ROSH HASHANAH 10 (Lag b'Omer) - (18 Iyar, Lag b'Omer) - dedicated by Avi and Lily Berger of Queens, N.Y., in memory of Lily's father, Mr. Benny Krieger (Chananel Benayahu ben Harav Yisrael Avraham Aba), zt"l, who passed away on Lag ba'Omer 5763. Mr. Krieger exemplified Ahavas Chesed, Ahavas Torah and Ahavas Eretz Yisrael.

[10a - 18 lines; 10b - 33 lines]

1)[line 1]ופירות נטיעה זו אסורין עד טו בשבטPEIROS NETI'AH ZU ASURIN AD TU BI'SHEVAT- the fruit produced by this sapling [that was planted at least thirty days prior to Rosh Hashanah] are forbidden [past the third Rosh Hashanah following their planting] until Tu bi'Shevat. This is because once the plant is three years old, it is a tree, and the date at which a tree's yearly status changes is Tu bi'Shevat.

2)[line 3]ומטו בהMATU BAH- leaned toward [quoting] it

3)[line 4]"[...שלש שנים יהיה לכם ערלים לא חאכל]. ובשנה הרביעת [יהיה כל פריו קדש הלולים לה'.] ובשנה החמישת [תאכלו את פריו]...""[... SHALOSH SHANIM YIHEYEH LA'CHEM ARELIM; LO YE'ACHEL.] UVA'SHANAH HA'REVI'IS [YIHEYEH KOL PIRYO KODESH HILULIM LA'HASH-M.] UVA'SHANAH HA'CHAMISHIS [TOCHLU ES PIRYO...]"- "[... for three years they shall be sealed off; they shall not be eaten.] And in the fourth year [all of its fruit shall be consecrated such that it is to be eaten in Yerushalayim while praising HaSh-m.] And in the fifth year [you may eat its fruit...]" (Vayikra 19:23-25) - The verses describe the Halachos of Revai (see below, entry #5). Our Gemara infers from the "Vav" at the beginning of each of these verses that there is a connection between the preceding verse and the one in question.

4)[line 6]ערלהORLAH

(a)One may not derive any benefit from the fruit produced by a fruit tree in the first three years following its planting. These fruits are termed "Orlah" (Vayikra 19:23). This status applies not only to the fruit but also to the peel of the fruit (Kelipei Orlah).

(b)If one intentionally consumes a k'Zayis of Orlah fruit after being warned by two witnesses, he receives Malkus. According to most Rishonim, one who derives benefit from Orlah (or any other food that is Asur b'Hana'ah) is punished with Malkus as well (TOSFOS Chulin 120a DH Ela). There are those, however, who maintain that for such a transgression one receives only Makas Mardus (Malkus instituted by the Rabanan; RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 8:16 - see also Mishneh l'Melech to Yesodei ha'Torah 5:8).

5)[line 7]רבעיR EVAI

(a)Fruit that grows in the fourth year, following those of Orlah (see previous entry), is called Revai. The Torah refers to these fruits as Kodesh (holy; Vayikra 19:24). They must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity. Alternatively, one may be Podeh (redeem) the fruits, in which case the money equal to their value gains the status of the original fruits of Revai. It must be brought to Yerushalayim, and spent there to purchase food products that must be eaten while one is in a state of purity.

(b)The Gemara records a disagreement as to whether the laws of Revai apply to all fruits (Neta Revai) or only to grapes (Kerem Revai). In Eretz Yisrael, the Halachah follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Revai apply to all fruits (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 294:6).

6)[line 7]דלא כרבי מאירD'LO K'REBBI MEIR- that [the Beraisa which states that a year of Orlah has passed when Rosh Hashanah arrives only if the tree was planted at least thirty days prior] does not follow the opinion of Rebbi Meir

7a)[line 15]בסוף שנהB'SOF SHANAH- [when that day is] at the end of the year[s in question, such as the single day following the first twenty-four months of a cow's life]

b)[line 15]בתחלת שנהB'TECHILAS SHANAH- [when that day is] at the beginning of the year [in question, such as that prior to a Shemitah year]

8)[line 16]נדהNIDAH

(a)By Torah Law, a woman is a Nidah for seven days following her period, whether she bled briefly or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, she may immerse in a Mikvah after nightfall to become Tehorah. Women currently consider themselves to be Zavos (see Background to Yoma 63:7) whenever they bleed, and must therefore wait until they have not bled for seven full days following the fifth day after they began to bleed before immersing themselves in a Mikvah.

(b)One may not have relations nor engage in intimate contact with his wife while she is a Nidah. The Chachamim enacted many far-ranging additional ways in which one must keep his distance from his wife when she is Teme'ah.

9a)[line 16]שאין תחילת היום עולה לה בסופהSHE'EIN TECHILAS HA'YOM OLAH LAH B'SOFAH- that the beginning of the seventh day is not considered a full day [to allow her to immerse before nightfall]

b)[line 17]סוף היום עולה לה בתחלתהSOF HA'YOM OLAH LAH BI'TECHILASAH- if she began [to bleed] at the end of the day, that day may be considered [one of the seven days before which she may not immerse herself in a Mikvah]


10)[line 2]שלשים ושלשים בעיSHELOSHIM U'SHELOSHIM BA'I- he should then require thirty days [for the plant to take root] and [an additional] thirty days [before Rosh Hashanah so that a year of Orlah will be considered to have passed when Rosh Hashanah arrives]

11)[line 5]יעקורYA'AKOR- it should be uprooted

12)[line 6]קולטתKOLETES- take hold

13)[line 8]שבתותSHABASOS- weeks

14)[line 12]ואי נמי כרבי יהודה סבירא ליהV'IY NAMI K'REBBI YEHUDAH SEVIRA LEI- and even if he agrees with the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah

15)[line 14]שלשים ואחד בעיSHELOSHIM V'ECHAD BA'I- thirty-one days [before Rosh Hashanah] should be required (thirty for the tree to take root, and one additional to count for a year)

16)[line 16]"ויהי באחת ושש מאות שנה בראשון באחד לחדש [חרבו המים מעל הארץ...]""VA'YEHI B'ACHAS V'SHESH ME'OS SHANAH, BA'RISHON B'ECHAD LA'CHODESH, [CHARVU HA'MAYIM ME'AL HA'ARETZ...]"- "And it was in the first and six hundredth year (of Noach's life), on the first of the first month, [that the water dried up from upon the earth...]" (Bereishis 8:13)

17)[line 22]אתחלתאATCHALTA- the beginning

18)[line 23]מאי טעמא?MAI TAIMA?- what is his reason [for stating that thirty days of a year are considered a full year]?

19)[line 27]וחדש למנוייו ושנה למנוייהCHODESH LI'MENUYAV, V'SHANAH LI'MENUYEHA- a month [is considered such] when one its basic units (namely, a day) [has passed], and a year [is considered such] when one its basic units (namely, a month) [has passed]

20)[line 32]נפקדהNIFKEDAH- was recalled [and granted children]

21)[line 32]וחנהCHANAH- the mother of Shmuel ha'Navi, who for many years was childless

22)[last line]מבית האסוריןBEIS HA'ASURIN- prison