[line 19]ונשאוV'NAS'U- and they married
64)[line 19]והולידו בנים ובנותV'HOLIDU BANIM U'VANOS- and they begot sons and daughters
65)[line 21]מבני בניהםMI'BENEI BENEIHEM- (lit. from the children of their children) from their descendants
66)[line 21]שהניח ליSHE'HINI'ACH LI- that he left for me
67)[line 22]ומאן נינהוU'MAN NINHU?- and who were they (the dead that Yechezkel resurrected)?
68)[line 22]שמנו לקץ וטעוSHE'MANU LA'KETZ V'TA'U- Who calculated the end [of slavery in Egypt] and erred. When HaSh-m made a covenant with Avraham, He told him that his offspring would be strangers in a foreign land, and that the inhabitants of that land would enslave and oppress his offspring for 400 years (Bereishis 15:13). This period of 400 years began thirty years later, at the birth of Yitzchak. The people of Shevet Efrayim attempted to calculate the end of the exile in Egypt, but they counted the 400 years from the time of the covenant and not from the birth of Yitzchak, miscalculating by 30 years. They attempted to leave Egypt at the end of 400 years based on their calculation, and they were killed by the people of Gath.
69)[line 24]"וּבְנֵי אֶפְרַיִם שׁוּתָלַח וּבֶרֶד בְּנוֹ וְתַחַת בְּנוֹ וְאֶלְעָדָה בְנוֹ וְתַחַת בְּנוֹ. וְזָבָד בְּנוֹ וְשׁוּתֶלַח בְּנוֹ וְעֶזֶר וְאֶלְעָד וַהֲרָגוּם אַנְשֵׁי גַת הַנּוֹלָדִים בָּאָרֶץ [כִּי יָרְדוּ לָקַחַת אֶת מִקְנֵיהֶם]""U'VNEI EFRAYIM SHUSALACH U'VERED BENO V'SACHAS BENO V'EL'ADAH VENO V'SACHAS BENO. V'ZAVAD BENO V'SHUSELACH BENO V'EZER V'EL'AD VA'HARGUM ANSHEI GAS HA'NOLADIM BA'ARETZ [KI YARDU LAKACHAS ES MIKNEIHEM]"- "And the sons of Efrayim: Shuselach and his son Bered, and his son Tachas, and his son El'adah, and his son Tachas. And his son Zavad, and his son Shuselach, and Ezer and El'ad. But the men of Gath, who were born in the land, killed them [because they came down to take their flocks]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 7:20-21). Shuselach, Bered, and Tachas were Efrayim's actual sons, and the rest were descendants (RADAK). According to others, Bered and Tachas were grandchildren (METZUDAS DAVID).
70)[line 29]שכפרוSHE'KAFRU- who denied
71)[line 30]"וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי, בֶּן אָדָם הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה כָּל בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה; הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמוֹתֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ""VA'YOMER ELAI BEN ADAM, HA'ATZAMOS HA'EILEH KOL BEIS YISRAEL HEIMAH; HINEI OMRIM YAVSHU ATZMOSEINU V'AVDAH SIKVASEINU, NIGZARNU LANU!"- "And He said to me: Son of man, are these bones not the whole of the House of Yisrael, who are saying, 'Our bones have dried, our hope is lost; we are cut off!'" (Yechezkel 37:11). The Jewish people in Galus were saying that by the time the redemption will come, they will be long dead, and their bodies will have already decomposed, so what is the point in waiting for Mashi'ach? This prophecy demonstrated to the people that no matter how dry their bones might be, they should not relinquish hope of coming back to life when the time for Techiyas ha'Mesim arrives.
72)[line 34]לחלוחית של מצוהLACHLUCHIS SHEL MITZVAH- (lit. moisture of a Mitzvah) any semblance of merit from performing a Mitzvah. This refers to the dead whom Yechezkel resurrected, who had no merit.
73)[line 36]שחיפוSHE'CHIFU- that they covered
74)[line 36]ההיכלHEICHAL- the Sanctuary of the Beis ha'Mikdash
75)[line 36]שקצים ורמשיםSHEKATZIM U'REMASIM- insects and crawling creatures. This refers to the dead whom Yechezkel resurrected, who drew pictures of pagan statues and creatures on the walls of the Sanctuary.
76)[line 37]"וָאָבוֹא וָאֶרְאֶה, וְהִנֵּה כָל תַּבְנִית רֶמֶשׂ וּבְהֵמָה שֶׁקֶץ וְכָל גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מְחֻקֶּה עַל הַקִּיר סָבִיב סָבִיב""VA'AVO VA'ER'EH, V'HINEI CHOL TAVNIS REMES U'VEHEMAH SHEKETZ V'CHOL GILULEI BEIS YISRAEL MECHUKEH AL HA'KIR SAVIV SAVIV" - "And I came in and I saw, and behold, every type of form - crawling creatures and disgusting animals and all of the abominations of the Jewish people - were carved on the wall all around" (Yechezkel 8:10) (YECHEZKEL VIEWS THE ABOMINATIONS IN THE BEIS HA'MIKDASH)
(a)A little over a year after his vision of the Merkavah, six years after the exile of Yechonyah, Yechezkel was shown a vision of the Beis ha'Mikdash. This verse relates what he saw there, including the image that Menasheh placed there as well as innumerable scenes of idolatrous practices that the men and women of Yerushalayim perpetrated there with the express intent to anger HaSh-m. HaSh-m's response was fitting. They attempted to anger Him; He would respond with unmitigated fury. They would cry out to Him, but He would not answer. Five years later, the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed and the people were exiled to Bavel.
(b)In his vision, he also saw seventy men from the elders of Yisrael, among them Ya'azanyahu ben Shafan, an extremely influential man, all standing in front of the above-mentioned images, each man pan with a pan in hand with smoke rising from the incense he was sacrificing to the idols. HaSh-m told Yechezkel that he would be shocked if he would see how the people prostrate themselves on their slabs of stone ("Even Maskis") in their secret rooms that contained their abominations, in the belief that HaSh-m had removed Himself from the world and was not aware of their evil deeds.
(c)HaSh-m then led Yechezkel into the Azarah, to the entranceway of the Heichal. There he saw a group of women sitting down (sitting in the Heichal is forbidden) worshipping an idol called "Tamuz." This idol had eyes made of lead, so that when they would heat it up from the inside, the eyes would melt, and the melting lead conveyed the impression that it was shedding tears, as if it was begging for sacrifices.
(d)Next, HaSh-m brought Yechezkel to the inner courtyard, the Ezras Kohanim. There, at the entrance to the Heichal, he saw twenty-five men bowing down to the sun in the east, with their uncovered backs facing the Kodesh ha'Kodashim in the west; and as they did so, they defecated, with the express intent of defiling the Heichal and disgracing it.
77)[line 43]"[הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד ה', וַיּוֹצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ ה' וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַבִּקְעָה; וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמוֹת.] וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב, [וְהִנֵּה רַבּוֹת מְאֹד עַל פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשׁוֹת מְאֹד]""[HAYESAH ALAI YAD HASH-M, VA'YOTZI'ENI B'RU'ACH HASH-M, VA'YENICHEINI B'SOCH HA'BIK'AH; V'HI MELE'AH ATZAMOS.] V'HE'EVIRANI ALEIHEM SAVIV SAVIV; [V'HINEI RABOS ME'OD AL PENEI HA'BIK'AH, V'HINEI YEVEISHOS ME'OD]" - "[The Hand of HaSh-m was upon me, and He transported me with the Spirit of HaSh-m, and He placed me in the middle of a valley, and it was full of bones.] He then passed me over them all round, [and behold there were very many of them strewn around the face of the valley, and behold they were extremely dry]" (Yechezkel 37:1-2) (THE VALLEY OF DRY BONES)
(a)The Chachamim teach that the valley which Yechezkel saw was situated in the land of the Pelishtim, and that the bones were those of the Benei Efrayim, who left Mitzrayim thirty years before the Exodus after miscalculating the time of the redemption (see above, entry #68). They made their way to Eretz Kena'an via the land of the Pelishtim, but when they tried to force their way into Eretz Yisrael, they were wiped out by the men of Gas (one of the country's major cities).
(b)HaSh-m instructed Yechezkel to prophesy to the dry bones to obey the word of HaSh-m and to come back to life: "And He said to me, 'Prophesy on these bones and say to them: Dry bones! Listen to the words of HaSh-m!'" (Yechezkel 37:4).
(c)Yechezkel was instructed to inform the bones that HaSh-m would infuse a spirit into them, and then He would dress them with sinews, skin, and flesh (in the opposite order in which which they were originally formed). Even as Yechezkel spoke, he heard a loud noise as the bones came together and interlocked. Then he perceived the sinews, the flesh, and the skin cover the bones one by one. Finally, he was commanded to order the wind to blow into them from all four directions and to bring them back to life. With that, they all stood up on their feet, a vast army of people.
(d)See above, entry #71.
78)[line 41]מתים שבבקעת דוראMESIM SHEB'VIK'AS DURA- the dead (whom Yechezkel resurrected) that were in the Valley of Dura. These people were killed by Nevuchadnetzar because of their beauty. It is also the place where Nevuchadnetzar erected his golden colossus and ordered that anyone who did not bow down to it would be thrown into a fiery furnace.
79)[line 41]מנהר אשלMI'NAHAR ESHEL- from the Eshel River
80)[line 41]שהגלהSHE'HEGLAH- that he (Nevuchadnetzar) exiled
81)[line 42]בחוריםBACHURIM- youths
82)[line 42]מגניןMEGANIN- they shamed
83)[line 42]ביופייןB'YOFYAN- with their beauty
84)[line 42]כשדיותKASDIYOS- Chaldean women
85)[line 42]ושופעות זבותV'SHOF'OS ZAVOS - and they had flows of Zavos (i.e. at an unexpected time, which caused them distress) (ZAVAH)
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Sanhedrin 87:6a) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones (due to an external cause, see Background to Bava Kama 24:5:b) or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).
86)[line 43]לבעליהןL'VA'ALEIHEN- to their husbands
87)[line 43]צוהTZIVAH- he commanded
88)[line 44]שהפילSHE'HIPIL- that he cast
89)[line 44]חנניה מישאל ועזריהCHANANYAH MISHA'EL V'AZARYAH
(a)Nevuchadnetzar constructed a gigantic golden image, sixty Amos high, which he set up in the valley of Dura. He then issued instructions that all people, of all nationalities, must attend its inauguration and prostrate themselves before it. The moment the horn sounded, the orchestra would begin to play. Whoever did not comply and bow to the idol would be thrown into the furnace that had been heated up for the occasion.
(b)At the given signal, the huge crowd complied and everyone fell on their faces before the idol - everyone except for Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah (whom Nevuchdnetzar referred to as Shadrach, Meishach, and Aved Nego).
(c)Meanwhile, some Babylonians, who were waiting for such an opportunity, reported the three Jews to Nevuchadnetzar. Interestingly, Daniel had not prostrated himself before the image either. The Babylonians did not report him because they considered Daniel a god and nobody expected him to prostrate himself before another god, so they excluded him from their report.
(d)Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah informed Nevuchadnetzar that they refused to prostrate themselves before his god, and that their G-d was capable of saving them from the fiery furnace. The infuriated king retaliated by ordering that the heat of the furnace to be increased seven-fold.
(e)Despite the fact that they were going to their deaths, they insisted on wearing their finest clothing, in order to maintain their dignity and status. The three Tzadikim were put into the furnace, where, miraculously, they walked around in the fire (which burned the ropes that had bound them), the men who had cast them into the furnace, and who had not taken precautions to safeguard themselves from the intense heat, were all burned to a cinder.
(f)When the king, who was confused by the turn of events, was informed that all his instructions had been carried out, he looked into the furnace and could not believe what he saw. He saw four men walking around freely without ropes in the fire. One of these men had the countenance of an angel, whom he had seen when the entire camp of Sancheriv was killed during the siege on Yerushalayim, a fate that he was allowed to escape. Indeed, the Chachamim say that the fourth man was none other than Gavriel, who was granted permission by HaSh-m to cool down the fire (a double miracle, since he was made of fire of himself).
(g)After witnessing this miracle, Nevuchadnetzar called out to Shadrach, Meishach, and Aved Nego, whom he referred to as "servants of the Supreme G-d," to exit the fiery furnace, which they did.
(h)The king then blessed the G-d of these men who had protected them against his command, thereby enabling them never to bow to any G-d other than to their own. He issued a new command forbidding anybody in his kingdom from saying anything amiss about "the G-d of Shadrach, Meishach, and Aved Nego," and he warned that anyone who would transgress the command would be cut to bits and his house would be transformed into a dunghill. He concluded with praises of HaSh-m (see below, entry #96).
(i)The Gemara relates that the following episode occurred after the three Tzadikim were miraculously saved (and those who had heated the furnace, together with many other dignitaries, were burned in their place): The nations of the world, who had just witnessed the incredible miracles, tapped the Jews on their faces and expressed their amazement at the fact that with such a G-d, they had the nerve to prostrate themselves before Nevuchadnetzar's image. Yisrael's response was to declare, "To You, HaSh-m, belongs righteousness, whilst to us belongs shamefacedness."
90)[line 44]לכבשן האשL'CHIV'SHAN HA'EISH- into the fiery furnace
91)[line 45]עצמותATZMOS- bones
92)[line 45]וטפחו לוV'TAFCHU LO- and they (the bones) hit him
93)[line 45]על פניוAL PANAV- on his face
94)[line 46]מה טיבן של אלו?MAH TIVAN SHEL ELU- what is the nature of these [bones]
95)[line 46]חבריהןCHAVEREIHEN- the friends of these (i.e. they are the friends of the three men you threw into the furnace)
96)[line 46]"אָתוֹהִי כְּמָה רַבְרְבִין וְתִמְהוֹהִי כְּמָה תַקִּיפִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ עִם דָּר וְדָר""ASOHI KEMAH RAVREVIN V'SIMHOHI KEMAH TAKIFIN; MALCHUSEI MALCHUS OLAM V'SHALTANEI IM DAR V'DAR"- "How great are His signs and how mighty are His wonders; His Kingdom is an everlasting Kingdom and His dominion for all generations!" (Daniel 3:33).
97)[line 47]יוצקYUTZAK- it should be poured
98)[line 47]זהב רותחZAHAV ROSE'ACH- molten gold
99)[line 47]פיוPIV- his mouth
100)[line 48]שאילמלאSHE'ILMALEI- that if not
101)[line 48]וסטרוU'SETARO- and struck him. (It would have been a disgrace for his songs and praises to be more beautiful than David ha'Melech's.)
102)[line 48]ביקשBIKESH- he sought
103)[line 48]שירות ותשבחותSHIROS V'SISHBACHOS- songs and praises
104)[line 49]נסיםNISIM- miracles
105)[line 49]צף הכבשןTZAF HA'KIVSHAN- the furnace rose to ground level
106)[line 49]ונפרץ הכבשןV'NIFRATZ HA'KIVSHAN- And the wall of the furnace was breached (so that people could see inside it and witness the miracle of Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah walking around unharmed by the flames)
107)[line 49]והומק סודוV'HUMAK SODO- (lit. and its foundation caved in) (a) its arrogrance was deflated (RASHI); (b) the floor disintegrated (REBBI YAKOV BEN YAKAR, cited by Rashi); (c) alt. Girsa: V'HUMAK SIDO - the furnace's plaster dissolved from the heat (RASHI in the name of his teacher)
108)[line 50]ונהפך צלםV'NEHEPACH TZELEM- and the idol was overturned
109)[line 50]ונשרפו ארבע מלכיותNISREFU ARBA MALCHIYOS- four kingships were burned. (Kings and their entourages were killed by the flames as they helped Nevuchadnetzar cast Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah into the furnace.)
110)[line 50]וכולהו גמראV'CHULHU GEMARA- and all of these [miracles] are known through tradition (record of these miracles has been passed down from one generation to the next)
111)[line 50]וארבע מלכיות קראV'ARBA MALCHIYOS KERA- and the burning of the four kingships is known from Scripture
112)[line 51]"וּנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא שְׁלַח לְמִכְנַשׁ לַאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא [לְמֵתֵא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא]""U'NEVUCHADNETZAR MALKA SHELACH L'MICHNASH LA'ACHASHDARPENAYA, SIGNAYA U'FACHAVASA, ADARGAZRAYA, GEDAVRAYA, D'SAVRAYA, TIFTAYEI V'CHOL SHILTONEI MEDINASA [L'MESEI LA'CHANUKAS TZALMA DI HEIKIM NEVUCHADNETZAR MALKA]"- "And King Nevuchadnetzar then sent instructions to gather all the satraps, the nobles, the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the advisors, the guards and all the provincial officials to attend the inauguration of the image that he, King Nevuchadnetzar, had erected" (Daniel 3:2).
113)[line 52]"אִיתַי גֻּבְרִין יְהוּדָאיִן [דִּי מַנִּיתָ יָתְהוֹן עַל עֲבִידַת מְדִינַת בָּבֶל, שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ; גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ לָא שָׂמוּ עֲלָיךְ מַלְכָּא טְעֵם, לֵאלָהָךְ לָא פָלְחִין וּלְצֶלֶם דַּהֲבָא דִּי הֲקֵימְתָּ לָא סָגְדִין]""ISAI GUVRIN YEHUDA'IN [DI MANISA YAS'HON AL AVIDAS MEDINAS BAVEL SHADRACH, MEISHACH, VA'AVED NEGO; GUVRAYA ILECH LO SAMU ALACH TE'EM, L'ELAHACH LO FALCHIN UL'TZELEM DAHAVA DI HAKEIMTA LO SAGDIN]"- "There are men from the tribe of Yehudah [whom you appointed over the work of the kingdom of Bavel, Shadrach (Chananyah), Meishach (Misha'el, and Aved Nego (Azaryah). These men do not take upon themselves to fulfill your decrees; they fail to worship your gods and they do not prostrate themselves before the golden image that you set up]" (Daniel 3:12).
114)[line 52]"וּמִתְכַּנְּשִׁין אֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא וְהַדָּבְרֵי מַלְכָּא, חָזַיִן לְגֻבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ [דִּי לָא שְׁלֵט נוּרָא בְּגֶשְׁמְהוֹן וּשְׂעַר רֵאשְׁהוֹן לָא הִתְחָרַךְ וְסַרְבָּלֵיהוֹן לָא שְׁנוֹ; וְרֵיחַ נוּר לָא עֲדָת בְּהוֹן]""U'MISKANSHIN ACHASHDARPENAYA SIGNAYA U'FACHAVASA V'HADAVREI MALKA, CHAZAYAN L'GUVRAYA ILECH [DI LO SHELET NURA B'GESHMEHON, U'SE'AR RESHEHON LO HISCHARACH, V'SARBELEIHON LO SHENO, V'REI'ACH NUR LO ADAS BEHON]"- "And the satraps, the nobles, the governors and the king's ministers saw how the fire [had no effect on these men's bodies, and how not a hair on their heads was singed, and how their cloaks remained unchanged, and how they had not even absorbed the smell of fire]" (Daniel 3:27).
115)[line 53]סכנהSAKANAH- danger
116)[line 53]לו ישנהLO YESHANEH- do not change
117)[last line]מן הרבנותMIN HA'RABANUS- from a stature of dignity. (Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah did not change their regal clothing when they were thrown into the furnace, in order not to appear afraid or confused. When one maintains his dignified stature in such a manner, his enemies are embarrassed in his presence - RASHI).
118)[last line]"בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ כְּפִתוּ בְּסַרְבָּלֵיהוֹן פַּטְּישֵׁיהוֹן וְכַרְבְּלָתְהוֹן [וּלְבוּשֵׁיהוֹן וּרְמִיו לְגוֹא אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא]""BEDAYIN GUVRAYA ILECH KEFISU B'SARBELEIHON, PATSHEIHON, V'CHARBELAS'HON [U'LEVUSHEIHON U'REMIYU L'GO ATUN NURA YAKIDTA]"- "Then these three men were bound in their royal cloaks, pants, robes [and the other clothing that they wore, and thrown into the raging furnace]" (Daniel 3:21).